Detailed Proposal Of Project Engineering Essay

The end of this research is to plan and analysis of 3-phase brushless lasting magnet ( PM ) motor. Brushless PM motors become an involvement as it widely used in robotics, automotive, machine tools, high-performance industry applications and assortment of industrial application. The chief grounds why brushless PM machines are so widely used due to their high efficiency and torsion denseness which are higher to that of initiation, switched reluctance and synchronal reluctance machines. The undertaking will affect two chief stages: the designing of the machine utilizing Finite Element Analysis and the analysis of the simulation consequence. Simulation survey can greatly ease to planing the machine while maintaining the desired hardware facet in head. The intentional machine should be capable to run into public presentation specification such as high-octane denseness, high efficiency and low cogging torsion. Torque denseness and back EMF are two of the most important parametric quantity to be determined in brushless machine design, alterations in weaving agreement, slot and pole figure will potentially impact the back EMF, and torsion derived for the brushless PM motor. To run into the demand, some issue need to be see such as choice of pole figure, weaving agreement, rotor topology, motor form, lasting magnet stuff and machines size.

C ( three )

Detailed proposal of undertaking:

( a ) Problem statement *motivation

The design of brushless PM motors is non a simple undertaking. By and large, cognition of magnetisms, electronics, mechanics, thermodynamics and material scientific discipline is required. Therefore, the electrical and mechanical relationships are of import and should be taken into history in planing the brushless PM motor. Torque denseness and back EMF are two of the most important parametric quantity to be determined in brushless machine design. Changes in weaving agreement, slot and pole figure will potentially impact the cardinal relationships such magnetomotive force ( MMF ) , back EMF, and torsion derived for the brushless PM motor. For these grounds, it is of import to plan a machine with less parasitic torsion, to guarantee it will bring forth smooth mechanical rotary motion.

( B ) Objective ( s ) of the Undertaking

Design and analysis of 3-phase brushless lasting magnet motor are the purposes of the research. The machine should be capable to run into public presentation specification such as high-octane denseness, high efficiency, low cogging torsion and flux-weakening capablenesss. To accomplish these purposes, the aims of this research are formulated as follows:

To measure a 3-phase brushless PM motor with attendant pole and inset-mounted lasting magnet rotor.

To look into the parasitic consequence presence in the machine.

To execute the simulation survey for the design utilizing Finite Element Analysis.

( degree Celsius ) Project Scope

This research covers the analysis, design and development of rotational 3-phase brushless lasting magnet ( PM ) motors. Brushless PM motors can be divided into the PM synchronal AC motor ( PMSM ) and PM brushless DC motor ( PM BDCM ) , depending on the back EMF wave form. The stuffs recited in this research undertaking accent on brushless PM synchronal motor with sinusoidal back EMF and are driven by sinusoidal currents. Radial-flux laminated motors are considered since this constitute are the most common form of brushless PM motors. This undertaking is focuses more on electromagnetic and mechanical design alternatively of thermic facets. Rotor topology in this research undertaking was confined to two types, which is inset lasting magnet and attendant pole rotor. 2-D Finite Element Analysis will be used to make a genuinely customized mold of motor construction and to look into the behavior of the designed motor.

( vitamin D ) Literature Review

Presently, the brushless PM motors offer an attractive solution in the assortment of application due to their high efficiency and power denseness. All brushless PM motors are constructed with electrical twists on the stator and lasting magnets on the rotor [ 1 ] . Since merely the stator holding spiral, this motor has solved the job on the motor with brunch. Lack of coppice and commutator in these motor lead to no mechanical contact, therefore, can cut down clash, increases dependability, and decreases the cost of care.

Brushless PM motors can be divided into two categories, which is AC or DC, depending on the back EMF wave form. PM synchronal AC motor ( PMSM ) are type of AC motor since it have a sinusoidal back EMF and are driven by sinusoidal currents. PM brushless DC motor ( PM BDCM ) with trapezoidal-induced voltage and driven by rectangular pulsation currents are categorized as DC machine. Stator twists and how the figure of bends and their agreement in the stator laminations greatly influence the cardinal relationships such as magnetomotive force ( mmf ) , back EMF, and torsion for both category of machines [ 1 ] , [ 2 ] .

Brushless PM motor is like an initiation motor and all other motor that comprise of two chief portion. The non-moving portion that includes the spirals of wire is called stator and the moving or revolving portion that caries the lasting magnet is called rotor. In between rotor and stator there is an air-gap that separates the two parts. Normally, the rotor is placed inside the stator. This building is safer because the stator outside can move as a shield to the revolving portion. However, it is besides possible for the rotor to execute on the exterior of the stator. This type frequently called as exterior rotor or inside-out rotor. It proves to hold higher efficient than interior rotors [ 2 ] .

Brushless PM motor can be constructed in two basic form ; radial-flux or axial-flux type. In radial-flux type, the stator twists and lasting magnets are structured radially. Therefore, the magnetic field is distributed in radial way between the stator and rotor. This type of motor is the most common form of motor and more favorable due to minimisation of electric burden caused by the presence of stator slots. For radial-flux motor, the magnetic field are going in axial way across the air-gap inside the motor. This motor resembles a battercake form. Small size and rugged building characteristics make this type of motor preferred for in many applications. In these motor, the figure of Cu used are limited caused stator twists tend to be air-gap twists. Consequently, sum of lading possibility can be confined [ 8 ] .

There are many ways to put lasting magnets on the rotor [ 2 ] . Largely, there are three basic topologies of brushless PM machine. Surface-mounted lasting magnet ( SPM ) rotor has magnets mounted on the rotor surface and confronting the air spread, while interior lasting magnet ( IPM ) rotor has buried magnets inside the rotor. SPM rotors offer higher air-gap flux denseness because the magnet straight faces the air-gap. Magnetization way for this constellation is merely in radial. Disadvantages of SPM rotor constellation are lower hardiness as they are non closely fitted into the rotor laminations to their full thickness. Therefore, SPM rotors are non preferred for high-speed applications. IPM rotor is ideal for high velocity application because of the building is designed to be automatically robust. There is another type of rotor topologies referred as surface-inset rotor which is combine some advantages of both surface mounted and interior lasting magnet motors [ 7 ] . This agreement is more automatically robust compared to SPM rotor as the magnets do non prominent out of the rotor laminations giving it mechanical strength from winging out [ 2 ] .

Weaving agreement is one of the of import constituents to be considered in planing a brushless machine. Its agreement will find the motor back EMF whether it is sinusoidal or trapezoidal back EMF. Weaving agreements which are most normally used for 3-phase radial-flux brushless PM motor can be classified as overlapping and non-overlapping [ 3 ] . Distributed and concentrated is type of overlapping twist and frequently utilised for ac operation due to sinusoidal back EMF produced. Concentrated weaving with either all dentitions or jump dentitions wound is a type of non-overlapping twist that aim to obtain trapezoidal back EMF wave form. The right twist for a machine is really much a map of the pole figure and slot figure and whether there is single-layer or double-layer twist [ 3 ] .

The type of magnet used will hold a great consequence on the motor public presentation and cost [ 3 ] . There are four categories of modern magnetic stuffs, each based on their material composing. Within each category is a group of classs with their ain magnetic belongingss. These general categories are ; Neodymium Iron Boron, Sm Co, ceramic and Alnico. Amongst the available PM stuffs, Alnico magnets can hold flux densenesss equivalent to soft magnetic chainss but they get easy demagnetized due to lower values of coercive force as compared to ceramic magnets [ 5 ] . Ceramic magnets are economical but their maximal energy denseness merchandise is low due to lower values of memory. Rare Earth and Sm Co metals have comparatively good magnetic belongingss, but they are expensive. Other than polymer bonded rare Earth magnets, for illustration, ferrite and Co based metallic magnets are physically difficult and brickle. Therefore, choice of the peculiar PM stuff is application particular ; nevertheless, Neodymium-Iron-Boron ( Nd-Fe-B ) rare earth magnets are more in demand because they provide the highest energy denseness and higher residuary flux denseness than others.

( vitamin E ) Methodology

Phase 1: Literature Reappraisal

Researching through books, articles, diaries and cyberspace beginnings to reexamine the design issues and technique for brushless PM motors. Find out what the available engineering in the market, and what the best attack to run into design demand.

Phase 2: Design of Undertaking

Modelling, and therefore simulation survey can greatly ease to planing the machine while maintaining the desired hardware facet in head.

2-D Finite Element Analysis is used for the designing.

Typical design measure for brushless PM motor is:

Reappraisal demands

Choose the lasting magnet stuff for the rotor.

Choose the soft Fe for the stator lamination.

Match the mechanical parametric quantities as input to the plan ( size, volume, weight ) .

Choose the figure of rotor poles and stator slots

Using the package, fit the torsion and velocity demands with the electrical inputs and alter the internal motor geometry as required.

Choose the twist constellation and optimize bends, wire size, and stator twist slot fill.

Check the package outputs for cogency.

Run other solutions changing certain parametric quantities for optimisation such as attention deficit disorder and take a twist bend, change air spread between rotor and stator, alteration magnet thickness and look into the package solutions until meet the demands and choose the best lucifer.

This stage is of import to look into whether the motor can work every bit desired before implementing it on hardware.

Phase 3: Analysis of the Design

The end products of the simulation being observe and analyze. The simulation is to see whether the end product produced is same with coveted end product in term of velocity and torsion.

Phase 4: Preparation for presentation and study authorship

Preparation for the presentation for Seminar 2 and composing the study ‘s bill of exchange.

Passing in of the completed thesis after presentation.

( degree Fahrenheit ) Milestones

Undertaking undertaking

Expected Date

Literature Review

Motor design and simulation

Simulation proving

Analysis and treatment

Report composing

( g ) Mentions

[ 1 ] D. C. Hanselman, Brushless Permanent Magnet Motor Design. Lebanon, OH: Magna Physics, 2006.

[ 2 ] R. Krishnan, Permanent Magnet Synchronous and Brushless DC Motor Drives. Boca Raton, FL: CRC, 2010.

[ 3 ] D. G. Dorrell, M.-F. Hsieh, M. Popescu, L. Evans, D. A. Staton and V. GroutA “ A reappraisal of the design issues and techniques for radial-flux brushless surface and internal rare-earth lasting magnet motors ” , A IEEE Trans. Ind. Electron. , A 2011.

[ 4 ] M. S. Ahmad, N. A. A. Manap, and D. Ishak, “ Permanent magnet brushless machines with minimal difference in slot figure and pole figure, ” in Proc. IEEE Int. PECon, Johor Baharu, Malaysia, Dec. 1-3, 2008, pp. 1064-1069.

[ 5 ] F. Magnussen and H. Lendenmann, “ Parasitic effects in PM machines with concentrated twists, ” IEEE Trans. Ind. Appl. , vol. 43, no. 5, pp. 1223-1232, Sep./Oct. 2007.

[ 6 ] A. M. EL-Refaie, “ Fractional-slot concentrated-windings synchronal lasting magnet machines: Opportunities and challenges, ” IEEE Trans. Ind. Electron. , vol. 57, no. 1, pp. 107-121, Jan. 2010.

[ 7 ] S. Van Haute, G. Terorde, K. Hameyer and R. Belmans. Modelling and execution of a lasting magnet Synchronous motor thrust utilizing a DSP development environment. Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, Belgium.

[ 8 ] K. Sitapati and R. Krishnan, “ Performance comparings of radial and axial field permanent-magnet, brushless machines, ” IEEE Trans. Industry Appl, vol. 37, no. 5, pp. 1219-1225, Sept./Oct. 2001.

[ 9 ] A.M. EL-Refaie and T.M. Jahns, “ Optimal flux weakening in surface PM machines utilizing fractional-slot concentrated twists, ” IEEE Trans. Ind. Appl. , vol. 41, no. 3, pp. 790-800, May/Jun. 2005.

[ 10 ] N. Bianchi, S. Bolognani, and G. Grezzani, “ Design considerations for fractional-slot weaving constellations of synchronal machines, ” IEEE Trans. Ind. Appl. , vol. 42, no. 4, pp. 997-1006, Jul./Aug. 2006.

[ 11 ] D. Ishak, Z. Q. Zhu, and D. Howe, “ Comparison of PM brushless motors, holding either all dentitions or jump dentitions lesion, ” IEEE Trans. Energy Convers. , vol. 21, no. 1, pp. 95-103, Mar. 2006.

[ 12 ] D. Ishak, Z. Q. Zhu, and D. Howe, “ Permanent magnet brushless machines with unequal tooth breadths and similar slot and pole Numberss, ” IEEE Trans. Ind. Appl. , vol. 41, no. 2, pp. 584-590, Mar./Apr. 2005.

[ 13 ] O Ronghai, M Aydin and T A Lipo. ‘Performance Comparison of Dualrotor Radial-flux and Axial-flux Permanent-magnet BLDC Machines ‘ . Proceedings of IEEE IEMDC’03, 2003, pp 1948-1954.

[ 14 ] S Hwang, J Eom, Y Jung, Dee and B Kang. ‘Various Design Techniques to Reduce Cogging Torque by Controlling Energy Variation in Permanent Magnet Motors ‘ . Minutess on Magnetisms, vol 37, no 4, July 2001, pp 2806-2809.

Calciferol

ACCESS TO EQUIPMENT AND MATERIAL / KEMUDAHAN SEDIA ADA UNTUK KEGUNAAN BAGI PROJEK INI

Equipment

Peralatan

Location

Tempat

Tocopherol

BUDGET /BELANJAWAN

Please bespeak your estimated budget for this undertaking

Sila nyatakan anggaran bajet bagi cadangan projek ini

Budget inside informations

Butiran belanjawan

Amount requested by applier

Jumlah yang dipohon

oleh pemohon

Remark by panel

FYP 1

PSM 1

( RM )

FYP 2

PSM 2

( RM )

E ( I )

Project Materials & A ; Supplies

Bekalan dan Bahan Projek

E ( two )

Care and Minor Repair Services

Baik pulih kecil dan ubahsuai

E ( three )

Professional Servicess

Perkhidmatan Ikhtisas

E ( six )

Accessories and

Equipment

Aksesori dan Peralatan

Sum Sum

JUMLAH BESAR

F

Declaration by campaigner / Akuan Calon

( Please tick ( a?s ) ) : / ( Sila tanda ( a?s ) ) :

I hereby confess that:

Saya dengan ini mengaku bahawa:

All information stated here are accurate, Supervisor and panel has right to reject or to call off this proposal without anterior notice if there is any inaccurate information given.

Semua maklumat yang diisi adalah benar, Penyelia dan panel berhak menolak permohonan atau membatalkan tawaran cadangan ini pada bila-bila Masa sekiranya keterangan yang dikemukakan adalah tidak benar.

Application of this Undertaking Proposal is presented for a FYP 1 seminar.

Permohonan cadangan projek projek ini dikemukakan untuk Seminar PSM 1.

Date: Candidate ‘s Signature:

Tarikh: Tandatangan Calon: ___________________________

Gram

Recommended by FYP Supervisor

Perakuan Penyelia PSM

Please tick ( a?s )

Sila tandakan ( a?s )

Recommended:

Diperakukan:

A. Highly Recommended

Sangat Disokong

B. Recommended

Disokong

C. Not Recommended ( Please stipulate ground )

Tidak Disokong ( Sila Nyatakan Sebab )

Remarks:

Ulasan:

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Name: Signature:

Nama: Tandatangan:

Date:

Tarikh:

Appendix A: Flow Chart of Project Activities

Start

Literature Review and stipulate demand

Simulation survey and Motor design

NO

Simulation Testing

Yes

Analysis and Report Writing

End

Appendix B: Undertaking Schedule of Project Activities ( Gantt chart )

Undertaking undertaking

Concluding Year Undertaking 1

Concluding Year Undertaking 2

Sept

Oct

Nov

Dec

Jan

Feb

Mar

Apr

Japanese apricot

Jun

Literature Review and theory apprehension

Motor design and simulation

Simulation proving

Analysis and treatment

Report composing

Appendix C: TURNITIN Report must be attached