Bergala Resorts Assesment of Tourism with Sustainable Managment of Environmental Resources

“An Earth Lung Destination” A Private Land in the Dadayampola Village, Thiruwanakanda, Beragala An Assessment of Tourism with Sustainable Management of Environmental Resources – -Sustainable development through regeneration and re-planting programmes -engaging and sustaining communities -involving the local community in developing income generation programmes -Local environmental, economic, and quality of life benefits -Protecting species and their habitats -eco conscious trail building -planting medicinal plants/herbs Future Environmental Programmes -bio fuels -hydro power -carbon conservation

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Report For Alpha & Omega Developers Pvt Limited 102/3 Dharmapala Mawatha, Colombo 07 March 2007 STUDY TEAM Dr. Gamini Hitinayake, Team Leader / Forestry Specialist, (Senior Lecturer/ University of Peradeniya), Mr. K. B. Ranawana, Flora and Fauna Specialist (Senior Lecturer / University of Peradeniya), Mr. M. I. D. H. Wijewickrama, Geologist (National Building Research Organization), Mr. Pradeep Samarawickrama (Fauna Specialist), Mr. Alahakoon (Flora Specialist), Mr. Amila Ranasinghe (Flora Specialist), Mr. P. R. S. D. Bandaranayake (Flora Specialist). Study Team Name / Expertise Dr.

Gamini Hitinayake, Team Leader / Forestry Specialist, (Senior Lecturer / University of Peradeniya) see www. pdn. ac. lk for more details. . He is a well-known and a leading Forestry Specialist in Sri Lanka. Mr. K. B. Ranawana, Fauna Specialist (Senior Lecturer / University of Peradeniya). see www. pdn. ac. lk for more details. He is a well-known and leading Fauna Specialist in Sri Lanka. Mr. M. I. D. H. Wijewickrama, Geologist (National Building Research Organization-NBRO) He is working as a senior geologist attached to NBRO. He is well-known and leading Geologist in Sri Lanka. Mr. V. A. M. P.

K Samarawickrama (Fauna Specialist) Experience as a Fauna Specialist: •Bio-diversity survey ,Phase two -Upper kotmale Hydropower Project , conducted by IUCN-Sri Lanka. •Bio-diversity assesment-2004, Rakawa,Ussangoda and Kalamatiya Sanctuaries,conducted by IUCN-Sri Lanka. •Fauna survey (Horton Plain National Park, Knuckles FR, Bundala National park). Mr. A. M. D. B. Alahakoon (Flora Specialist) Experience as a Flora Specialist: •Flora team, Seasonal variation and availability of food preferences by herbivore in Udawalawa National Park, Conducted by University of Peradeniya. Mr. Amila Ranasinghe (Flora Specialist)

Experience as a Flora Specialist: •Flora team – Bio-diversity survey,Phase two -Upper Kotmale Hydropower Project, conducted by IUCN-Sri Lanka Mr. P. R. S. D. Bandaranayake (Flora Specialist) Presently working as a Technical Officer assigned for identification of flora and assisting forestry research Experience as a Flora Specialist: Worked 06 years at the Royal Botanic Gardens, Peradeniya as a Gardener. 1. Introduction 1. 1 Eco-tourism Tourism based on the natural ecological features of the area as opposed to manufactured attractions or features like old forts and structures is referred to as ecotourism.

This nature tourism promotes conservation and supports sustainable development. Environmentally responsible travel and visitation to relatively undisturbed natural areas, in order to enjoy, study and appreciate nature and any accompanying cultural features that promote conservation, have a negative visitation impact and provide for substantial beneficial active socioeconomic involvement of local populations. Under the right circumstances, ecotourism has proven to be one of the most effective means to finance biodiversity conservation.

In most rich biodiversity areas, actual revenue flows for ecotourism are better than non-timber forest products and biopharmacy, and comparable only to agroforestry. Because the dominating land use in protected areas and buffer zones is agriculture and forestry, ecotourism is an opportunity for the creation of additional income to farmers / foresters and to generate financial means for the management of protected areas, especially where governmental park management agencies have little resources. 1. 2 Agrotourism and Agro-ecotourism :

The symbiotic relationship between tourism and agriculture that can be found in agrotourism (i. e. holidays on farmland) is a key element of an environmentally and socially responsible tourism in rural areas. Rural hospitality offers new employment and income generating opportunities for rural populations, including agrotourism as expression and cultural exchange of agricultural practices, artistic heritage and craftsmanship and culinary traditions. Agrotourism may take several forms: holiday farms, farmhouse bed-and-breakfast, farm camping, mountain resorts, equestrian centres and other forms of rural accommodations.

Such facilities are an innovative payment system for environmental services generated on and around agricultural lands While ecotourism is nature-based and agrotourism is farm-based, agro-ecotourism is a combination of both. The rural landscape, usually a combination of wild and agro-ecosystems, is the most important resource for tourism development. It is obvious that a diversified agricultural landscape, with semi-natural habitats, has a greater aesthetic and recreational potential over uniform, degraded and/or polluted agricultural areas.

In Europe, agri-environmental policies often promoted organic agricultural activities as a most effective means for landscape conservation: for example, the European Union Life Environment project run by the French Federation of Parks and Reserves adopted extensive animal husbandry to prevent the negative impacts of unmanaged forests on some botanical meadow species and to promote a landscape quality attractive to tourists. Examples from the Alpine Region showed that agriculture (e. g. in Carinthia, Austria) maintained an ecological value much more attractive to tourists than areas where agriculture activities were extremely reduced.

Tropical countries that harbour extraordinary biodiversity have an untapped potential for generating tourism business around biodiversity-rich farms. For example, shade cacao and coffee farms have a higher biodiversity than forest habitats: families could receive money for visitors access to their land for bird-watching or could be actively involved in the agro-ecotour. Agro-ecotourism in certain locations provides a strong economic incentive to small farmers to commit to biodiversity-friendly agriculture management. 2. Components of the project: PROPOSED AGRI TOURISM ACTIVITIES.

Over night Stay: – Lodging and Camping •Bed and Breakfast only with organic foods. •Herbal Tea and other Herbal Drinks, such as Centella / Ranawara/ Rose /Beli etc. •Camp sites. •Stay in Log Cabins. •Rental Cabins for day trip/picnics . •Wedding, Reception & Honeymoons. Off the farm •Farmers Markets. •Road side produce stands. •Udawalawe / Kataragama / Hill Country. •Tea Gardens & Factories •Cinnamon Gardens •Historical sites •Samanalawewa reservoir / Dam. •Landslides Recreation activities and events •Organic Vegetable Cultivations. •Picturesque jungles/ savanna lands. Fishing •Identification of flora / fauna. •Tea tasting. •Sludge holding ponds. •Natural stones houses. •Hiking. •Rock climbing. •Bird watching. •Meditation. Other planting activities: •Medicinal Garden •Botanical Garden •Road side planting •Kumbuk •Aricanuts •Jak •Palm. •Aloe Vera. Community service projects Some component of the project income could be spent on the community service projects. •Schools •Playground •Community center •Water supply for local community •Electricity for local community •Any other long felt needs as identified by the local community 3. Methodology:

A survey was conducted in the proposed land between 28th December 2006 and 15th January 2007 in order to evaluate the potential of the proposed land for ecotourism. A team of specialists in the fields of forestry, flora, fauna and geology participated in the survey. 4. Findings of the study 4. 1 Location and access: The proposed land can be accessed from Balangoda via Kaltota, Meddabedda and from Beragala junction via Tiriwanagama. The proposed land is located in the Badulla districts. 4. 2 Climate and soil: The proposed land falls in the mid country intermediate zone of Sri Lanka, more specifically its within the IM2b agro-ecological region.

The 75% annual rainfall expectancy of the area is over 1600 mm (Agro-ecological map of Sri Lanka, 2003). The elevation is approximately 200-300m above mean sea level. The rainfall distribution of the area is such that mid January to February and June to Mid September is dry, while other months of the year are wet. The study area has a very steep, hilly and rolling terrain. Table 1. Dry / wet months Dadayampola. MonthMAMJJASONDJF Wet / dry monthsWWW DDDD/WWWWW/DD Cropping season**********– The soils of the study area is consists of Reddish Brown Latosolic, Immature Brown Loam, Red Yellow Podzolics and Low Humic Gley in the low lying areas.

The physical characteristics of these soils are moderate to deep, well drained and relatively less susceptible for soil erosion. 4. 3 Land Use: Land use in the proposed land is shown in the Table 1. This shows that most of the land is covered with natural vegetation. This natural vegetation, uneven topography and natural streams that flowing through and bordering the land have given rise to diverse range of habitats and eco-units. These landscape characters have made this proposed land having so much of biodiversity and visual amenity. If developed properly this land could be made into a paradise for eco-tourists.

The wealth of biodiversity recorded in different land use is discussed in a different section. Table 1. Land use in the proposed land in the Dadayampola. Vegetation typeExtent (acres) Riparian vegetation 43 Dense / primary forest305 Secondary forest 80 Savanna forest195 Rice fields 05 Total628 acres PART I. EVALUATION OF FLORAL BIODIVERSITY A detailed survey was conducted to evaluate the plant diversity in the land. The plant diversity in the different vegetation types were recorded. The details are discussed in the following section.

The composition of both woody and herbaceous plants were recorded during the survey. The common name, botanical name, family to which species belong, horizontal strata that species was recorded, growth form, conservation status and their dominance in the plant community was recorded. The summary Table shown below indicates that there is a high plant diversity in the proposed land. It also consist of reasonable number of endemic species. Summary: Plant diversity in the proposed land. Vegetation TypeTrees, shrubs and lianasGrasses and herbs SpeciesFamiliesEndemicSpeciesFamiliesEndemic

Primary forest 502605— Secondary forest4322012812- Savanna1410000403- Rice fields0706002913- Riparian462505— 1. PRIMARY FOREST: PRIMARY FOREST -Trees, Shrubs and Woody lianas FamilyScientific NameVernacular NameGrowth FormConservation StatusSpecies StrataCanopy Strata AnacardiaceaeSemicarpus obscuraBadullaTreeEndemicCDSub Canopy AnacardiaceaeNothopegia beddomeiBalaTreeNativeCD/GVCanopy/Sub Canopy ApocynaceaeAlstonia scholarisRuk-aththanaTreeNativeDCanopy ApocynaceaePagiantha dichotomaDivi kaduruTreeNativeCDSub Canopy ArecaceaeCalamus sppWe welWoody ClimberNative BignoniaceaeStereospermum colais (S. ersonatum)Dunu madalaTreeNativeDCanopy ClusiaceaeGarcinia morellaGorakaTreeNativeCDSub Canopy CombretaceaeTerminalia belliricaBuluTreeNativeCDCanopy EuphorbiaceaeMacaranga peltaaKendaTreeNativeCDSub Canopy EuphorbiaceaeMallotus philippensisGulu kendaTreeNativeCDSub Canopy EuphorbiaceaePhyllanthus polyphyllusKuratiyaSmall TreeNativeCD/GVSub Canopy/Understory EuphorbiaceaeMischodon zeylanicusThammanaTreeNativeCD/GVSub Canopy/Understory EuphorbiaceaeDimarphocalyx glabellusWelivennaSmall TreeNativeCDSub Canopy/Understory EuphorbiaceaeDrypetes sepiariaWeeraTreeNativeD/CDCanopy FabaceaeAlbizzia odoratissimaHuri MaraTreeNativeDCanopy FabaceaeCentrosema pubescensCentroLianaNative FabaceaeCassia siameaWaTreeNativeDCanopy

FabaceaeEntada pusaethaPus welWoody LianaNative FlacortarceaeFlacourtia sppUguressaTreeNativeCDSub Canopy HernandiaceaeGyrocarpus americanusHama-gasTreeNativeDCanopy HippocrateaceaeSalacia reticulataHimbutuWoody ClimberNativeGVGround Vegetation LauraceaeNeolitsea cassiaKudu-daulaTreeNativeCD/GVSub Canopy/Understory LauraceaeLitsea glutinosaBomeeTreeNativeCDSub Canopy MalpighiaceaeHiptage bengalensisPuwak-gediya-welWoody LianaNative MeliaceaeWalsura trifoliolata (W. piscida)Kiri-konTreeNativeCDSub Canopy MeliaceaeCipadessa baccifera HalbabiyaWoody ShrubNativeGVGround Vegetation MoraceaeAntiaris toxicariaRiti GasTreeNativeDCanopy MoraceaeFicus microcarpaPanu-nugaTreeNativeDCanopy

MoraceaeFicus tinctoriaWal-ahetuTreeNativeDCanopy MoraceaeStreblus asperGeta NithulTreeNativeCDSub Canopy/Understory MyristicaceaeHorsfieldia iryaghedhiRuk TreeEndemicCDSub Canopy MyristicaceaeMyristicadactyloidesMalabadaTreeEndemicCDCanopy OchnaceaeOchna lanceolataBo keraSmall TreeNativeCD/GVUnderstory PiperaceaePiper sylvestreWal-gammirisClipersEndemic RhamnaceaeZiziphus oenopliaHeena-eraminiyaWoody LianaNative RubiaceaeMussaenda frondosaMussandaWoody ShrubNativeCDSub Canopy RubiaceaeAdina cordifoliaKolonTreeNativeDSub Canopy RutaceaeAcronychia pedunculataUn kendaSmall TreeNativeCDSub Canopy RutaceaeChloroxylon swieteniaBuruthaTreeNativeDCanopy

RutaceaeNaringi crenulataWal BeliTreeNativeCDUnderstory RutaceaeGlycosmis mauritianaBol panaSmall TreeNativeGVUnderstory SapindaceaeAllophylus cobbeKobbeSmall TreeNativeCDSub Canopy/Understory SapindaceaeGlenniea unijugaWal moraTreeEndemicCDSub Canopy/Understory SapindaceaeSchleichera oleosaKonTreeNativeDCanopy SterculiaceaePterospermum suberifoliumWelangTreeNativeD/CD/GVCanopy/Sub Canopy/Understory SterculiaceaeSterculia foetidaThelambuTreeNativeDCanopy TiliaceaeGrewia oriantalisWel KeliaWoody ClimberNativeCDUnderstory UlmaceaeCeltis cinnamomiaGurendaTreeNativeCD/GVSub Canopy/Understory VerbenaceaeVitex altissimaMillaTreeNativeDCanopy/Sub Canopy VerbenaceaePremna tomentosaSeruTreeNativeCDSub Canopy Species Strata: D-Dominant, CD-Co-dominant, GV-Ground vegetation 2. SECONDARY FOREST- ABANDONED SUGAR CANE AND HOMEGARDENS SECONDARY FOREST – Trees, Shrubs and Woody lianas

FamilyScientific NameVernacular NameGrowth FormConservation StatusSpecies StrataCanopy Strata AnacardiaceaeMangifera indicaAmbaTreeIntroduced/CultivatedDSub Canopy AnacardiaceaeNothopegia beddomeiBalaTreeNativeCDSub Canopy ApocynaceaePagiantha dichotomaDivi kaduruTreeNativeCDSub Canopy CombretaceaeTerminalia bellericaBuluTreeNativeCDSub Canopy EuphorbiaceaeBridelia retusaKatakelaTreeNativeCDSub Canopy EuphorbiaceaeJatropha curcasWeta endaruTreeIntroduced/CultivatedCDSub Canopy EuphorbiaceaeMacaranga peltataKendaTreeNativeDCanopy EuphorbiaceaeMallotus philippensisGulu petta,HampirillaTreeNativeDSub Canopy EuphorbiaceaePhyllanthus polyphyllusKuratiyaSmall TreeNativeCDSub Canopy FabaceaeCassia fistulaEhelaTreeNativeCDSub Canopy FabaceaeCassia spectabilisKaha konaTreeIntroducedCDSub Canopy FabaceaeBauhinia racemosaMilaTreeNativeCDCanopy

FabaceaeGliricidia sepiumWeta-maraTreeIntroduced/CultivatedDCanopy FabaceaeTamarindus indicaSiyabalaTreeIntroduced/CultivatedDCanopy FlacortarceaeFlacourtia sppUguressaTreeNativeCDSub Canopy FlacourtiaceaeHydnocarpus venenataMakuluTreeEndemicDCanopy LauraceaeCinnamomum sppKuruduSmall TreeNativeCDUnderstory LauraceaeNeolitsea cassiaKudu-daulaTreeNativeCDCanopy/Sub canopy LauraceaeLitsia glutinosaBo-meeTreeNativeCDSub Canopy MagnoliaceaeMichelia champacaSapuTreeIntroduced/CultivatedCDSub Canopy MalpighiaceaeHiptage bengalensisPuwak-gediya-welWoody LianaNativeSub Canopy MeliaceaeCipadessa bacciferaHal BabiyaSmall TreeNativeCDSub Canopy MoraceaeArtocarpus heterophyllusKosTreeIntroduced/CultivatedDCanopy MoraceaeStreblus asperGeta NithulTreeNativeCDSub Canopy MyrtaceaePsidium guajavaPeraSmall TreeIntroduced/CultivatedCDSub Canopy PiperaceaePiper nigrumGammirisClipersCultivated

PuniccaceaePunica granatumDelumWoody ShrubIntroduced/CultivatedCDSub Canopy RhamnaceaeZiziphus oenopliaHeena-eraminiyaWoody LianaNative RubiaceaeMussaenda frondosaMussandaWoody ShrubNativeCDSub Canopy RubiaceaePavetta indicaPawattaWoody ShrubNativeCDSub Canopy RutaceaeAcronychia pedunculataUn kendaSmall TreeNativeCDSub Canopy RutaceaeGlycosmis mauritianaBol panaSmall TreeNativeGVUnderstory RutaceaeCitrus sppDodanSmall TreeIntroduced/CultivatedCDSub Canopy SapindaceaeAllophylus cobbeKobbeSmall TreeNativeCDSub Canopy SterculiaceaePterospermum suberifoliumWelangTreeNativeCD/GVUnderstory SterculiaceaeHelicteres isoraLihiniyaTreeNativeCD/GVSub Canopy TiliaceaeGrewea damineDamaniTreeNativeCDSub Canopy TiliaceaeMicrocos paniculataKohukirillaTreeNativeDCanopy TiliaceaeBerrya cordifoliaHul milla TreeNativeDCanopy UlmaceaeTrema orientalisGedumbaTreeNativeDCanopy VerbenaceaeClerodendrum infortunatumPinnaWoody ShrubNativeCDUnderstory VerbenaceaeVitex altissimaMillaTreeNativeDCanopy VerbenaceaeGmelina asiaticaKethi dmataWoody ShrubNativeCDSub Canopy Species Strata: D-Dominant, CD-Co-dominant, GV-Ground vegetation

SECONDARY FOREST – Grasses and herbs FamilyScientific NameVernacular NameGrowth Form AcanthaceaeJusticia betonica Sudu purukHerb AmaranthaceaeAchyranthes asperaGas Karal HebaHerb AsteraceaeSynedrella nodifloraHulan thalaHerb AsteraceaeAgeratum conyzoidesHulan thalaHerb AsteraceaeVernonia cinereaMonara kudumbiyaHerb AsteraceaeMikania cordataGahala welLiana AsteraceaeEupatorium odoratumPodisinhomaranShrub ColchicaceaeGloriosa superbaNiyagalaLiana CommelinaceaeCommelina diffusaGira-palaGrass CommelinaceaeCommelina bengalensisDiya meneriGrass CommelinaceaeCynotis cristataBolvilaGrass EuphorbiaceaePhyllanthus amarusPitawakkaHerb EuphorbiaceaeEuphorbia hirtaBu-dada-kiriyaHerb

FabaceaeDesmodium triflorumHeen udupiyaliHerb FabaceaeMimosa pudicaNidikumbaHerb FabaceaeClitoria ternatiaKata roduLiana MalvaceaeSida acutaGas-bevilaHerb MalvaceaeSida veronicifoliaBevilaHerb MalvaceaeUrena lobataPatta apelaHerb MalvaceaeHibiscus furcatusNapiriththaClimber MenispermaceaeCyclea burmanniiKasipiththanLiana PoaceaeDigitaria sppGrass PoaceaeCyrtococcum trigonumGrass PoaceaePanicum maximumGinea grassGrass PoaceaeBrachiaria sppGrass TiliaceaeTrumfetta pentandraEpalaHerb VerbenaceaeStachytarpheta urticaefoliaBalu NagutaHerb VerbenaceaeLantana camaraGandapanaWoody Shrub 3. SAVANNA FOREST Savanna Forests: Trees, Shrubs and Woody lianas

FamilyScientific NameVernacular NameGrowth FormConservation StatusSpecies StrataCanopy Strata CombretaceaeAnogeissus latifollusDawuTreeNativeDCanopy CombretaceaeTerminalia belliricaBuluTreeNativeDCanopy CombretaceaeTerminalia chebulaAraluTreeNativeDCanopy EuphobiaceaePhyllanthus emblicaNelliTreeNativeCDSub Canopy FabaceaePterocarpus indicusWal GammaluTreeNativeDCanopy FabaceaeBauhinia racemosaMyilaTreeNativeCDSub Canopy LaecythidacaeaeCareya arboreaKahataTreeNativeCDSub Canopy LauraceaeNeolitsea cassiaKudu-daulaTreeNativeGVUnderstory LythraceaeWoodfordia fruticosaMaliththaWoody ShrubNativeGVUnderstory RhamnaceaeZizyphus mauritianaDembaraWoody ClimberNative RhamnaceaeZiziphus oenopliaHeena-eraminiyaWoody ClimberNative

RubiaceaeCanthium coromandelicumKaraShrubNativeCDSub Canopy RutaceaeChloroxylon swieteniaBuruthaTreeNativeGVUnderstory TiliaceaeGrewia damaniDamaniTreeNativeCDSub Canopy Species Strata: D-Dominant, CD-Co-dominant, GV-Ground vegetation Savanna Forests: Grass and Herbs FamilyScientific NameVernacular NameGrowth Form PoaceaeCymbopogon nardusPagiri ManaGrass AsteraceaeEupatorium odoratumPodisinhomaranShrub AsteraceaeElephantopus scaberAth adiHerb LabiataeLeucas zeylanicaThumbaHerb 4. ABANDONED PADDY FIELD Abandoned Paddy Field: Trees, Shrubs and Woody lianas FamilyScientific NameVernacular NameGrowth FormConservation StatusSpecies StrataCanopy Strata FabaceaeGliricidia sepiumWeta-maraTreeIntroduced/CultivatedDCanopy FabaceaeCassia fistulaEhelaTreeNativeCDSub Canopy

LaecythidacaeaeCareya arboreaKahataTreeNativeCDSub Canopy MeliaceaeCipadessa baccifera HalbabiyaWoody ShrubNativeGVGround Vegetation RhamnaceaeZiziphus oenopliaHeena-eraminiyaWoody LianaNative SterculiaceaeHelicteres isoraLihiniyaTreeNativeCD/GVSub Canopy VerbenaceaeVitex negundoNikaWoody ShrubNativeCDSub Canopy Species Strata: D-Dominant, CD-Co-dominant, GV-Ground vegetation Abandoned Paddy Field: Grass and Herbs FamilyScientific NameVernacular NameGrowth Form AcanthaceaeJustica betonica Sudu purukHerb AmaranthaceaeAchyranthes asperaGas Karal HebaHerb AsteraceaeSynedrella nodifoliaHulan thalaHerb AsteraceaeAgeratum conyzoidesHulan thalaHerb AsteraceaeVernonia cinereaMonara kudumbiyaHerb

AsteraceaeMikania cordataGahala welLiana AsteraceaeEupatorium oderatumPodisinhomaranShrub CommelinaceaeCynotis sppGrass CyperaceaeCyperus sppGrass CyperaceaeFimbristylis sppGrass EuphorbiaceaePhyllanthus amarusPitawakkaHerb EuphorbiaceaeEuphorbia hirtaBu-dada-kiriyaHerb FabaceaeDesmodium triflorumHeen udupiyaliHerb FabaceaeMimosa pudicaHerb FabaceaeClitoria ternatiaKata roduLiana LamiaceaeLeucas zeylanicaThumbaHerb MalvaceaeSida veronicifoliaBevilaHerb MalvaceaeSida acutaGas BevilaHerb MalvaceaeUrena lobataPatta apelaHerb MenispermaceaeCyclea peltataKasipiththanLiana PoaceaeImperata cylindricaIllukGrass PoaceaeDigitaria sppGrass PoaceaeCyrtococcum trigonumGrass

PoaceaePanicum maximumAth-mana’Ginea grassGrass PoaceaeBrachiaria sppGrass PoaceaeEragrostis tenellaGrass TiliaceaeTrumfetta pentandraEpalaHerb VerbenaceaeLantana camaraGadapanaWoody Shrub VerbenaceaeStachytarpheta jamaicensisBalu NagutaShrub 5. RIPARIAN FOREST Riparian Forest -Trees, Shrubs and Woody lianas FamilyScientific NameVerniculer NameLife FormConservation StatusSpecies StrataCanopy Strata AnacardiaceaeMangifera indicaAmbaTreeNativeCDSub Canopy AnacardiaceaeSemicarpus obscuraBadullaTreeEndemicCDSub Canopy AnacardiaceaeNothopegia beddomeiBalaTreeNativeCDSub Canopy ApocynaceaePagiantha dichotomaDivi kaduruTreeNativeCDSub Canopy ClusiaceaeGarcinia morellaGorakaTreeNativeDCanopy

ClusiaceaeGarcinia spicataEla-gokatu/GonapanaTreeNativeDCanopy CombretaceaeTerminalia arjunaKubukTreeNativeDCanopy DilleniaceaeDillenia indicaDiya-paraTreeNativeCDUnderstory DilleniaceaeDillenia retusaGoda-paraTreeNativeCDUnderstory EuphorbiaceaeMacaranga peltataaKendaTreeNativeCDSub Canopy EuphorbiaceaeMallotus philippensisHampirillaTreeNativeCDSub Canopy EuphorbiaceaePhyllanthus myrtifolius Ganga-werellaShrubEndemicGVUnderstory EuphorbiaceaeDimorphocalyx glabellusWelivennaSmall TreeNativeCDSub Canopy FabaceaeAcacia caesiaHinguru welWoody LianaNative FabaceaePongamia pinnataMagul KarandaTreeNativeDCanopy FabaceaeCentrosema pubescensCentroLianaNative

FabaceaeDelbergia pseudo-sissooBababara welWoody LianaNative FabaceaeDerris scandensKala welWoody LianaNative FlacourtiaceaeHydnocarpus veneataMakuluTreeEndemicDCanopy HippocrateaceaeSalacia reticulataHimbutuWoody ClimberNativeGVUnderstory LauraceaeNeolitsea cassiaKudu-daulaTreeNativeCD/GVSub Canopy/Understory MalpighiaceaeHiptage bengalensisPuwak-gediya-welWoody LianaNative MelastomataceaeMemecylon angustifoliumKora kahaWoody ShrubNativeCD/GVUnderstory MeliaceaeWalsura trifoliolataKiri-koneTreeNativeCDSub Canopy MoraceaeFicus hispidaKotadimbulaTreeNativeGVUnderstory MoraceaeFicus microcarpaPanu-nugaTreeNativeDCanopy MoraceaeFicus tinctoriaWal-ahetuTreeNativeDCanopy MoraceaeAntiaris toxicariaRiti GasTreeNativeDCanopy

MoraceaeStreblus asperGeta NithulTreeNativeCDSub Canopy MyrtaceaeSyzygium operculatumBata-dambaTreeNativeCDSub Canopy PandanaceaePandanus zeylanicusWeta-keyyaShrubNativeGVUnderstory PiperaceaePiper sylvestreWal-gammirisClipersEndemic RhamnaceaeZiziphus lucidaEraminiaWoody LianaEndemic RhamnaceaeZiziphus oenopliaHeena-eraminiyaWoody LianaNative RubiaceaeMussaenda frondosaMussandaWoody ShrubNativeCDSub Canopy RubiaceaeIxora coccineaRathmalWoody ShrubNativeGVUnderstory RubiaceaeMitragyna parvifoliaHalambaTreeNativeCDSub Canopy RubiaceaeNauclea orientalisBuk meeTreeNativeCDSub Canopy RutaceaeAtalantia ceylanicaYakinaranWoody ShrubNativeGVUnderstory RutaceaeMurraya paniculataAtteriyaWoody ShrubNativeGVUnderstory SapindaceaeAllophylus cobbeKobbeSmall TreeNativeCDSub Canopy SapindaceaeSchleichera oleosaKonTreeNativeCDCanopy SapotaceaeMadhuca longifoliaMeeTreeNativeDCanopy

SterculiaceaePterospermum suberifoliumWelanTreeNativeCO/GVSub Canopy/Understory VerbenaceaeClerodendrum infortunatumGas-pinnaWoody ShrubNativeGVUnderstory VerbenaceaeVitex altissimaMillaTreeNativeDCanopy Note: The canopy and species stratas were added according to observations. It indicates only its present canopy & species stratas during the observation period not the original stratas Species Strata: D-Dominant, CD-Co-dominant, GV-Ground vegetation PART II. EVALUATION OF FAUNAL BIODIVERSITY A detailed survey was conducted to evaluate the animal diversity in the land. The animal diversity in the different vegetation types were recorded. The details are discussed in the following section. The composition of butterfly, birds, amphibians, reptiles. Fish and mammals were recorded during the survey.

The common name, zoological name, family to which species belong and conservation status was recorded. The summary Table shown below indicates that there is a high animal diversity in the proposed land. It also consist of reasonable number of endemic/threatened species. Summary: Animal species recorded from the proposed land. Vegetation typeButterflyFishAmphibianReptileBirdsMammals Species38O405234819 Family080304082612 Conservation status010000040405 Butterfly species. FamilySPECIESCOMMON NAMEConservation StatusNatural ForestRiverrine forestSavana forestStream fauna PapilionidaeTroides darsiusCommon BirdwingE,TR1100 Pachliopta hectorCrimson Rose1110 Pachiopta aristolochiaeCommon Rose1110 Papilio crinoBanded Peacock1100

Papilio demoleusLime Butterfly0110 Papilio polymnestorBlue Mormon1100 Papilio polytesCommon Mormon0100 Graphium dosonCommon Jay1100 Graphium agamemnonTailed Jay0010 PiearidaeLeptosia ninaPsyche0010 Delias eucharisJezebel0010 Belenois aurotaPioneer0010 Appias albinaCommon Albatross0110 Appias paulinaLesser Albatross1110 Catpsilia pomonaLemon Eigrant0110 Eurema brigittaSmall Grass Yellow0110 Eurema hecabeCommon Grass Yellow0110 DanaidaeIdea similisBlue Glassy Tiger0110 Parantica agleaGlassy Tiger0110 Danaus ChrysisppusPlain Tiger0110 Danaus GenutiaCommon Tiger0110 Euploea coreCommon Crow1110 NymphalidaeJunonia iphitaChocolate Soldier1110 Hypolimnas bolinaCommon Egg fly1100

Neptis hylasCommon Sailor1110 Cethosia nietneriCeylon lace Wing0010 Polyura athamasNawab0100 Charaxes solonBlack Rajah0100 AcraeidaeCirrochroa thais Yeoman0100 SatyridaeAcraea violaeTawny Costar0110 Melanitis ledaCommon Evening Brown1100 Orsotriaena medusNigger Brown0110 Nissanga patniaGlad eye Bush brown0110 LycaenidaeYpthima ceylonicaWhite Four-ring0110 Talicada nyseusRed pierrot0100 Prosotas noraCommon lineblue0010 Zizeeria karsandraDark Grass blue0100 HesperiidaeSuastus gremiusIndian Paim Bob0100 Fish species. FamilySPECIESCOMMON NAMEConservation StatusNatural ForestRiverrine forestSavana forestStream fauna CyprinidaePuntius bimaculatus0001 Rasbora Sp. 0001

SiluridaeWallago attu0001 ChannidaeChanna grachua0001 Amphibian species. FamilySPECIESCOMMON NAMEConservationNatural ForestRiverrine forestSavana forestStream faunaRemarks BufonidaeBufo melonostictusCommon House Toad1110Adult, Juvenile MicrohylidaeMicrohyla ornataOrnate narrow mouth frog0001 RanidaeEuphlyctis cyanophlyctisSkipper Frog0001 Limnonectes limnocharisCommon Faddy Field frog0001 RhacophoridaePolypedates maculatuesCommon Tree frog1000 Reptile species. FamilySPECIESCOMMON NAMEConservation statusNatural ForestRiverrine forestSavana forestStream faunaRemarks AgamidaeCalotes calotesGreen Garden Lizard1000 Calotes versicolourHome-garden Lizards1010

Otocryptis wiegmanniSri Lanka Kangaroo LizardE,TR1100 GekkonidaeCnemaspis scalpensisRocky Day-geckoE1110 Gehyra mutilata Common House gecko0010 Hemidactylus leschenaultiiBark gecko1000 ScincidaeLankascincus sp. Lanka skinkE,TR1000 Mabuya maculariaSpotted skink0110 VaranidaeVaranus bengalensisLand Monitor0010 Varanus salvatorWater monitor0100 BoidaePhython molurusIndian Python1010 ColubridaeAhaetulla nasutaGreen vine snake1100 Dendrelaphis tristisCommon bronze back1100 Elaphe helenaTrinket snake1000 Ptyas mucosusCommon Rat Snake0010 Atretium schistosumOlive keelback watersnake0001 Boiga forsteniForsten’s cat snake0010 Macropisthodon plumbicolorGreen keelback0010 Family:ElapidaeNaja najaIndian Cobra0010

Bungarus caeruleusCommon karait0010 Family:ViperidaeHypnale hypnaleHump nosed Viper1100 Trimeresurus trigonocephalusGreen Pit ViperE,TR1100 Vipera ruselliRussells Viper1110 Bird species. FamilySPECIESCOMMON NAMEConservation statusNatural ForestRiverrine forestSavana forestStream fauna PhasianidaeGallus lafayettiiSri lanka jungle fowlE1110 PicidaeDinopium benghalense psarodesRed-backed woodpecker1110 MegalaimidaeMagalaima zelanicaBrown-headed barbet1110 Megalaima haelamimaCoppersmith barbet1110 BucerotidaeOcyceros gingalensisSri lanka gray hornbillE,TR1010 HalcyonidaeHalcyon smyrnensisWhite-breasted kingfisher0100 AlcedinidaeAlcedo atthisCommon Kingfisher0100

MeropidaeMerops leschenaultiChest-headed bee-eater0010 CuculidaeHierococcyx variusCommon hawk Cuckoo1010 Eudynamys scolopaceaAsian Koel1100 CentropodidaeCentropus sinensisGreater coucal1010 PsittacidaePsittacula krameriRose-ringed parakeet1110 Loriculus beryllinusSri lanka hanging parrotE,TR1110 HemiprocnidaeHemiprocne longipennisCrested treeswift1110 StrigidaeKetupa zeylonensisBrown fish owl0100 ColumbidaeStreptopelia chinensisSpotted dove0010 Chalcophaps indicaEmerald dove1100 Treron pompadoraPompadour Green-pigeon0100 CharadriidaeVanellus indicusRed-wattled Lapwing0010 AccipitridaeSpilornis cheela Crested serpent eagale0010 Accipter badiusShikra0110 Haliaeetus leucogasterWhite-bellied Sea-eagle0100

PhalacrocoracidaePhalacrocorax fuscicollisIndian Cormorant0101 CiconiidaeCiconia episcopusWoolly-necked Stork0100 LaniidaeLanius cristatusBrown Shrike0010 CorvidaeOriolus xanthornusBlack-hooded oriole1100 Dicrurus caerulescensWhite-bellied drongo1110 Corvus macrorhynchosLarge-billed crow0100 MuscicapidaeTerpsiphone paradisiAsian paradise-flycatcher1100 Rhipidura aureolaWhite-browed fantail flycatcher1000 Copsychus malabaricusWhite-rumped shama1100 Copsychus saularisOriental magpie robin0010 Saxicoloides fulicataBlack-backed robin0110 SturnidaeAcridotheres tristisCommon myna0010 PycnonotidaePycnonotus melanicterusBlack-crested Bulbul1100 Pycnonotus caferRed-vented bulbul1110 Iole indicaYellow-browed Bulbul1100 CisticolidaePrinia socialisAshy prinia0010

Prinia inornataPlain priniya0010 SylviidaeOrthotomus sutoriusCommon Tailorbird1110 PellorneumfuscocapillumBrown-capped babblerE,TR1100 Rhopocichla atricepsDark-fronted babbler1100 Turdoides affinisCommon babbler1110 NectariniidaeDicaem agileThick-billed flowerpecker1110 Netarinia zelonicaPurple-ramped sunbird1100 Netarinia loteniaLong-billed sunbird0100 Netarinia asiaticaPurple sunbird1100 PasseridaeLonchura striataWhite-ramped munia1000 Lonchura punctulataScaly-breasted munia0010 Mammal species. FamilySPECIESCOMMON NAMEConservation statusNatural ForestRiverrine forestSavana forestStream faunaRemarks CercopithecidaeMacaca sinica Toque Monkey1110

Trachypithecus vetulusPurple-faced leaf monkeyE,TR1100 ManidaeManis crassicaidataIndian Pangolin 110Feeding signs PteropodidaePteropus giganteusFlying Fox0100 ScuridaeRatufa macroura Ceylon Giant Squirrel1100 Funambulus palmarumCeylon Palm Squirrel1100 Hystericidae Hystrix indicaIndian Porcupine1010Indirect observation ViverridaeParadoxurus hermaphroditusCommon Indian Palm-Cat1100 Herpestes fuscus Ceylon Brown Mongoose1010 Herpestes smithi Ceylon Ruddy Mongoose0010 FelidaePanthera pardusLeopardTR1110 Felis viverrinaIndian Fishing CatTR1111 Felis rubiginosaCeylon Rusty-Spotted CatTR1110 ElephantidaeElephas maximusElephantTR1110 Suidae Sus scrofa Indian Wild Pig1110Feeding signs TragulidaeTragulus meminnaIndian Mouse 1110 Cervidae Cervus unicolorSambur1110Feeding signs

Muntiacus muntjak Barking Deer1110Indirect observation LeporidaeLepus nigricollisBlack-naped hare1110Indirect observation Key- E-Endemic species; TR-Threatened Faunal Diversity: In addition to observations of the study team following faunal species were identified based on the discussions with villagers. Table: Fish Species FamilySPECIESCOMMON NAMEConservationNatural ForestRiverrine forestSavana forestStream fauna Remarks Status AnguillidaeAnguilla bicolourLevel finned-eel 0000Impromation Puntius dorsalisLong-snouted Barb 0001Impromation Tor khudreeMahseer 0001Impromation CobitidaeLepidocephalichthys thermalisCommon Loach 0001Impromation GobiidaeAwaous melanocephalusScribbled Goby 0001Impromation Table: Amphibian species

FamilySPECIESCOMMON NAMEConservation StatusNatural ForestRiverrine forestSavana forestStream fauna Remarks Microhylidae Ramanella veriegataSpadefoot Toad 1000Impromation RanidaeHoplobatrachus crassusJerdon’s Bullfrog 010 Impromation Rana temporalisBronzed Frog 110 Table: Reptile species FamilyCOMMON NAMEConservation StatusNatural ForestRiparian forestSavanna forestStream faunaRemarks Colubridae Brown vine snake 1110Villages Importations Boulenger. s bronze back 1000Villages Importations Gamma cat snake 1010Villages Importations PART III: VALUING THE TIMBER RESOURCES: Monetary value of the standing timber volume of the proposed land was estimated.

Total height (m) and Diameter at Breast Height (DBH in cm) of trees were was measured to estimate the standing tree volume. 1000m2 plots were used measure the trees in each vegetation type. The summary of the calculations are shown below: Summary: Value of standing timber (at 6the currant market rates) Vegetation typeTimber value per acreNo of AcresTotal value of trees (Rs. mil) Primary forest6. 34 mil3051933. 70 Secondary forest3. 146 mil80251. 68 Savanna0. 338 mil19565. 91 Riparian0. 588 mil4325. 28 Kumbuk trees in the riparian39. 18 mil (198 trees)-39. 18 Grand total2315. 75 1. PRIMARY FOREST Composition: Primary forest (10x100m) FamilyNameCommon NameD. B. H. (cm)Height (m)No. of Trees

AnacardiaceaeSemicarpus obscuraBadulla35,43,45,518,10,11,134 AnacardiaceaeNothopegia beddomeiBala30,33,38,46,487,8,10,12,125 ApocynaceaeAlstonia scholarisRuk-aththana32-5612-188 BignoniaceaeStereospermum personatumDunu madala36-6310-166 ClusiaceaeGarcinia morellaGoraka23,37,449,11,143 CombretaceaeTerminalia belliricaBulu57,72,85,8715,18,25,264 EuphorbiaceaeMacaranga peltaaKenda36,3910,122 EuphorbiaceaeMallotus philippensisGulu kenda26,37,39,418,9,11,124 EuphorbiaceaeMischodon zeylanicusThammana33,387,92 EuphorbiaceaeDrypetes sepiariaWeera42,53,5711,13,153 FabaceaeAlbizzia odoratissimaHuri Mara36,42,46,558,9,10,134 FabaceaeCassia siameaWa31,35,36,45,4711,13,13,15,154

HernandiaceaeGyrocarpus americanusHama-gas52,55,61,739,11,12,145 LauraceaeNeolitsea cassiaKudu-daula33,3712,132 MeliaceaeWalsura piscidaKiri-kon36,38,46,508,8,12,144 MoraceaeAntiaris toxicariaRiti Gas48,52,63,68,7115-275 RubiaceaeAdina cordifoliaKolon31-7411-1812 RutaceaeChloroxylon swieteniaBurutha37. 42,45,48,6110-225 VerbenaceaeVitex altissimaMilla53-8515-239 UlmaceaeCeltis cinnamomiaGurenda54,6810,172 SterculiaceaeSterculia foetidaThelambu37-5610-147 VerbenaceaePremna tomentosaSeru26,29,305,7,7,3 SapindaceaeSchleichera oleosaKon42-7813-267 SterculiaceaePterospermum suberifoliumWelang22-565-259 2. SECONDARY FOREST Secondary forest: Composition: 10x100m plot FamilyNameCommon NameD. B. H. (cm)Height (m)No. of Trees

AnacardiaceaeMangifera indicaAmba30-5010-255 AnacardiaceaeNothopegia beddomeiBala18-5010-282 CombretaceaeTerminalia bellericaBulu38-8518366 EuphorbiaceaeBridelia retusaKetakela20-558-207 FabaceaeTamarindus indicaSiyambala30-7512-223 FabaceaeCassis spectabilisKahakona22-408-156 FlacourtiaceaeHydnocarpus venenataMakulu30-8016-323 LauraceaeNeolitsea cassiaDaul-kurundu20-6512-258 MagnoliaceaeMichelia champacaSapu23-7510-253 MoraceaeArtocarpus heterophyllusKos26-9015-302 SterculiaceaePterospermum suberifoliumWelan25-7812-323 TiliaceaeGrewia damineDamaniya18-5710-225 TiliaceaeBerrya cordifoliaHalmilla16-4910-254 VerbenaceaeVitex altissimaMilla21-5112-284 FabaceaeCassia fistulaEhela22-488-145

EuphorbiaceaeMalotus philippensisHampirilla,Gulukenda31-548-163 3. SAVANNA FOREST Savanna: Composition: 10x100m plot Common NameNo of trees under different D. B. H. (cm) classesTotal ; 5 cm5 cm – 15 cm15 cm -30 cm30 cm – 50 cm Dawu38111032 Myila22 Kahata11 Wal Gammalu235 Bulu123 Aralu11 Debara2215 Total410191649 4. RIPARIAN FOREST Riparian Forest (Section A): Composition: 10x100m plot FamilyNameCommon NameD. B. H. (cm)Height (m)No. of Trees AnacardiaceaeMangifera indicaAmba30,35,637,9,153 SapindaceaeSchleichera oleosaKon34-5613-215 AnacardiaceaeMangifera zeylanicaEtamba39-9515-286 SapotaceaeMadhuka longifoliaMee41-9015-3210 ClusiaceaeGarcinias pp. Gonapana38-5611,14,153

ApocynaceaeAlstonia scholarisRuk attana33,54,5914,17,193 HernandiaceaeGyrocarpus americanusHama-gas37,44,48,5313,14,16,174 SterculiaceaeSterculia foetidaThelmbu43,4718,182 FabaceaeHamboltia laurifoliaGalkaranda31131 AnacardiaceaeSemecarpus obscuraBadulla34,28,399,11,133 EbenaceaeDiospyros quercitaKalumediriya36121 TiliaceaeBerrya cordifoliaHalmilla23,349,112 MeliaceaeWalsura trifoliolata( W. piscidia)Kirikoon28,36,36,329,10,10,104 ArecaaeaeCaryota urensKithul4191 DipterocarpaceaeHopea cordifoliaUva-Mandora47-7320-355 SapindaceaeSapindus trifoliusKahapenala2981 EuphorbiaceaeBridelia retusaKetakela32,369,102 Riparian Forest (Section B): Composition: 10x100m plot FamilyNameCommon NameD,B,H. (cm)Height (m)No. of Trees

FlacourtiaceaeHydnocarpus veneataMakulu60,30,3520,8,123 SterculiaceaePterospermum suberifoliumWelan35,5014,122 VerbenaceaeVitex altissimaMilla30,70,60,7010,18,15,184 EuphorbiaceaePhyllanthus indicusKaraw40,4510,92 FabaceaePongamia pinnataMagul Karanda30101 SapotaceaeMadhuka longifoliaMee45,35,40,7015,12,12,184 AnacardiaceaeNethopegia beddomeiBala40,309,122 MoraceaeArtocarpus heterophyllusKos50121 EbenaceaeDiospyros malabaricaThimbiri30,4015,182 MyristicaceaeMyristica dactyloidesMalaboda50211 SapindaceaeDymorcarpus longanaMora60151 DipterocarpaceaeHopea cordifoliaUva-Mandora80,7521,182 FabaceaeEntada pusaethaPus wel30100 ;1 Kumbuk (Terminalia arjuna) trees in the river bank. No of Kumbuk (Terminalia arjuna) trees under different D. B. H. cm) classes Area30- 60 cm60- 75 cm75 – 100 cm 100 -130 cm 130 -160 cm160 – 200 cm200 cm;Total Area ‘A’1111516132058 Area ‘ B ‘121113854154 Area ‘ C ‘12741030036 Area ‘ D ‘98181220150 Sub total442750462362 Grand total198 No of Kumbuk (Terminalia arjuna) trees under different height (m) classes Area (as marked on the map);5m5-10m10-15m15-20m20-25m25-30m30m;Sub total Area ‘A’071717134058 Area ‘ B ‘03292812054 Area ‘ C ‘0346176036 Area ‘ D ‘02312293150 Sub total015264487251 Grand total198 Part IV. Medicinal plants: Medicinal plants recorded from the Dadayampola land (71 species) is shown in the following Table: Medicinal plants recorded from the Dadayampola land. Botanic nameFamilyCommon Name 1Acacia caesiaFabaceaeHinguru wel Achyranthes asperaAmaranthaceaeGas Karal Heba 3Aconitum spp. AraceceAthudian 4Acronychia pedunculataRutaceaeUn kenda 5Adina cordifoliaRubiaceaeKolon 6Ageratum conyzoidesAsteraceaeHulan thala 7Allophylus cobbeSapindaceaeKobbe 8Alstonia scholarisApocynaceaeRuk-aththana 9Atalantia ceylanicaRutaceaeYakinaran 10Bauhinia racemosaFabaceaeMyila 11Bridelia retusaEuphorbiaceaeKetakela 12Careya arboreaLaecythidacaeaeKahata 13Cassia fistulaFabaceaeEhela 14Cipadessa baccifera MeliaceaeHalbabiya 15Clerodendrum infortunatumVerbenaceaeGas-pinna 16Clitoria ternatiaFabaceaeKata rodu 17Cyclea peltataMenispermaceaeKasipiththan 18Delbergia pseudo-sissooFabaceaeBababara wel 19Derris scandensFabaceaeKala wel 0Desmodium triflorumFabaceaeHeen udupiyali 21Dillenia indicaDilleniaceaeDiya-para 22Dillenia retusaDilleniaceaeGoda-para 23Elephantopus scaberAsteraceaeAth adi 24Entada pusaethaFabaceaePus wel 25Euphorbia hirtaEuphorbiaceaeBu-dada-kiriya 26Ficus hispidaMoraceaeKotadimbula 27Garcinia morellaClusiaceaeGoraka 28Garcinia spicataClusiaceaeEla-gokatu/Gonapana 29Grewia oriantalisTiliaceaeWel Kelia 30Helicteres isoraSterculiaceaeLihiniya 31Horsfieldia iryaghedhiMyristicaceaeRuk 32Ixora coccineaRubiaceaeRathmal 33Justicia betonica AcanthaceaeSudu puruk 34Leucas zeylanicaLabiataeThumba 35Litsea glutinosaLauraceaeBomee 36Madhuca longifoliaSapotaceaeMee 37Mangifera zeylanicaAnacardiaceaeEtamba 8Memecylon angustifoliumMelastomataceaeKora kaha 39Mikania cordataAsteraceaeGahala wel 40Mimosa pudicaFabaceae 41Mitragyna parvifoliaRubiaceaeHalamba 42Murraya paniculataRutaceaeAtteriya 43Mussaenda frondosaRubiaceaeMussanda 44MyristicadactyloidesMyristicaceaeMalabada 45Nauclea orientalisRubiaceaeBuk mee 46Neolitsea cassiaLauraceaeKudu-daula 47Ochna lanceolataOchnaceaeBo kera 48Pagiantha dichotomaApocynaceaeDivi kaduru 49Pandanus zeylanicusPandanaceaeWeta-keyya 50Phyllanthus amarusEuphorbiaceaePitawakka 51Phyllanthus emblicaEuphobiaceaeNelli 52Phyllanthus myrtifolius EuphorbiaceaeGanga-werella 53Pongamia pinnataFabaceaeMagul Karanda 54Pterocarpus indicusFabaceaeWal Gammalu 5Salacia reticulataHippocrateaceaeHimbutu 56Sapindus trifoliusSapindaceaeKahapenala 57Sida acutaMalvaceaeGas Bevila 58Sida veronicifoliaMalvaceaeBevila 59Sterculia foetidaSterculiaceaeThelambu 60Streblus asperMoraceaeGeta Nithul 61Tamarindus indicaFabaceaeSiyambala 62Terminalia arjunaCombretaceaeKubuk 63Terminalia belliricaCombretaceaeBulu 64Terminalia chebulaCombretaceaeAralu 65Urena lobataMalvaceaePatta apela 66Vernonia cinereaAsteraceaeMonara kudumbiya 67Vitex negundoVerbenaceaeNika 68Walsura trifoliolata (W. piscida)MeliaceaeKiri-kon 69Woodfordia fruticosaLythraceaeMaliththa 70Ziziphus oenopliaRhamnaceaeHeena-eraminiya 71Zizyphus mauritianaRhamnaceaeDembara

GEOLOGICAL REPORT OF THE LAND OF PROPOSED ECHO -TOURISM SITE AT DADAYAMPOLA, THIRIWANA KANDA, BERAGALA Introduction The proposed site situated at Dadayampola village, bound to the left bank of Kalkanna Oya, and just above the Weli Oya Annicut. The site area is accessible from Balangoda via Kaltota, Medabedda and from Beragala junction via Thiriwanagama (Map 1-Location Map). Geological background of the site Geologically, this area belongs to Highland Complex and most high grade metamorphic rocks can be identified in and around the proposed project area. The rock types commonly found belongs to highland complex are, Garnet Sillimanite Gneiss, Quartzite, Marble, Calc gneiss, Charnockite etc. (Figure 2-Geology map).

Apart from those highland complex rocks, there are some rocks which are belongs to Wanni complex, such as Pink granitoid gneiss, Pegmatitic granitoid gneiss and Hornblende Biotite gneiss. The area around proposed land is rich with very complex geological structures, among those, local thrusts, Synforms, antiforms, shear zones and lineaments are remarkable. As this area lies to the 2nd Peniplan (Witanage,1972) Northern direction to the study area, high cliffs and escarpments can be observed, which exists between 3rd and 2nd peniplan. Displacement of rock strata along faults, highly crushed (Mylonite) newly formed week rock layers, fault gouge and mobilized marble beds represent neo-tectonic movements of the area.

As a result of this complex geological situation, gems and other precise mineral deposits can be expected in the surrounding area. But still those are not well identified and there are some deposits already known, i. e. Corundum, Tufa, Calcite, Feldspar (Fig. 2) Figure 1: Complex geological structures represent neo-tectonic activities of the area, foreign (dark) fragment embedded in local host rock Figure 2: Abandoned gem pit. That represent near by villages have discovered the availability of precise minerals in the area This complex geological setting is represented by the extremely complex rock strata orientations in the area. Dipping and strike of rock beds greatly vary in the vicinity.

Within the proposed site area, impure and pure quartzites, Marble, Charnockitic gneiss, and Pink Granitoid gneiss rock beds are identifiable. Those rocks in the site are trending N70? W with the dipping vertically. One prominent joint system was observed as N10? E with vertical dipping. Stream network of the area is purely controlled by the geological structures. Figure 3: Highly jointed, vertical dipping Mable rock in the Kalkan Oya bed. Figure 4: Stream network of the area is completely controlled by the geological structures. Figure 5: The area is rich with geological structures and geomorphological features. The Ubmagala rock, from the proposed site

Apart from geology, geomorphology is important for the effect of natural hazards in the area. Although the area is situated under the 3rd peniplane, there was no observations of previous occurrence of landslide activities. The area is covered with residual soil derived from parent rocks except closer to the stream. A strip of river bank (not always) is alluvial deposit, which was transported from the river. Therefore availability of precise gem minerals is high in this area. But this was not studied well yet. Distribution of slope is presented in the Map 3 (Slope map), and that clearly shows majority of slopes in proposed project area is less than 30 degree. This is very favorable for hazard free environment.

Discussion / conclusion In the point of geological view, this area is a paradise for earth scientists. Undiscovered geological, mineralogical and structural geological features may give an advantage for a echo-tourism project with hazard free environment. Observed features related to neo-tectonic movements may need further study by earth scientists. According to the literature, concept of well un-proved symotogenic up-warping (Vithanage,1972) and availability of high precise gem minerals in the area can be explored with this proposed project. M. I. D. H. Wijewickrama, B. Sc(hons)-geology, P. G. Dip-Eng. Geology, M. Sc. -GIS and Remote Sensing Consultant Geologist