This chapter consists of seven subdivisions. The first subdivision explains the background of the survey. The 2nd subdivision contains the job statement of this survey whereas the 3rd subdivision states the research aims ; which are the general and specific aims. The range of this survey is explained in the 4th subdivision while the research restrictions are explained in the 5th subdivision. Last, the significance of the survey is shown in the 6th subdivision and the decision is elaborated in the last subdivision.
1.2 Background of survey
Traditionally, university pupils have subscribed to the belief that academic is of import to larn. National instruction depends on academic accomplishment because it portrays the success and failure of instruction in a state. Harmonizing to Dambudzo ( 2009 ) , late, the society has focused and emphasised more on academic accomplishment of its citizen. From that we can infer the importance of academic excellence.
The grounds of success in a pupil is measured through his Accumulative Grade Point Average ( CGPA ) at the National Defense University of Malaysia ( NDUM ) therefore pupils compete one another for a higher GCPA. In a survey conducted by Oh ( 1999 ) , it was found that there is a relationship between religionism degree and academic accomplishment where high school pupils who had a high degree of religionism were more likely to hold a higher GPA than the nonreligious pupils.
Several surveies at high school degree examined the addition of educational accomplishment to individual ‘s religionism ( Regnerus, 2000 ) . Therefore, religionism is of import and every pupil must hold it. NDUM is a military university but it non an alibi for the pupils in non keeping their religionism because through the
research by Schumbel et Al. ( 2009 ) , religionism has been identified as an “ of import construct to see in pupils ‘ academic development ” .
Islam positions instruction as a spiritual responsibility and an obligatory for every homo who are Muslim. In Islam, the prophesier Muhammad went through the procedure of acquisition, throughout Quran, Allah says “ Read! In the Name of your Lord, who has created ( all that exists ) . Has created adult male from a coagulum. Read! And your Lord is the most generous, Who has taught ( the authorship ) by the pen, Has taught adult male that which he know non ” ( Quran, 96, 1-5 ) . As Moslem pupils in NDUM, they must cognize their duties in instruction and strive hard to acquire high CGPA.
1.3 Problem of statement
NDUM is an Institution of Higher Education ( IPTA ) , once known as the Malaysian Armed Forces Academy ( ATMA ) . NDUM is categorised as a dress shop university because NDUM acts as an administration that is responsible for carry oning programmes of survey at undergraduate degree and military preparations. Therefore, there are topics affecting the military such as military jurisprudence, military history, defence economic sciences, and defence engineering.
Harmonizing to the general conditions and particular conditions to come in NDUM by the Academic Management of NDUM, the making to acquire into NDUM is tough and merely those who are first-class in SPM deserve to foster their surveies in NDUM. However, based on random informations of CGPA from officer plebe Tuah ‘s Battalion, there are 17 officer plebe still got CGPA below than & lt ; 2.5. The cardinal job of NDUM officer plebe pupils is why they can non execute during their surveies in NDUM.
The past decennary has seen a considerable sum of argument on the effects of faith in the private sector and instruction. But, the larger argument is more focussed on the effects of private spiritual schools on the academic accomplishment of kids ( Chubb & A ; Moe, 1990 ) . Some of societal scientists believe faith as a factor to assist kids get the better of many of these challenges so that they excel both academically and socially ( Jeynes, 1999 ) . Then, several surveies have estimated that pupils who are without religionism are easier to affect with hazardous behavior and it can impact their academic accomplishment ( Adams, n.d. ) , so the degree of persons ‘ religionism among the pupils in NDUM is the job of the survey.
Previous surveies by Elias, Awang, and Mohamed ( 2005 ) have shown that religionism is non correlated to academic accomplishment. So, it is good that the relationship between religionism and academic accomplishment is reviewed. Furthermore, the survey of single Muslim religionism is rare in research and it contributes as a job for this research.
1.4 Objective of survey
The aims of this survey are:
To analyze the degree of plebes ‘ single religionism towards academic accomplishment.
To analyze the relationship between intrinsic religionism and academic accomplishment.
To find the relationship between extrinsic religionism and academic accomplishment.
1.5 Scope of survey
There are many researches that investigated the relationship between religionism and academic accomplishment. So far, most of the researches are on the Christian position and other faiths but non Islam. This paper will reexamine on NDUM Muslim plebes pupil in twelvemonth one, two, and three of Defense Human Resource Management Faculty. This survey besides will detect the causes that can impact academic accomplishment. It is hoped that the result of this survey can better Muslim plebes academic accomplishment. NDUM besides can take an action to advance and heighten faith importance to pupils ‘ lives and academic accomplishment.
1.6 Research restriction
One restriction is the focal point of this survey is limited to the single religionism in NDUM pupils towards academic accomplishment. This survey will non demo the other faiths ‘ effects on academic accomplishment of pupils in NDUM. This paper besides did non assist overall faith of pupil at NDUM towards their academic accomplishment because it merely limited to NDUM Muslim plebes pupil in twelvemonth one, two, and three of Defense Human Resource Management Faculty. The chief restriction to this survey is that there are limited resources on Muslim faith towards academic accomplishment.
1.7 Significance of survey
This survey is of import to place the single religionism between the variables of the intrinsic and extrinsic toward academic accomplishment in NDUM. On the consequence will be cod can shown the effects of religionism to better the academic accomplishment among Moslem pupils in NDUM. In add-on, this survey can give academic direction of NDUM chance to better pupils ‘ public presentation in surveies. Therefore, this survey can be literature reappraisal for other people to acquire cognize about Muslim pupils towards academic public presentation.
It is of import to place the intrinsic and extrinsic single religionism towards academic accomplishments of pupils in this survey. The consequences will be able to demo the effects of holding religionism and it is predicted that religionism plays an of import function of bettering pupils ‘ accomplishment. It is hoped that this survey will add to the bing literature and the universe will acquire to cognize how faith ( Islam ) plays an of import function in the academe.
In this chapter, the research worker has spelled out the background of survey and explained that the coming chapters will discourse the effects of single religionism towards academic accomplishment. In general, this chapter besides explains the background of survey and its restrictions.
This chapter has seven chief subdivisions. The first subdivision will specify the conceptual footings of single religionism. The 2nd subdivision will discourse about intrinsic spiritual and 3rd subdivision discusses extrinsic spiritual. Fourth subdivision is academic accomplishment ( CGPA ) . The fifth, 6th and 7th subdivisions will be discoursing the related old surveies, theories or constructs that support the relationship. The last subdivision is the decision to this chapter.
2.2. Conceptual Definitions of Footings
This subdivision describes the conceptual definition of footings.
Religiosity is known as a complex construct and is hard to specify. Harmonizing to Holdcroft ( 2006 ) religionism is an uncertainness and a complex issue because the nature of the English linguistic communication itself. For illustration, in Roget ‘s Thesaurus ( Kirkpatric, 1999 ) , religionism is found to be synonymous with such footings as devoutness, orthodoxy, religion, belief, piety, devotedness, and sanctity. These synonyms reflect dimensions of religionism instead than the footings of religionism itself.
Psychologists might discussed religionism in footings of devotedness, sanctity, and piety, and sociologists described the construct of religionism in footings of church rank and church attending ( Cardwell, 1980 ) . The different usage of footings across academic subjects to place what could be thought of as similar dimensions of religionism makes it hard to discourse without an expressed definition from the point of view of spiritual instruction and the application of that cognition to the lived experience.
Another ground for the complexity of religionism is every nearing religionism are from different vantage points, and few confer withing one another ( Cardwell, 1980 ) . In add-on, religionism is a complex construct in human phenomenon, and seems to cover overall portion in our life such as behaviors, attitudes, beliefs, feelings and experiences. The different footings in religionism make it difficult to sort the dimensions of religionism because every psychologists or research worker have their ain sentiment.
Allport and Ross are the 1s who developed the intrinsic-extrinsic Religious Orientation Scale ( ROS ) based on Allport ‘s theoretical efforts. Based on old surveies by Allport & A ; Ross ( 1967 ) , it was distinguished those who viewed their pattern of faith as a end in itself ( intrinsic orientation ) from those who viewed it instrumentally ( extrinsic orientation ) . On doctrine surveies, Zimmerman ( 2010 ) claimed that the intrinsic is the value of something which is said to be the value that that thing has “ in itself, ” or “ for its ain interest, ” or “ as such, ” or “ in its ain right. ”
In add-on, Allport & A ; Ross ( 1967 ) assumed that to be a high intrinsic individual is to be a true truster in spiritual pattern for its ain interest. Then Holdcroft ( 2006 ) summarised Allport and Ross survey where he posited that a individual with intrinsic religionism is one who internalised the entire credo of his or her religion and moves beyond mere church attending. Therefore, Allport and Ross ( 1967 ) besides mentioned that intrinsic religionism refers to motivation originating from end set Forth by the spiritual tradition itself. Numerous surveies have shown that intrinsic spiritual is about human concern and how they pattern their faith for themselves.
Extrinsic religious is besides developed by Allport & A ; Ross ( 1967 ) . In their research, they interpreted extrinsic religionism as a self-seeking and useful mentality on faith that provides the trusters with comfort in redemption. Therefore, they besides claimed that the persons who are disposed to utilize faith for their ain terminals, such as position, sociableness, and excuse, and frequently selectively determine a credo to suit their ain terminals.
Based the reviewed by Powell & A ; Clarke ( n.d. ) on Allport and Ross extrinsic religionism, religionism was conceived as a devoutness that is instrumental in nature, with faith used as a means to obtain an mixture of ego functioning terminals, such as personal comfort and societal wagess of both the terrestrial and heavenly assortment. Furthermore, people who were found to consist a significant proportion of the spiritual population, use faith for its intra-psychic benefits, such as increased self-pride ( Tajfel & A ; Turner, 1986 ) . Other research worker such as ( Kirkpatrick, 1989 ) besides mentioned that extrinsic religionism is a flow from the societal indorsement of one ‘s values and social-cultural worldview.
2.2.2 Academic Achievement
Academic accomplishment can be defined as self-perception and self-evaluation of one ‘s nonsubjective academic success ( Klobal & A ; Musek, 2001 ) . Harmonizing to the academic regulation book ( Bachelor Session of 2010/2011 ) , for the pupils who are analyzing at undergraduate degree at NDUM, they are subjected to the academic regulations of this university. Furthermore, academic accomplishment can be classified into two types measuring, grade point norm ( GPA ) and cumulative great point norm ( CGPA ) . Academic standing of pupils will be determined at the terminal of each regular semester with CGPA as shown in Table 1.
Table 1 Academic Standing
Condition of CGPA
Good Standing ( GS )
CGPA = 2.00
Conditional Standing ( CS )
1.70 = CGPA & lt ; 2.00
Failed Position ( FS ) ( Retired )
CGPA & lt ; 1.70
2.3 Related Theory or Concept
2.3.1 Religiosity Measurement on Intrinsic and Extrinsic Dimensions
In recent old ages, there has been an increasing sum of literature on religionism. There is a big volume of published surveies depicting the function of intrinsic and extrinsic religionism. However, Allport and Ross ( 1967 ) are the developer of the intrinsic-extrinsic Religious Orientation Scale ( ROS ) . Based on ROS, there are 11-items on the extrinsic graduated table to mensurate the extent to which persons use their faith for their ain terminals and a 9-item intrinsic graduated table to mensurate the extent to which persons live their faith.
2.3.2 Religiosity Measurement on Intellectual Dimensions
The rational dimension of religionism is about religion and religion cognition. Glock and Stark ( 1965 ) stated that the five dimensions are related to rational dimensions. The dimensions are experiential, ritualistic, ideological, rational and eventful. These dimensions focus on personal religion, experience of ritualistic activity with community and a individual ‘s cognition toward faith. To proof their theory, Glock and Stark ( 1965 ) suggested to set the overall history of the faith in their literacy constituent of their trial.
2.4 Research hypothesis
This research has two of import hypotheses which are:
H1: Intrinsic religionism is positively related to academic accomplishment ( CGPA ) .
H2: Extrinsic religionism is negatively related to academic accomplishment ( CGPA ) .
2.5 Conceptual Model
From this conceptual model, the independent variable is single religionism whereas the dependant variable is academic accomplishment. Intrinsic and extrinsic religionism are straight formed single religionism.
Independent Variable ( IV ) Dependent Variable ( DV )
Figure 1: Conceptual Model
2.6 Literature reappraisal
2.6.1 Related Previous Study
18.104.22.168 Scholastic Incentives and Educational Perceived Value ; the Role of Religion in Muslim Students ‘ Achievement Strivings by Ibrahim ( 2012 )
This survey was conducted by Ibrahim, ( 2012 ) . It aimed to measure the perceptual experience factor and the function of faith in the Muslim pupils ‘ accomplishment nisuss at the matriculation pupils of the International Islamic University Malaysia. All respondents in this survey are from the 2nd twelvemonth where471 pupils were indiscriminately selected from the matriculation section at the International Islamic University. The method that was used in this survey is Rasch Analysis, which is to place whether religionism is the factor which controls respondents ‘ engagement in Academic exercises where it is followed by instrumentality ( long-run benefit ) or the public-service corporation factor ( short-run benefit ) . Consequences of this survey showed that faith as one of the factor of major inducement of Muslim pupils towards academic exercisings, followed by long-run benefit.
22.214.171.124 Examining Religiosity and Its Relationship to Self-Control, Procrastination and Academic Achievement by Elias et Al. ( 2005 )
This research examined the relationship between Islamic religionism degree and ego control, cunctation, academic control and academic accomplishment by Elias et Al. ( 2005 ) . The survey was conducted in North University of Malaysia ; the respondents are 23 male and 122 female undergraduate pupils from research method category. The research worker examined the construct of will or ‘will-power ‘ from the Islamic position and compared it to the Western position. They use Muslim musabarah graduated table to mensurate an person ‘s degree of will harmonizing to Islamic position. The consequence is there are no important correlativities in both measuring of cunctation and between religionism and academic accomplishment but correlated to self-denial and sensed academic control.
126.96.36.199 The Impact of Religiosity and Locus of Control on Academic Achievement in College Students by Adams ( n.d. )
In the research by ( Adams, n.d. ) the relationship between religionism and venue of control on academic accomplishment in college pupils was examined. The respondents of this survey are 68 college pupils. The method that was used in this research is religiosity graduated table, venue of control graduated table, an academic accomplishment graduated table, and spiritual attitude graduated table. The concluding consequence found no relationship between venue of control and religionism utilizing the Rotter and Strayhorn graduated tables.
188.8.131.52 The impact of faith on the educational accomplishment of Black male childs: A UK and USA survey by Byfield ( 2008 )
Recently, Black boys in the United Kingdom and the USA have job with instruction. However, many Black male childs still can accomplish and get the better of the job. Therefore, Byfield ( 2008 ) did a research about the educationally successful Black males in the United Kingdom and the USA which involved 40 Black male pupils from both new and ancient universities. The intent of this survey is to bespeak whether faith is a conducive factor to the educational success of Black male pupils. The survey found that most of these pupils are spiritual and the church community plays a function to implement cultural and societal capital and their belief in God, it became important parts to these Black male pupils academic accomplishment.
This chapter has discussed the definitions of single religionism, intrinsic spiritual, extrinsic spiritual and academic accomplishment ( CGPA ) . Besides that, the old survey and related theory have been used to back up the direct relationship of single religionism and academic accomplishment ( CGPA ) . The undermentioned chapter will discourse the methodological analysis of the survey.
This chapter is divided into six subdivisions. The first subdivision will discourse the debut while 2nd subdivision will discourse the research design in this survey. Data aggregation techniques will be discussed in the 3rd subdivision. The 4th subdivision will be on research location, population and trying while the 5th subdivision will be on the information analysis technique. The last subdivision is the decision of this chapter.
3.2 Research Design
This survey will utilize quantitative method. Quantitative method is the survey of utilizing informations in the signifier of Numberss. Form questionnaire will be distributed to the respondents and the replies will be received by the research worker and analyse through a quantitative analysis. The measurement tool that will be used is the statistical package that is the Statistical Package for Social Sciences ( SPSS ) . Five-point Likert graduated table will be used to analyze the relationship between single religionism and academic accomplishment.
3.3 Data Collection Method
The questionnaires will be distributed to the pupils by giving the signifiers to category representatives and they will assist administer and roll up the questionnaires during the larning procedure in the schoolroom. The pupils are asked to take some clip to make full out the questionnaire and reply the inquiries, and so return the completed questionnaires to their category representatives. Consequently, the research worker will reach the representatives to roll up the studies and so informations from the questionnaire will be analysed.
3.4 Research Sampling
The research samples are NDUM Muslim plebes in twelvemonth one, two, and three Human Resource Management Faculty of Defense. The entire figure of cadet pupil is 182 pupils. Table 2 shows the figure of pupils in conformity with their several twelvemonth.
This survey will utilize graded simple random sampling because NDUM Muslim plebes in twelvemonth one, two, and three of Defense Human Resource Management Faculty. Harmonizing to Uma & A ; Roger ( 2011 ) , stratified random sampling is to gauge the population parametric quantities of a group or subgroup.
Table 2: The figure of cadet pupils harmonizing to their twelvemonth
The instrument to be used in this survey is a questionnaire. The instrument consists of Section A, Section B and Section C. Section A contains four inquiries in the signifier of personal and demographic features. These include age, gender, old ages of surveies, and last semester grade point norm ( CGPA ) . Section B contains 23 points refering the degree of single religionism in intrinsic and extrinsic factors utilizing Allport & A ; Ross ( 1967 ) measuring. In add-on, Section C consists of 5 points in the questionnaire related to academic accomplishment by Martha ( 2009 ) . The questionnaire will utilize Likert Scale which has 5 points from ‘Strongly Disagree to Strongly Agree ‘ .
1 2 3 4 5
Strongly disagree Disagree Neutral Agree Strongly agree
3.6 Data Analysis Method
Data analysis method is the procedure where when all informations collected, it will analyze informations in phases by utilizing quantitative methods analysis. These methods are chosen to summarize the consequences of the questionnaire. Datas from the analysis of paperss and questionnaires will be analysed utilizing Statistical Package for the Social Sciences ( SPSS version 19.0 ) .
Overall, this chapter discusses the research design, informations aggregation method, research sampling, and research instrument and informations analysis method. The description of the research is based on the analysis of each point every bit good as all facets of the survey. All the consequences from the analysis of informations processed and analysed utilizing SPSS will be explained in item in Chapter 4.