Cognitive and psychodynamic approach to psychology

The Difference Between The Cognitive Approach And The Psychodynamic Approach To Psychology

Psychologists introduced a figure of diverse attacks in order to understand human nature and behavior. There are different ways of explicating phenomena, which is why there are different attacks. These different attacks include Cognitive and Psychodynamic.

The Cognitive attack began to revolutionize psychological science in the late fiftiess and early 1960s.Piaget is the best known cognitive development research worker who suggested that, believing progressed through qualitative alterations due to the increasing adulthood of encephalon. He is remembered for his surveies of cognitive development in kids ( 1896-1980 ) . The cyberspace site, quotes.net quotation marks Jean Piaget as stating “The chief end of instruction is to make work forces who are capable of making new things, non merely of reiterating what other coevalss have done” Cognitive psychologists are interested in how people understand, diagnose and work out jobs. Cognitive research chiefly focuses on how our encephalons procedure information and the research tends to take topographic point in the research lab than in real-life scenes. The cognitive attack provinces that cognitive upsets have been learned, and so can be unlearned.

Harmonizing to Albert Ellis, when we think positively and do determinations based on grounds, we behave rationally, and as a consequence we are happy, competent and effectual. On the other manus, prolonged irrational thought can take to psychological jobs and unnatural behavior.

Attribution theory suggests that when we are disguised with person ‘s behavior, we try to work out in our heads why the individual is moving Wyrd. Harmonizing to Kelley ( 1967, 1973 ) , when we are doing these ascriptions, we work out in phases, First, we try to make up one’s mind whether the person is to be blamed for his actions, secondly, whether person else is responsible and thirdly, whether the state of affairs itself has influenced the individual to act in such a manner.

Unlike cognitive attack, the psychodynamic attack focuses on the three parts of head which are witting, unconscious and preconscious and the three constituents of personality which are id, self-importance and superego.

Conscious are ideas and perceptual experiences while unconscious are wants and desires formed in childhood. It was chiefly initiated by Sigmund Freud, a Viennese physician who specialised in neurology. All psychodynamic theories stem from depth psychology. Freud foremost developed the basic thought that understanding behavior requires insight into the ideas and feelings which influence our actions. Hill ( 2001 p.72 ) quotes Sigmund Freud as stating “I set myself the undertaking of conveying to illume what human existences maintain hidden within them” . Freud ‘s apprehension of the head was mostly based on interpretative methods.

Freud argued that, childhood experiences play a important portion in grownup development including the development of grownup personality. Every kid must go through through the alleged psycho-sexual phases ; how a kid experiences these phases plays a important function in the development of his/her personality.

Methods Of Probe

Cognitive developmental psychologists have used methods such as observation eg Piaget day-to-day observation of kids playing and experimentation eg experiments comparing the ability of two different age groups to go through preservation trials. Piaget was looking at the sort of errors that kids of different age group make. Piaget ‘s theory provides elaborate description of development but does non truly explicate decently. By concentrating on the kid ‘s errors, he might hold overlooked more of import abilities that kids do possess.

Psychodynamic psychologists nevertheless used clinical instance surveies, dream analysis and free association to research their theory. Freud used to look into his patients in item and deeply analyse and interpreted all they said and did.

Carl Gustav Jung ( 1875-1961 ) was the first favorite adherent of Freud.

Jung disagreed with Freud that dreams are ever disguised wish fulfillment ensuing from the past fortunes alternatively Jung suggested that dreams reflect current pre-occupations.

Strengths And Failings Of Psychodynamic Approach

Strengths:

Psychodynamic attack reminds us that, early childhood experience can hold an impact on people throughout their live without them being cognizant that it is go oning. Therefore, the attack accepts that everyone can endure mental unwellness through no mistake of their ain. It besides offers a ‘cure ‘ for abnormalcy through depth psychology by explicating the implicit in causes in the unconscious, doing them witting, and let go ofing the patient from the emotional hurting caused by the childhood injury.

Many people would hold that, unconscious procedures do hold an consequence on human behavior, and Freud ‘s work on how defense mechanism mechanisms protect the self-importance is particularly utile.

Freud instance surveies like `Little Hans` and `Anna O` detailed aggregation of informations provided scientific support for his theory and depth psychology has tremendous explanatory power and has something to state on a immense assortment of of import subjects.

The failings of psychodynamic attack are that, it can non be scientifically observed or tested. In fact, it has ne’er been disproved by any trial. There is no manner of showing if the unconscious really exists and verify if a pent-up memory is a existent or false memory unless independent grounds is available, in that context, most of psychodynamic theories are taken on religion. Freud over emphatic sexual causes and harmonizing to Breuer, Freud was prone to “excessive generalisation” .

A healer must analyze and construe any grounds recovered by a psychoanalyst from a patient, this leaves open the possibility of serious misunderstanding or prejudice because two healers may construe the same grounds in wholly different ways.

Finally, the psychodynamic attack ignores possible account of unnatural behavior by other psychological attacks.

As for the cognitive attack, it concentrates on current information-processing by the encephalon, it does non depend on the past history of the client, and for illustration, retrieving pent-up memories from the unconscious. It besides had practical applications and deductions for the society. Cognitive research workers normally conduct scientific and nonsubjective research to back up their theories, nevertheless, it has been accused that the cognitive psychologists ignored the immense complexness of human operation by comparing to computing machine working. It besides ignores the emotional life of worlds.

Comparison

The psychodynamic attack provinces that, behaviour is non learned but caused by forces in the unconscious unlike the cognitive attack which states that behavior is learned as we process information and mental alterations in of import ways over clip. Psychodynamic attack considers behaviour as predetermined. They point out that different parts of the head are in changeless dynamic battle with each other, so persons have no control over their behaviors but the cognitive attack see behavior as non predetermined. It states that we ever have power to alter knowledge. Psychodynamic attack is regarded as unscientific because it can non be measured or manipulated, whereas cognitive attack is regarded as scientific since it considers the encephalon is similar to a computing machine where information can be manipulated. Unlike cognitive attack, psychodynamic attack chiefly focuses on early childhood behaviors.

The chief differences are the attack in which each theory takes in finding the cause of mental unwellness or mal adjusted behaviour eg psychodynamic position focuses more so on unconscious procedure while cognitive position focuses more so on mental procedures.

Similarities

Each theory is used to specify the outlook of work forces, explain mental unwellness and find a manner to command if necessary. Each theory on its ain manner focuses on the human head and its reaction to its environment.

They both have trouble in corroborating their research.

Mentions

· Hill G. 2001 As Level Psychology through Diagrams Oxford University imperativeness.

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