Ultrasound technique has been used in the past 60 old ages in medical services. It has since developed significantly and its function is more advanced and recognised by patients and wellness professions. Diagnostic imagination is an of import portion of the wellness service, US is one of this household, which contributes greatly to the patient ‘s directions.
Title of this survey is:Effectiveness of Ultrasound ( US ) imaging in Genito-urinary system ( GUS ) for diagnostic intents: A comprehensive comparing with other modes in position of safety and handiness.Every mode has some sort of restrictions and advantages. Safety is a major issue in utilizing imaging techniques. Ultrasound is considered as one of the safest and most readily available imaging mode ( Bates, 1999 ) . However, these advantages do non warrant the undermining of the other modes, because restrictions in ultrasound can be overcome by other modes for patient directions.
GUT is prone to many diseases in which some of them are life endangering ( Ref ) , patient directions require an efficient method for diagnosing. Sonography plays a great function in this respect. Some of the common GUT diseases:
- Infection, Glomerular disease,
- Diseases related to blood circulation:Atherosclerosis can do hypofunction. High blood pressure can take to mortification of the glomeruli.
- Metabolic disease:chronic nephritic failure, diabetes.
- Cysts:lone, multiple, inborn
- Tumors:affects kidney, ureter, vesica and urethra
- Renal cell carcinoma:Wilm ‘s tumor
- Bladder tumors
- Nephritic rocks and urinary piece of land obstructor
- Advantages and disadvantages of US imaging in GUT.
- Can US be the first mode of pick in GUT imagination?
- Study the usage of US imaging in GUT.
- Study the restriction of US imaging in GUT.
- Accuracy of US imaging for diagnostic intents.
- Cover the latest engineering in US imagination.
Ultrasound is a sound wave that can non be heard by human ears, it uses a frequence above 20,000 Hz ( Ref ) . The moving ridges are converted by engineering to enable us to see constructions within our organic structures, which is really utile for medical intents ( Szabo, 2004 ) . Ultrasound attenuates otherwise in human organic structure depending on tissues ‘ fading coefficients, and tissues reflect wave otherwise, in which a assortment of strength and contrast images are produced.
Main advantages of ultrasound compared to other modes that justify this survey are:
- No major known hazard
- Immediate diagnose or referral for farther scrutiny
- Readily available
- Short waiting clip
- Patient convenience
- Cost effectual
- Real clip image
- Good contrast of soft tissue
- Can separate between stable and traveling tissue ( Doppler consequence )
Ultrasound scrutiny in GUT has a broad scope of usage. Imaging starts from kidneys down to bladder, urethra, and venereal variety meats. Ultrasound can observe many pathologies and abnormalcies in this system without the demand for farther scrutinies. In fact, some pathology such as obstructors and tumors can be detected without intercessions, while other modes intervene such as utilizing contrast agents ( Ref ) .
Other modes used in GUT
- X-ray utilizations ionizing radiation as the rule of bring forthing radiogram, widely used in initial GUT scrutinies for being convenience and fast with high rate of diagnostic value images ( ref ) .
- Computed Tomography ( CT ) Scan, uses ionizing radiation as the rule of bring forthing radiogram, widely used for farther scrutiny in GUT system. Produces high-resolution two-dimensional images ( can be reconstructed to 3-dimension ) . Very sensitive in observing different lesions, concretion, obstructor and bleeding. Main concern about utilizing CT is the high radiation dosage to the patient ( Ref ) .
- Magnetic Resonance Imaging ( MRI ) , uses a strong magnetic field to aline H atoms in the organic structure, pulsations of wireless moving ridges sent to realine and aline H atoms, during this, H atoms let go of energy, which is detected to bring forth great contrast images peculiarly of soft tissue. MRI scan can supply definite reply to uncertain instances because of its superior soft-tissue contrast when other mode can non. The function of MRI in GUT is largely in distinguishing benign lesions from malignant if CT has contraindication to the patient ( Ref ) .
- Nuclear Medicine Imaging ( NMI ) , Radiopharmaceuticals administered to the patients so that the patient become radioactive, Gamma camera scan the patient and detects gamma beam emitted from the radiation and so concept images from these informations. NMI chiefly used to analyze the map in GUT system and look into the obstructors ( Ref ) .
This thesis reviews literature in relation to ultrasound scrutiny in GUT system. Comparing the usage of other mode while look intoing pathology of a patient. Why in some instances ultrasound is the first pick of usage, why it is non in other instances? This paper can heighten the advantages of the scrutiny and reexamine the progresss in this engineering, these can back up patient directions and besides be used in instruction.
The inquiry needs to be answered in this survey: is US effectual plenty to be the first pick scrutiny in GUT system issues? What makes it to be the first pick? What makes it non to be? The survey efforts to analyze the conditions in which US scrutiny can supply doubtless replies to indicants.
All beginnings that have relevant information will be used, and the chief database hunt will be Medline, CINAHL, Psycinfo, Embase, AMED, PubMed and e-books.