Constructionism claims that scholars are able to build cognition most of course and wholly while they are building some artefacts. This paper explains that cognition acquisition is a procedure of design that is facilitated when scholars are actively engaged in planing cognition instead than simply construing or encoding it i.e. Learners benefit the most from the larning procedure when they are the interior decorators of the instructional experiences. Constructivist instructors encourage pupils to measure how the activity is assisting them derive understanding. By oppugning themselves and their schemes, pupils become adept scholars as they learn how to larn. The pupils so have the tools necessary to go life-long scholars. Educational Technology can help pedagogues in making a constructivist larning environment. It offers a enormous sum of information, tools for creativeness and development, and assorted environments and forums for communicating. Through engineering, pupils can show themselves and their creative activities and they can reply inquiries that they are presenting for themselves. Hence, this paper tries to set forward the fact that Constructivist pattern is made easier with engineering because it promotes collaborative, synergistic and student-centered acquisition.
Cardinal words: Constructionism, instructional experiences, life-long scholars, collaborative, student-centered acquisition.
Education is at the meeting of powerful and quickly switching educational, technological and political forces that will determine the construction of educational systems across the Earth for the balance of this century. The handiness of engineering may take instructors to integrate constructivist patterns in their schoolroom. Rakes, et.al. ( 1999 ) found that the sum of engineering available, the degree of engineering accomplishments of the instructors, and the usage of engineering were straight related to utilize of constructivist methods in the schoolroom. They province, “ engineering can supply the vehicle for carry throughing constructivist instruction patterns ” . Technology complements constructivism by supplying on-going information and tools for pupil creativeness and development, which contributes significantly to an addition in pupil larning results. It serves as a powerful tool for constructivism ‘s cardinal rule that pupils learn by making. Constructivist pattern is made easier with engineering because it promotes collaborative, synergistic and student-centered acquisition. The usage of engineering in the schoolroom besides has a positive consequence on pupil attitudes because they feel more successful, are motivated to larn and hold better assurance ( Dwyer, et Al, 1991 ) . In today ‘s digital economic system, the ability to entree, adapt, and make cognition utilizing engineering is critical to a pupil ‘s success.
Significance OF CONSTRUCTIVIST VIEWS OF LEARNING:
Merely late has it become executable to see constructivism rules within the context of technology-mediated higher instruction ( Gunawardena, Lowe & A ; Anderson, 1997 ; Blanchette & A ; Kanuka, 1999 ) . This is due chiefly to progresss in communicating engineerings ensuing in an effectual agencies to implement constructivism rules, which would be hard to carry through with other media ( Driscoll, 1994 ) . Specifically, communicating engineerings have the capacity to supply an synergistic environment that can back up instructional methods required to ease constructivist rules. For these grounds, constructivism has become a popular epistemic place for many pedagogues who are utilizing technology-mediated acquisition. Unfortunately, pedagogues who take on the challenge of seeking to do sense of the literature on constructivism frequently find it to be an overpowering escapade. There are a assortment of epistemic places that coexist in the literature on how we construct knowledge – many utilizing the same constructivist label. Conversely, there are many different labels used to depict the same cardinal thoughts built-in in many constructivist places. Adding to the labeling confusion is another job: some of the instruction literature describes constructivism as a set of instructional schemes, some describe constructivism as a acquisition theory, and others describe constructivism philosophically – or as a manner we come to understand ourselves and our environment.
The undermentioned literature reappraisal identifies the Hagiographas on constructivism that are notable. Hagiographas were identified as notable when they made of import theoretical points about the usage of constructivism for technology-mediated acquisition.
Constructivism positions larning as a personal, brooding, and transformative procedure where thoughts,
experiences, and points of position are processed into something new. In this doctrine, instructors are the facilitators for the pupils ‘ acquisition ( Sandholtz et al. , 1997 ) instead than the provokers. In the knowledge-constructed schoolroom, the pupils work together, sharing the procedure of larning non merely with their equals but with parents and others ( Sandholtz et al. , 1997 ) .
The literature is rich with illustrations and grounds back uping the claim that cognition is constructed and non transferred. This attack to acquisition has become known as constructivism ( Jonassen, 1999 ; Riel & A ; Fulton ; Schank, Berman, & A ; Macpherson, 1999 ) . Learning takes topographic point in every schoolroom. The job is that it is frequently non what we expected would be learned ( Smith, 1998 ) . The constructivist larning environment contains a job that is cardinal to the sphere of survey, theoretical accounts of the acquisition procedure by an expert, and is scaffolded by a manager or more adept scholar that extends the ability of the scholar ( Jonassen, 1999 ) .
Balakrishnan ( 2001 ) investigated the usage of constructivism and engineering in project-based acquisition in simple schoolrooms and found that instructors ‘ planning and pattern of project-based acquisition activities are focused more on multiple instructional activities and less on integrating of constructivism and engineering. Julius ( 2001 ) investigated how constructivism was evidenced in the beliefs, perceptual experiences, and patterns of in-between degree instructors who were considered to be effectual instructors. The consequences revealed that constructivists held consciousness of the function of both pupil and instructor in impacting the cognitive development in pupils. Classrooms using a constructivist attack to pedagogy would be pupil centered ( Bransford, 2003 ) .
PRIORITIES OF EDUCATIONAL TECNOLOGY IN CONSTRUCTIVIST PRACTICE:
The four precedences are:
Thatch for Intellectual Development
1. Critical and originative thought accomplishments development
2. Demonstrated competences in nucleus course of study
3. Effective usage of engineering in the schoolroom in support of larning
4. Application of larning accomplishments to relevant, real-life state of affairss
Make Learning Meaningful
1. Appreciation of diverseness of larning manners and personalities
2. Appreciation and application of appropriate instruction manners
3. Giving pupils the chance to have their acquisition experiences
4. Developing a passion for life-long acquisition
Use Authentic Assessment
1. Set high criterions for ego and pupils
2. Developing a dynamic attack to a changing universe
3. Demonstrate competences through public presentation
4. Promote active engagement in our democratic society
Focus on Students Becoming Manufacturers and Subscribers
1. Lend to others in category in and community
2. Foster value as an person and as a conducive member of society
3. Use larning accomplishments in real-life state of affairss and for existent wagess
4. Interact/team with other instructors and community members.
ROLE PLAYED BY EDUCATIONAL TECNOLOGY IN CONSTRUCTIVIST CLASSROOM:
a-? Paradigm displacement in position of the learning procedure:
Paradigm displacement in position of the acquisition procedure coupled with applications of the new information engineerings, may play an of import function in conveying educational systems into alignment with the knowledge-based, information-rich society. The general impression sing the usage of computing machines in instruction is that it may best be used as a tool for drill and pattern plans supplementing the instructional procedure. In such instructional procedures, the scholar receives information already programmed inside the computing machine following an algorithm. Although some sum of interactivity is ensured, the general feeling is that in such instructional procedures, computing machines control the acquisition construction giving the scholar really small room for creativeness, doing him a inactive receiver of information. There is a demand to research the potencies of this device beyond these traditional impressions i.e. the meaningful designing of computing machine based instructional procedures with increased pupil engagement. Besides, it is non the drawn-out use on the device that would guarantee the coveted acquisition instead the nature of these larning undertakings, which would transform and enrich the instructional procedures. Computer application plans can be used to plan larning experiences to develop originative and critical thought and be used as ‘mind tools ‘ that can be used by pupils to stand for what they know and to prosecute in critical thought about the content.
a-? Use of ICT in altering the function of the instructor from ‘prescriptor ‘ to that of ‘orchestor ‘ of acquisition:
In schoolrooms today, the function of the instructor needs to alter from the traditional function of prescriptor to that of orchestrator of larning – which necessitates the designing of ICT integrated schoolrooms advancing higher order cognitive accomplishments. The focal point ought to be more on enquiry-based attacks frequently traveling beyond the prescribed course of study to dig and seek replies to the job under concern but now from different positions. This methodological analysis is disputing both for the instructor every bit good as for the scholar but finally the procedure of self-learning ensures a more strict attack and deeper apprehension of facts. The focal point is more on the procedure of information acquisition, the critical and analytical thought involved in geting information from multiple beginnings, analysing any information and so planing the acquisition results in aesthetic presentations. Such a theoretical account of larning focal points more on the procedure over the merchandise, geting information from multiple beginnings, analytical and critical thought and eventually a comprehensive rating measuring different countries of pupil academic growing.
a-? Development of educational portfolio through the usage of ICT:
An educational portfolio is one such typical invention that can advance constructivist acquisition in the otherwise traditional schoolroom. It is a combination of a figure of larning undertakings and a digest of the results achieved as a consequence of the procedures undergone therein. A critical constituent is the accent on ‘process ‘ over ‘product ‘ and the changeless contemplation of the scholar as he moves from one phase to another in the realisation of the aims. The other important characteristic is the acquisition of information from multiple beginnings and the necessary constituent of changeless informations analysis before continuing to the undermentioned phases in the development of the educational portfolio. Appraisal of larning results besides is a comprehensive one taking into history different countries of scholar academic growing as a consequence of the procedures being carried out from designation of ends to acquisition of relevant information and eventually its processing and airing.
a-? Promoting portfolio appraisal through ICT:
Portfolio appraisal is a comprehensive mode of pupil rating integrating a assortment of larning undertakings with appropriate and timely proviso of the necessary guidelines to finish the same within accorded standards and allotted clip bounds. Portfolio Assessment, with a focal point on growing and development over clip, implemented through choice, contemplation and review of category work, along with end puting and self-evaluation. These are public presentation enablers that define the acceptable criterions expected from the scholar and therefore specify the way that he needs to follow to accomplish excellence. What differentiates the educational portfolio from the traditional signifiers of appraisal is the designing of the portfolio around a set of criterions and larning ends which are non the direct results of the schoolroom instructional procedures, instead an enterprise to guarantee pupil higher order acquisition as a consequence of these instructional procedures.
Teacher-centered ; didactic
Learner-centered ; synergistic
Fact Teller ; expert
Confederate ; scholar
Listener ; ever the scholar
Confederate ; sometimes the expert
Facts ; memorisation
Relationships ; enquiry and innovation
Concept of Knowledge
Accretion of facts
Transformation of facts
Presentation of Success
Quality of understanding
Norm-referenced ; multiple-choice points
Criterion-referenced ; portfolios and public presentations
Drill and pattern
Communication, collabor- ation, information entree and retrieval, look
a-? Educational engineering advancing multiple positions of acquisition:
With the aid of educational engineering the accent is on cognition building, non reproduction ; the composing of information instead than the infliction of cognition ; multiple outlooks instead than multiple workbooks. The instructor must fix with inventive foresight, and imperative penetration in order to excite and imitate effectual brushs that resemble existent life instruction. Wyld, S. and Eklund, J. ( 1997 ) .A province that: “ facing scholars with jobs from multiple positions can advance the pertinence of their cognition across changing state of affairss. Learners have to work with the same construct in different environments at different and with different ends. So they are expected to develop cognitive flexibleness and to bring forth multiple positions of their cognition. ”
a-? Educational engineering making constructivist schoolroom through active acquisition: Learners can non build cognition merely by passively having, geting, or accepting it ; A nor by inertly listening nor heeding.A Knowledge is non formed during the transmittal of it.A Therefore the accent for direction must be on the creative activity of significance and understanding while meeting new information or new contexts.A Active scholars need to be involved bypartaking, take parting, building and cooperating.A Jonassen ( 1996 ) states that scholars must be given chances to be active in ways that will advance autonomy, creativeness and critical analysis of jobs necessitating a solution.A Wilson ( 1997 ) , created a list of chances for the scholars to develop more active buildings of meaning.A They included simulations, scheme and role-playing games, toolkits and phenomenaria, multimedia larning environments, knowing acquisition environments, storytelling constructions, instance surveies, Socratic duologues, training and scaffolding, larning by design, acquisition by learning, group cooperation, collaborative acquisition and holistic psychotechnologies.
a-? Educational engineering advancing collaborative acquisition chances:
Collaborative work allows for schoolrooms to be more concerted than competitive.A Students begin to see one another as resources instead than beginnings of ridicule.A The societal context within which a scholar resides is important to their accomplishment. Strommen & A ; Lincoln ( 1992 ) A found that: “ Constructivism has led to the extra find that powerful additions are made when kids work together… ..children are able to reflect on and luxuriant notA merely their ain thoughts but those of their equals as good. Children come to see their equals non as rivals but as resources. ” To understand a construct to the point of being able to explicate it to others, is when existent acquisition has occurred and personal cognition has been acquired.A Lunenberg ( 1998 ) believes the value of collaborative acquisition is in the chance for scholars to lucubrate on their ain thoughts every bit good as those of their peers.A Worldwide coaction is besides actuating for both pupils and instructors as it provides an appealing manner for pupils to derive internet accomplishments while go toing to regular schoolroom activities. The worldview of the pupil can be expanded because of the nothing cost of pass oning with other people around the Earth.
Educational Technology provide an array of powerful tools that may assist in transforming the present stray, teacher-centered and text-bound schoolrooms into rich, student-focused, synergistic cognition environments. To run into these challenges, schools must encompass the new engineerings and allow the new ICT tools for larning. They must besides travel towards the end of transforming the traditional paradigm of larning. To carry through this end requires both a alteration in the traditional position of the acquisition procedure and an apprehension of how the new digital engineerings can make new larning environments in which pupils are engaged scholars, able to take greater duty for their ain acquisition and building their ain cognition. Constructivism modifies the function of the instructor so that instructors help pupils to build cognition instead than reproduce a series of facts. The constructivist instructor provides tools such as problem-solving and inquiry-based acquisition activities so that pupils can explicate and prove their thoughts, draw decisions and illations, and convey their cognition in a collaborative acquisition environment.