Early Intervention Of Massage Health And Social Care Essay

Massage is described as the systametic and scientific use of the soft tissue of the organic structure for the intent of obtaining and keeping wellness harmonizing to massage therapy: rules and pattern by Susan G. Salvo ( 2007 ) . Massage has been shown to cut down emphasis, enhance blood circulation, lessening hurting, promote slumber, cut down swelling, enhance relaxation and increase O capacity of the blood, ( Salvo, 2007 ) .

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“ Because massage therapy is a inactive intervention that requires little, if any, physical demands on the single having the therapy and because it has shown to develope musculus tone for other kids ( Field,1998 ) massage therapy might heighten physical development for kids with Down Syndrome, ” ( Hernandez-Reif, et Al ; 2004 ) .

Massage has risen in popularity over the old ages particularly for those looking for alternate and complementary therapies to supplement their medical interventions and make a positive impact on their wellness. Massage has shown good to many people ( Salvo, 2007 ) .

Down Syndrome is a familial status and it can consequence one in every eight hundred to one 1000 babes per twelvemonth in the united provinces, while there are two babes born every twenty-four hours in the UK with Down Syndrome, ( Fiona Marshall, 2004 ) . Down syndrome is present in a kid when they are formed with three instead than two transcripts of chromosome 21, this gives the kid 47 alternatively of 46 chromosomes ( Marshall, 2004 ) . The symptoms vary from individual to individual and can run from mild to severe, but they can be easy recognised because of the visual aspect. “ The caput may be smaller than normal and abnormally shaped. For illustration, the caput may be round with a level country on the dorsum. The interior corner of the eyes may be rounded alternatively of pointed, ” ( Neil K. Kaneshiro, 2010 ) . People with Down Syndrome can endure from typical physical characteristics such as:

Reduced musculus tone

A little olfactory organ and level seventh cranial nerve characteristics

A little oral cavity and a big looking lingua

Broad hands with a individual fold across the thenar

Shorter than usual in tallness

( Marshall, 2004 ) .

Down syndrome is a familial upset impacting 1000000s of people worldwide ( National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, 1997 ) its cognitive defects characterise the status ( Nichols et al. , 2003 ; Seung & A ; Chapman, 2004 ) including motor and perceptual developmental jobs ( John et all. , 2004 ; Kearny & A ; Gentile, 2003 ) .

There is no specific intervention for Down Syndrome as it is a familial upset, nevertheless, due to this there is a opportunity the sick person may necessitate surgery for GI obstructions and certain bosom defects, ( Neil K. Kaneshiro, 2010 ) . Since there is no intervention for Down Syndrome much can be done to better quality of life and minimise development holds, ( Marshall, 2004 ) . Fiona Marshall ( 2004 ) , sites from Patricia Winders ‘ book, Gross Motor accomplishments in kids with Down Syndrome: A usher for parents and professionals ( 1997 ) , that the motor development can be affected by four factors: deficiency of musculus control, shirker ligaments taking increased flexibleness of the articulations, less musculus strength and short weaponries and legs. The NHS Direct ( 2010 ) , believe that an early intercession plan can supply support to babes and kids with Down Syndrome from the minute they are born until the age of five ; these plans provide health care, instruction and interventions for illustration address therapy and physical therapy.

Harmonizing to Marshall ( 2004 ) , early intercession can antagonize the inclination to hapless musculus tone and so be good for the kid to assist pattern new accomplishments such as sitting and walking. A physiotherapist uses physical methods to advance wellness and wellbeing utilizing use, “ A kid with Down ‘s syndrome will frequently hold physiotherapy from a immature age because it can assist them to better their scope of motion. Babies with Down ‘s syndrome may hold hapless musculus tone, so a physical therapist can assist them to larn to turn over over, sit up or walk, ” ( NHS Direct, 2010 ) . Due to the hapless musculus tone of people with Down Syndrome it is harder to execute undertakings which need a grade of physical co-ordination such as eating and dressing, the NHS ( 2010 ) determine that an occupational healer can assist by interrupting down the undertakings into little stairss to assist supply an easier manner to finish the undertaking, step-by-step.

Harmonizing to Marshall ( 2004 ) , early intercession and physical therapy needs to maintain the long-run motor accomplishments in head and non merely the short-run. Besides physical therapy may non rush up the rate of motor development but it could assist to forestall following unnatural compensatory motion forms, for illustration ; hapless position, walking with the pess broad apart or unnatural spine curvature.

Harmonizing to the National Down Syndrome Society { NDSS } ( 2011 ) , references that some of the alternate therapies are aimed at handling the whole organic structure non merely the disease of symptom. It besides states that

“ Most of these therapies have non made claims for people with Down syndrome that have been any different from the claims they have made for the general population. However, some therapies have claimed to better motor and cognitive maps every bit good as growing and overall activity specifically in individuals with Down syndrome. Some have claimed to alter some of the physical characteristics of Down syndrome to a more “ normalized ” visual aspect and to change by reversal rational disablement. ”

NDSS merely recommends interventions that have gone through scientific tests for people with Down Syndrome. Harmonizing to Susan Mumford ( 2009 ) , massage can assist the musculuss by exciting normal organic structure processes. Waste merchandises such as lactic acid are released from the musculus fibers, enabling them to travel more freely, this returns the musculus tone to an optimal degree. It besides helps to better circulation and conveyance foods to the musculuss and variety meats and have a good consequence on the bosom rate.

Case Studies- Applying Theory to pattern:

The focal point of this is on whether massage therapy can assist with the betterment of musculus tone and motor development in kids with Down syndrome.

In 2004, Hernandez-Reif, Field, Largie, Mora, Bornstein and Waldman decided to mensurate the, if any betterment in the motor map and musculus tone of people who suffer from Down syndrome, with the early intercession of massage. Twenty-one kids with moderate to high working Down syndrome received early intercession where chosen at random to have two half hr therapies, either massage therapy or a reading session. This went on for a period of two months.

The kids ‘s operation degrees where assessed on both the first and last twenty-four hours utilizing the Developmental Programming for Infants and Young Children graduated table ( DPIYC ) and musculus tone was assessed utilizing a new preliminary graduated table ( ALT ) . During the initial first twenty-four hours the kids ‘s motor maps where measured by utilizing the following shaping characteristics, perceptual/fine motor, gross motor, self-care ( feeding etc ) social/emotional, linguistic communication and knowledge. This was used to demo any strengths and failings and to demo which developing accomplishments were emerging. The CPIYC was used in this trial for convenience and because the kids were already accustomed to it as they had been routinely administered by the professionals the kids already working with. A basal degree had been found and the survey could get down. The therapy Sessionss where for half an hr twice a hebdomad for the two months where a full structured massage therapy was given and the reading Sessionss were done on the same clip agenda and the reading Sessionss consisted of the healers merely keeping the kids as they read the books.

The consequences show that the ALT tonss reflected the original informations ; nevertheless, Mann-Whitney U-tests on certain musculuss show a tone alteration in the tonss uncovering that there was an betterment in musculus tone for the massage therapy group. For the DPIYC, measurings reflected outlooks and showed a greater addition for the massage therapy group on all right motor operation and gross motor working. They besides showed a small betterment in the group for linguistic communication development.

However, the alterations might non reflect what should be shown as the developments the kids have revealed in the trials might non really be from the massage Sessionss or the control reading session but could really be due to ripening over the two months. To mensurate which could be due to the intercession or to the ripening of the kids with Down syndrome hereafter research would be needed along with another control group entering how a massage session comprising of light stroking alternatively of a force per unit area would impact the same organic structure countries as the massage therapy group. This would besides decide any cultural issues which could originate from keep backing intercessions from some of the kids.

In malice of this harmonizing to Pardew and Bunes ( 2005 ) it is discussed that through research preformed, Field and co-workers in the Touch Research Institute ( TRI. N, D ) . Despite positive findings from other beginnings there is still a ground to be cautious with the usage of intercession of massage to babies as a method to advance mental, motor and /or social-emotional development in immature kids who have disablements. Up until now there have merely been three different reappraisals upon infant massage techniques ( i.e. Gallagher, 2003 ; Ottenbacher, Muller, Brandt, Heintzelman, Hojem & A ; Sharpe, 1987 ; Vickers, Ohlsson, Lucy & A ; Horsley, 2004 ) . Ottenbacher and co-workers conducted and analysis and admitted that the trial groups did better than the control groups nevertheless there was the recognition that there where design flaws with the surveies and where more likely to bring forth positive results for the survey group. The other two reappraisals found that although the surveies provided positive consequences the credibleness was compromised by methodological defects. While Gallagher ( 2003 ) finalised that the infant massage can non be recommended as grounds for the positive effects on cognitive, motor or social-emotional development in high kink babies.

Harmonizing to McWilliam ( 1999 ) Therapeutic, educational and medical are three countries of early intercession controversial interventions. Silver, ( 1995 ) considers discoursing intervention with kids with larning disablements controversial if:

“ ( a ) the attack was presented before any surveies were available or when pilot surveies had non been replicated, ( B ) the presented intervention went further than the information, or ( degree Celsius ) the intervention was used in an stray manner when a multimodal appraisal and intervention attack was needed. ”

Any curative patterns can be seen every bit controversial as they are described to necessitate a certain sum of clip per hebdomad, McWilliam ( 1999 ) . Whereas the more-is-better phenomenon is seen as a subject in the surveies about service use ( McWilliam, Tocci & A ; Harbin, 1995 ) and service integrating ( McWilliam, Young & A ; Harville, 1996 ) . This besides explains why in a therapy service the early intercession squad plans a therapy on the footing of a kid ‘s diagnosing alternatively of be aftering it to back up the ends of the survey ( McWilliam et al. , 1996 ) .

Validity and Recommendations:

The cogency of this trial might be discussed as there were so few patients involved in the test ; there were merely 21 patients who received merely two 0.5 hr therapies a hebdomad for eight hebdomads ( Hernandes-Reif, et Al, 2004 ) . It could hold been due to ripening effects that the consequences had shown that massage was effectual in the early intercession and to analyze this, another control group would hold to be involved to find if the consequences were right. This control group would dwell of kids with Down Syndrome who would non have early intercession services to find if the consequences were affected by ripening, nevertheless this would be seen as unethical to with keep the intercession for research intents. ( Hernandes-Reif, et Al. 2004 ) . Although a 2nd control group might hold been added with a assumed massage that merely received stroking to the same organic structure parts alternatively of using force per unit area, this would be a one manner of deciding the ethical issue and would besides be a control for attending and “ prove the effects of moderate poetries light force per unit area massage effects, ” ( Hernandes-Reif, et Al. 2004 ) .

Another restriction of this survey was that the DPIYC profiles a kid ‘s age scope ( in months ) and non the development age in months, due to this the cogency of the tonss is unknown. A recommendation for this is to utilize another step to change over the information into age tantamount tonss, for illustration the “ Peabody Development Motor Scales ( Folio and Fawell, 1983 ) for gross and all right motor appraisals, ” ( Hernandes-Reif, et Al. 2004 ) .

“ It is of import to observe, nevertheless, that none of the reappraisals indicated that infant massage was an uneffective intercession for immature kids but instead that to day of the month surveies have been conducted in a mode that adequately paperss efficaciousness. ” ( Pardew and Bunse, 2005 ) .

R. A. McWilliam ( 1999 ) in Controversial patterns: The demand for a re-acculturation of early intercession Fieldss ; believes that physical and occupational therapy have questionable research as there are no published true experimental surveies demoing the effectivity of one signifier of intervention over another as nil adequately separates the intervention from the control.


The consequences show that massage therapy could assist in bettering the motor map and musculus tone of kids with Down Syndrome, nevertheless, with the restrictions and the recommendations added by those who created the tests and perceivers this could merely be a computing machine mistake, trial mistake, or even happenstance. To turn out that this would really work other factors would hold to be tested alongside the chief trial country as control groups to restrict any false consequences.