As stated in the Literature Review, many developed states are seeing ICT as a possible tool for alteration and invention in the instruction field and they are therefore, puting massively in the proviso of ICT tools in the schools. Likewise, Kozma and Anderson ( 2002 ) wrote in their paper “ ICT and Educational Reform in Developed and Developing States ” that for an economic system to be knowing, instruction should be its primary necessity. Simultaneously, the instruction schemes in schools are flexing towards ICT.
And every bit far as the consequence from our study in concerned, the same instance is deduced in the Mauritanian context whereby we can see that all of the secondary Mathematicss pedagogues do hold a computing machine in their ownership every bit good as an cyberspace connexion. They are invariably doing usage of the computing machine every bit good as are connected to the cyberspace on a day-to-day footing. The Mauritanian Government besides is lending in the integrating of ICT in the instruction sector by presenting the synergistic whiteboard in the schools which is an efficient instruction tool for the pedagogues to learn in an advanced manner and convey about a alteration in the accustomed chalk-and-talk procedure of instruction.
However, a full integrating of the instruction tools have non yet been made in all the Mauritian secondary schools since it can be noted from the consequence of the study that most of the province and private pedagogues are non in ownership of an synergistic whiteboard to their instruction pattern. They are so obliged to carry on their categories in the computing machine lab as and when required but unluckily, this is non possible for all pedagogues ; they are therefore left behind to transport on with their usual chalk-and-talk manner of learning Mathematicss without doing the usage of any ICT tool in their schoolroom. One of the chief grounds that may be advocated is the deficiency of fiscal resources by the schools to buy these ICT instruction tools, peculiarly those from the private schools who have to self-finance themselves to a certain extent and have the staying financess from the Private Secondary School Authority, which is once more to an extent non sufficient to transport out the necessary outgos of the schools. Additionally, the province schools are limited to a certain budget provided by the Ministry of Education and Human Resources at every interval of the budget exercising. As explained by Hepp, Hinostroza, Laval and Rehbein ( 2004 ) that there is no cosmopolitan truth for using ICT in instruction ; it all depends on every state ‘s world, precedences and long-run budgetary chances and committedness.
Accessibility is hence non considered merely by holding entree to a computing machine and the cyberspace but besides, the other factors which influence the success to the integrating of ICT in the instruction sector whereby it is a complex procedure which can be eased with the followup of the four phases as proposed in the Literature Review chapter.
5.2 Use OF ICT
ICT can be used in three ways at schools: for pedagogues to show, buttocks and proctor cognition ; to heighten administrative work ; as “ larning content in relationship to pupils ‘ information literacy ” ( Myungnghee Kang et al. , 2011 ) . Sing merely the usage of ICT by the secondary Mathematics pedagogues, they are expected to do the usage of this advanced instruction tool in their day-to-day instruction pattern. The pedagogues are therefore viewed as facilitators to the pupils instead than doing the pupils dependent on them for their surveies.
On the other manus, from the in-depth analysis of the study, it is deduced that most of the secondary Mathematics pedagogues of Mauritius used ICT for personal usage instead than a teaching tool at the degree of the schools. They are chiefly engaged in surfing the cyberspace or on e-mail and chatting exercisings ; they are therefore tagged largely as entertainers instead than facilitators by the pupils. However, it besides depends on the willingness of the pedagogues to do usage of ICT in his or her instruction and acquisition pattern. For this ground, many surveies on engineering credence have been conducted over the old ages and it appeared that these surveies had focused on the designation of factors that influenced engineering credence among pedagogues and pupils.
One of the chief factors that can be seen to act upon these pedagogues can be the deficiency of preparation provided to them for the proper integrating of ICT in their instruction pattern. It is noted from the study that 80 % of the respondents have ne’er made usage of any Mathematics-specific package in their instruction pattern since they have ne’er been trained for the usage of these package like Graphmatica or Maths Blaster. Nevertheless, some pedagogues have made usage of other package like the Scientific Notebook but they keep off from doing farther usage of these package since the secondary Mathematicss course of study is besides non decently designed for the usage of ICT in the procedure of learning as seen by 62.2 % of the respondents.
As discussed in the Literature Review chapter on the benefits of utilizing ICT in instruction of the topic Mathematics whereby both the chance to learn Mathematics better and to learn better Mathematicss should be considered in school engineering programs and teacher professional development. Therefore, holding a proper reviewed course of study for the secondary degree for the Mathematics topic will heighten the integrating of ICT in the instruction of the topic.
Furthermore, besides the betterment in the course of study, the pedagogues are invariably seen to be actuating the pupils to do heavy usage of ICT in their acquisition of Mathematics. 138 of the respondents have agreed to be giving a assisting manus in the integrating of ICT in the instruction and learning procedure but however, it all depends on the willingness of the pupils every bit good to accept this alteration. As depicted from the study, there exists a relationship between the encouragement done by the pedagogues and the willingness of the pupils but it is tested to be rather a weak relation which can be influenced by other factors. Therefore, it is noted that really few of the pupils are willing to utilize ICT in their learning procedure of the topic Mathematics. Although the assorted advantages discussed in the Literature Review chapter by Papert ( 1997 ) , really few of the twenty-first century pupils are rather acute to look for replies to their mathematical inquiries on the cyberspace in Mauritius.
Statement ( a ) – Computers are really helpful to me in executing my responsibilities.
As discussed in the Literature Review on the fact that with the usage of ICT in the instruction and acquisition procedure, pupils become more independent of the pedagogues and hence, let the pedagogues to acquire an first-class opportunity to larn from the pupils every bit good as to pattern being an information-seeker, womb-to-tomb scholar and risk-taker. The same state of affairs is applied to secondary Mauritanian Mathematics pedagogues whereby from the study, it is found that 60.6 % of the respondents do accept to the statement that computing machines are really helpful to them in executing their responsibilities. Therefore, the integrating of ICT in their instruction pattern makes their undertaking of learning a challenge in bettering and conveying about invention in their instruction accomplishments.
Added to this, it is noted from the crosstabulation of the first statement as respects to the old ages of experience of the respondents that most of the people who agree to this statement have a teaching experience of 6-10 old ages which demonstrate that these respondents are really good cognizant of the old state of affairs whereby ICT was non being used and how the instruction sector is altering with the integrating of ICT whereby it will be of great aid to all the histrions of the instruction field which consists chiefly of the pedagogues, the pupils and the disposal.
Statement ( B ) – It is really of import to maintain in touch with ICT.
Similarly the first statement, the 2nd statement which is to show the importance to maintain in touch with ICT by the secondary Mathematics pedagogues, it is found that 66.4 % of them do hold with the statement since computing machine is seen to be a really of import tool for the respondents in executing their responsibilities decently. With the fast enlargement in the technological universe, it is hence really of import to maintain in touch with ICT to be cognizant of the different developments go oning all about, for illustration, the usage of societal webs like Facebook in the instruction and acquisition procedure. Following this statement, the Ministry of Education and Human Resources has already included this consciousness in its Education and Human Resources Plan 2008-2020 ( 2009 ) whereby it is stated that for the proviso of quality instruction to all, the reappraisal and development of instructional stuffs that are antiphonal to altering technological demands will be carried out.
Furthermore, it is besides noted from the crosstabulation of the 2nd statement and the age group of the respondents that most of them are of the age group of 31-35 old ages old. They are therefore classified as being really familiar with the usage of engineering in the day-to-day life and can see the importance and benefits ICT is conveying about to different undertakings. Hence, they are really acute to maintain in touch with the technological promotion to assist in their instruction procedure.
Statement ( degree Celsius ) – The cyberspace provides me with valuable information to fix lessons.
It is stated in the chapter of Analysis that 55.6 % of the respondents agreed to the statement that the cyberspace provides them with valuable information to fix lessons while 10.8 % disagree with this fact. It can be farther discussed that those who have agreed with the statement are acute to be information searcher, womb-to-tomb scholar and hazard taker as discussed antecedently. They are ready to accept the engineering integrating in their day-to-day pattern as a challenge and run into the demands.
However, this is non the instance for all respondents whereby the proportion of 10.8 % who disagreed are loath to do usage of ICT in their day-to-day pattern. As stated by Teo ( 2011 ) , with the impact of engineering on the instruction and acquisition procedure, outlooks on pedagogues to work technological advantages will lift, therefore taking them to see the force per unit areas of holding to toggle between teaching method and engineering in a seamless manner. Bing chiefly in the age group of +45 old ages old, these pedagogues are unwilling to convey about a alteration in their instruction pattern by doing usage of the cyberspace to fix their lessons as they already have their long clip experience in the readying of their ain notes.
Statement ( vitamin D ) – Computer can assist me to be advanced in my attack to learn.
As stated in the Literature Review that many states see ICT as a possible tool for alteration and invention in the instruction field ( Erdogan, 2009, adapted from Eurydice, 2001 ; Papanastasiou & A ; Angeli, 2008 ) , the tendency is being followed by Mauritius besides whereby it is noted from the study conducted that 56.4 % of the secondary Mathematicss pedagogues do accept to the fact that computing machine can assist them to be more advanced in their attack to learn. It besides coincides with one of the strategic ends of the Ministry of Education and Human Resources of Mauritius which is the proviso of quality instruction to all and therefore, the usage of ICT as a tool for the instruction and larning procedure in the schoolroom is emphasized.
On the other manus, a proportion of 16.6 % of the respondents have disagreed to the statement which comprises largely those pedagogues form the province schools instead than the private 1s. This is so because although the Ministry of Education and Human Resources of Mauritius has integrated the thought of presenting ICT in the instruction sector in the Education and Human Resources Plan 2008-2020, it has non yet been to the full operational with the non-availability of adequate ICT resources to the province schools. Therefore, the pedagogues have to restrict themselves to what they are being provided with to convey about an advanced attack in their instruction.
Statement ( vitamin E ) – Computers are valuable tools to actuate pupils.
twenty-first century kids choose to look for replies to their inquiries on the cyberspace ( Myungnghee Kang et al. , 2011 ) . Besides, pupils who had followed ICT classs had more possibilities of being employed as most of the occupations today require a good cognition of ICT. Therefore, as respect to the respondents, 74.9 % of them have agreed that computing machines are valuable tools to actuate pupils in their acquisition procedure. Following this fact, the Ministry of Education and Human Resources of Mauritius has been advancing the survey of ICT in lower signifiers of the secondary schools along with the upper signifiers. Added to this, the Ministry of Finance and Economic Development has late included in its budget for the twelvemonth 2013 the proviso of one tablet computing machine to each and every pupil in Form IV categories, thereby actuating the pupils in utilizing ICT in their acquisition procedure.
However, a farther analysis of these informations every bit respect to the willingness of the pupils responded to quite a negative attack from the pupils ‘ side as really few of them are willing to do usage of ICT in their learning attack of the topic of Mathematics particularly ; they are more likely to larn the topic as was directed antecedently instead than making research work in the capable affair.
Statement ( degree Fahrenheit ) – I need more preparation for the proper execution of ICT in my instruction.
With the analysis of this statement in the old chapter, it has been noted that 4.36 % of the respondents have agreed to the fact that they are in demand of more preparation for the proper execution of ICT in their instruction procedure. As such, the Ministry of Education and Human Resources of Mauritius has made this proviso every bit good in its Education and Human Resources Plan 2008-2020 ( 2009 ) , that is, the preparation of the pedagogues in the usage of ICT in the instruction and acquisition procedure. This is to be done with the strategic end of implanting engineering in the instruction system of Mauritius.
A farther analysis of this statement was done harmonizing to the different age group of the respondents which revealed that all those who have agreed to the statement are from the group age of 36-40 old ages old and above and they are therefore in demand of extra preparation as they have non been exposed to much usage of ICT before. Whereas, a proportion of 16.2 % of the respondents have disagreed to this statement whereby they form portion of the age group of 36-40 old ages old and below and they may therefore be considered to be from the digital age as the pedagogues that are being recruited presents have a full background of the usage of ICT in the instruction profession as per their capable affair. These respondents may hold followed classs from the Mauritius Institute of Education or from different universities whereby they emphasize on the usage of engineering along with the teaching method accomplishments in the instruction sector.
Statement ( g ) – Adequate resources are available for usage in my schoolroom.
The Ministry of Education and Human Resources of Mauritius has included in its Education and Human Resources Plan 2008-2020 ( 2009 ) the proviso of ICT installations to guarantee that all pedagogues make usage of these ICT installations on a regular footing for the instruction and acquisition procedure and this undertaking was to be implemented by the twelvemonth 2015. However, this does non reflect the aim to be met by the ministry as at the twelvemonth 2012 whereby it is noted from the study conducted that merely 8.1 % of the respondents have accepted that they have adequate resources for usage in their schoolroom while the remainder have disagree or strongly disagree with the statement.
This dissension can be noted from both the province pedagogues and the private pedagogues upon a farther analysis carried out. The grounds that can be exploited from the province schools can be the limited budget provided to each school ‘s fund and that of the private 1s, the addition in the outgos of the schools. Nevertheless, Hepp, Hinostroza, Laval and Rehbein ( 2004 ) have been really explicitly explained that there is no cosmopolitan truth for using ICT in instruction. It all depends on every state ‘s world, precedences and long-run budgetary chances and committedness.
Statement ( H ) – Performance of students can be improved through the usage of ICT in the instruction and acquisition of Mathematicss.
As discussed in the Literature Review, research surveies have brought frontward the fact that the usage of ICT every bit good as other learning schemes have enabled pupils to travel to higher-order thought ( Jonassen & A ; Carr, 2000 ; Kearney & A ; Treagust, 2001 ; Oliver & A ; Hannafin, 2000 ) . Therefore, pupils develop constructive thought accomplishments. As a consequence the pupils are larning in order to fix themselves for the hereafter information age ( Salomon, 1993 ) . Harmonizing to Kozma ( 2005 ) , ICT can be used to heighten pupil apprehension, therefore increasing the quality of instruction. This statement has been agreed by 55.6 % of the respondents as good whereby they do believe that the public presentation of the pupils can be improved through the usage of ICT in the instruction and acquisition of Mathematicss.
On the other manus, after analyzing the information of this statement in conformity of the course of study of Mathematicss, it is to be noted that these respondents have besides agreed to the fact that the course of study of Mathematicss for the secondary degree is non decently designed for the integrating of ICT in the procedure of learning the topic. This demands a close follow-up along with the subject on course of study design discussed antecedently.
Extent to which ICT is being used and accepted in the schoolroom.
Over the past few old ages, several large-scale international surveies have documented the successful integrating of ICT in schools ( Lim & A ; Hang, 2003, adapted from Mann, Shakeshaft, Becker & A ; Kottkamp, 1999 ; Sivin-Kachala, 1998 ; Wenglinsky, 1998 ) . However, this does non look to be the instance for Mauritius whereby most of the respondents have stated that ICT is being used and accepted in their several schoolroom to some extent or non at all. This maximal figure of respondents signifiers portion of both the class of province and private schools. It can be confirmed that the whole instruction system of Mauritius is non working at 100 % with the usage of ICT in the instruction and larning procedure of the Mathematics topic.
Although, Hepp, Hinostroza, Laval and Rehbein ( 2004 ) have been really explicitly explained that there is no cosmopolitan truth for using ICT in instruction and that it all depends on every state ‘s world, precedences and long-run budgetary chances and committedness, it should be taken into consideration that ICT instruction was already identified as an of import pre-requisite for the economic development of Mauritius since The Master Plan on instruction was prepared in 1991. As at day of the month, ICT integrating in the instruction and acquisition of Mathematics has non been able to accomplish a 100 % success as compared to other states.