Education plays a really of import function in bring forthing human resources for all states around the universe. A state can go good developed based significantly on the quality of human resources and this can be achieved through carry oning instruction. Cambodia is one of the states in the universe which need a good instruction system to bring forth qualified human resources for developing the state. The instruction system in Cambodia is divided into four degrees, Pre-School Education, Primary Education, Secondary Education ( lower and upper ) , and Higher Education ( UNESCO, 2008 ) . The Royal Government of Cambodia ( RGC ) has set the end to assist kids acquire basic instruction to at least grade nine. After finishing grade 9, pupils can either travel to upper secondary schools or secondary vocational preparation plan provided by the Ministry of Labour and Vocational Training ( MOLVT ) . After finishing upper secondary school, pupils can either enter vocational preparation or universities ( UNESCO, 2008 ) .
Technical Vocational Education and Training ( TVET ) plays a critical function in the socio-economic development of any state. The Royal Government of Cambodia ( RGC ) is committed to economic and societal development as a precedence. The ‘Rectangular Strategy ‘ , the sanctioned national economic development model, and the more elaborate 5 old ages National Strategic Development Plan 2006 – 2010 are committed to skills development. Cambodia will accomplish the Millennium Development Goals ( MDGs ) of Poverty and Starvation Reduction, Enhancing Gender Equity and Creation of Globalization Partnership for Development partially through a antiphonal and better quality preparation system. For growing, employment, equity and efficiency the RGC is committed to beef uping the Technical Vocational Education and Training ( TVET ) sector, ( NSDP, 2006 – 2010 ) .
To accomplish this committedness, the RGC mandated the constitution of a new ministry, the Ministry of Labor and Vocational Training ( MOLVT ) , in 2004. Within the ministry the Directorate General of TVET ( DGTVET ) was established and under this sits the National Training Board ( NTB ) with a mission to guarantee that Cambodia meets its economic and development ends through an industry driven, quality TVET system, ( National TVET Development Plan, 2008 ) .
A cardinal scheme to accomplish quality effectual TVET and competence based course of study and preparation is designation one of the TVET teacher instruction institute, runing under the Directorate General, TVET, as a Lead Institute and a Centre for Excellence for TVET instructor preparation in Cambodia. That institute is responsible for VET Teacher Training and Development for instructors serving both the Regional and Provincial Training Centers in throughout the state, ( National TVET Development Plan, 2008 ) .
There are 38 TVET establishments run by Ministry of Labour and Vocational Training ( MOLVT ) in Cambodia and those establishments are separated as Provincial Training Centers ( PTCs ) , Regional Training Centers ( RTCs ) , and TVET institutes, ( National TVET Development Plan, 2008 ) . TVET instructors instruction are trained by a TVET establishments under the umbrella of MOLVT and it is the lone establishment which has the chief responsibility to develop TVET instructors both Senior and Junior degree for all of the 38 TVET establishments throughout the state. Since 2005, the MOLVT has set the policy to enroll three 300 of TVET teacher trainees every twelvemonth, ( National TVET Development Plan, 2008 ) .
1.2 Problem statement
A survey conducted by Nock and Bishop ( 2008 ) showed the major causes of Kampuchean instructor dissatisfaction such as low wage, corruption/nepotism, hapless leading, hapless life conditions, pupils behavior, and working environment. The same survey revealed that 99 % of the respondents said that they could non last on their salary and this problem caused 93 % of them to keep a 2nd occupation. Furthermore, other surveies in Cambodia besides found out the increasing discourtesy from society toward instructors in public schools ( CITA, 2010 ) . MoEYS ( 2010b ) admitted that many instructors have left their instruction places, transferred to new occupations, and reached the retirement age. The jobs besides occur in MOLVT. These surveies above did non stipulate the jobs in TVET but they outlined the common jobs go oning in the Kampuchean instruction environment.
In add-on to the affairs mentioned above, it is widely accepted that TVET is a really hapless sector in Cambodia and it is frequently considered as the 2nd pick to all people including pupils, ( ADB, 2009 ) . TVET is a freshly established establishment which merely started developing in 2004, the twelvemonth that MOLVT was established. The registration rate in TVET is really low if compared to academic instruction, ( ADB, 2009 ) . Furthermore, the leading, learning installations, and particularly human resources are in the bad status, ( ADB, 2009 ) . Yet, there are many alumnuss who come and apply for the entryway scrutiny to be a TVET instructor at a TVET instructor instruction institute in Phnom Penh. Based on my occupation, I am able to acquire the information from disposal office and I see that, normally the figure of appliers who applied for the entryway scrutiny ever far exceeds the figure of recruits. For illustration, in the academic twelvemonth 2012 – 2013, there are more than 1,800 campaigners have applied for the entryway scrutiny while MOLVT recruits merely 300 of instructor trainees. Given the relatively low position of TVET, it is ill-defined why there are so many alumnuss enter the entryway scrutiny to go a TVET instructor.
1.3 Research Question
To go through the entryway scrutiny at the TVET teacher instruction institute is non easy. Yet, there are some trainees who drop out from this preparation plan when they have another pick or better occupation chance. Therefore, this research is fundamentally aimed at happening out the chief motive factors that encourage trainees desiring to go a instructor in the TVET sector. The specific inquiry that the survey seeks to reply is:
“ What are the motivative factors of university alumnuss who have entered the proficient instructor developing establishment in respect to their pick of a proficient vocational instruction and preparation instructor calling? ”
1.4 Significance of the research
This survey will be utile in some countries as following. First, this survey will lend to determination shapers or policy shaper when enrolling TVET instructor trainees. These people will hold some basic findings from this research so that they will be able to do good determinations when be aftering TVET teacher preparation. If TVET contrivers understand teacher motive, they will be able to turn to any failings in that motive. Second, through understanding teacher motive, this research helps to retain instructors in TVET instruction. Last, but non least, the survey will lend to the present literature on TVET teacher preparation sector, a sector in which virtually no research has been done on TVET instructors.
By utilizing the hunt engine Google Scholar and the James Cook University Library hunt engine with cardinal footings including: Teacher motives, Motivation to go instructors, Motivations to go TVET instructors, and perceptual experiences of university alumnuss toward TVET instructors career, I have found and downloaded many valuable stuffs for my literature reappraisal related to my subject. Those stuffs give an overview on my subject, and they work as a footing of cognition to back up the literature reappraisal.
The international context
A figure of surveies have been conducted in many states throughout the universe over the last 20 old ages researching the motive of those who decide to go school instructors ( Kyriacou & A ; Coulthard, 2000 ) . Such surveies indicate that the chief grounds for taking instruction as a calling autumn into three chief countries. First, selfless grounds: these grounds deal with seeing learning as a socially worthwhile and of import occupation, the aspiration to acquire kids successful, and the aspiration to do society developed as we can see that many people wish to portion their cognition and expertness to other people in order to supply the capable affair to their community. Second, instrinsic grounds: these grounds screens facets of the occupation activity itself, such as learning kids activities, and the willingness to utilize their capable affair cognition and expertness in which 95 % of pupils in this survey rated that they find the occupation gratifying as really of import factor in taking learning calling. Third, extrinsic grounds: these grounds cover facets of the occupation which are non built-in in the work itself, such as long vacations, degree of wage, and position as there are many people choose teacher calling for their ain benefit such as good payment, for journey, or for pleasance. The consequences of such surveies have received peculiar attending because of the enlisting crisis confronting many states in pulling people of sufficient quality into the instruction ( Kyriacou & A ; Coulthard, 2000 ) .
Kyriacou, Hultgren, and Stephens ( 1999 ) argued similar grounds to what is mentioned in the paragraph above. In this survey, 105 pupil instructors in Stavanger College School of Teachers ‘ Education, Norway, and 112 pupil instructors in University of York, United Kingdom, were asked to finish the questionnaire at the beginning of their instructor preparation class. They revealed the consequence that both groups of pupil instructors reported that their picks came from being strongly influenced by basking the topic they would learn, desiring to work with kids, the fact that teacher calling would give them opportunities to utilize their topic, and long vacations every bit good as societal hours.
DeLong ( 1987 ) conducted a survey about “ Teachers and Their Careers: Why Do They Choose Teaching? ” in Brigham Young University, Provo, by indiscriminately selected 139 simple and secondary instructors to take part in the survey. The consequence found some similar grounds to the above paragraph why people choose their calling in learning as following: most people rated ‘I like working with children/youth ‘ the most follow by ‘I like to assist others larn and develop ‘ , following is ‘it fulfills a demand of mine to experience useful/contributing ‘ , and so ‘I wish the hours and holidaies ‘ , least rated one is ‘It ‘s a profession that besides allows me clip to prosecute other occupations or concern ‘ and ‘I wish money ‘ . The survey besides stated about the influences on instructors ‘ credence of first learning occupations such as geographical location, learn my country of expertness, merely needed a occupation, occupation satisfaction, good administration/bosses, long-range security, a opportunity to be originative, good physical environment, benefits, liberty, and promotion into school disposal. The consequence of this survey suggests that instructors go into learning for really different grounds and are influenced in different ways to take learning as calling.
Ebru ( 2012 ) surveyed 974 Turkish pre-service instructors to analyze their perceptual experiences about the instruction profession and to seek for ground for taking instruction as a calling. The consequences showed that the motive for taking learning that was highest rated was the “ societal public-service corporation value ” of the learning profession such as part to societal, determining the hereafter for kids or striplings, heightening societal equity, etc. Another motive was Personal public-service corporation value of learning profession, for illustration, clip for household, occupation transferability, and occupation security. Besides, the following most rated motive was the anterior instruction and acquisition experiences. Most of the engagement in this survey besides listed their personal abilities and accomplishments as a major ground to take instruction and “ work with kids or striplings ” was the following most often mentioned motive of the participants.
Berger and D ‘ Ascoli conducted a survey about “ Motivations to Become Vocational Education and Training Educators: A Person-Oriented Approach ” and they argued some similar to what is discussed above. 605 in-service VET pedagogues in Switzerland were surveyed and the consequences revealed that the most of import for taking a calling as VET pedagogue are intrinsic calling value, perceived teaching ability, personal public-service corporation value, and chance. These consequences showed rather the same survey consequences in general instruction.
The Kampuchean context
The survey by Nock and Bishop ( 2008 ) about the instructor motive in Cambodia has stated the most common grounds why people want to travel to learning are: a strong involvement in the occupation, a desire to assist Cambodia ‘s development by bettering instruction, and because of they enjoy contact with kids. However, some instructors said that they were influenced by their household, had no other occupation chance, and chose learning to avoid muster into the ground forces. These three grounds seem to be contrasted with all the literature discussed above. The survey went farther to discourse about the features of a motivated instructor are as following. First, they have good relationship and communicating with pupils with a happy and pleasant personality. Second, they focused on and committed to the occupation by hardworking, punctual, painstaking, and confident, with a serious attitude. Third, they obey the regulations and ever hold a good working environment in the schoolroom and ever keep good pupil attending. Fourth, they are adept and willing to actuating pupil acquisition and accomplishing good consequences. Fifth, they behave in a normal manner and suitably. Sixth, they have a good lesson readying and are flexible when it is used. Seventh, they have good relationship with other members and ever portion each other the utile resource. Eighth, they are originative in learning by utilizing ocular AIDSs and schoolroom show. Last, but non least, they take pupils on field trips, Teach pupils about Khmer civilization, and doing betterments in the school environment.
In drumhead, most old surveies have shown the most common motive factors that encourage single in taking learning calling. Those factors included: the desire to work with kids and immature people ; the willingness to do the society developed, desiring opportunities to utilize their originative endowment ; and the belief that instruction is a well-paid occupation with respectful from other people. Furthermore, many instructors besides claimed that they like learning calling and they learning is an gratifying occupation. However, some instructor besides stated that they were influenced by their household to be a instructor, they have no other better occupations, and to avoid to be conscripted into ground forces in some political crisis society, ( Nock & A ; Bishop, 2008 ) .
To carry on this research program, qualitative attacks will be used. Ary, Jacobs, and Sorensen ( 2010 ) depict the intent of qualitative research as being to contextualize findings, interpret behaviour and purpose, or to understand positions. Qualitative research is used to analyze persons, households, and a assortment of group, organisations, industries, and more ( Ary, Jacobs & A ; Sorensen, 2010 ) . Lodico, Spaulding and Voegtle ( 2010 ) describe qualitative research workers focus on the survey of societal phenomena and on giving voice to the feeling and perceptual experiences of the participants under survey. Gay, Mills and Airasian ( 2009 ) stated that “ Qualitative research is the aggregation, analysis, and reading of comprehensive narrative and ocular ( i.e, nonnumerical ) informations to derive insight into a peculiar phenomenon of involvement ” ( p.7 ) .
The survey will hold several strengths. The research worker has a good web or entree to the mark institute. Therefore, the research worker will be able to roll up the necessary information that might be needed in the survey. With this facilitation, the research worker will be able to randomly place teacher trainees in the field of agribusiness and technology. This will assist the research worker collect dependable informations.
However, this survey will be limited by three factors. First, it will be a instance survey merely, which will be conducted in merely one moderate-sized TVET instructor developing institute in Phnom Penh. Second, the survey will aim merely 60 instructor trainees from agribusiness and technology group. Therefore, the findings will non be generalizable to other instructor trainees in concern Fieldss. Furthermore, the determination might non good plenty due to the sample size is non big. Finally, the sample choice of this survey might non guarantee wholly dependable findings.
In this sense, research workers, bookmans, and pupils, carry oning researches from these findings should be careful about doing generalisations from this survey. However, these findings will decidedly offer the foundation for other research on TVET instruction establishments in Cambodia in which no research has been conducted in this field yet.
Tools/instruments for informations assemblage
Since the construct of factors act uponing university alumnuss ‘ determination to analyze at a TVET instructor instruction institute are complex and qualitative in nature, the research worker will utilize a study questionnaire and interviews as the chief qualitative informations aggregation methods. Furthermore, since there several different countries that trainee instructors being trained, the research worker will split the participants and interviews into two chief classs: agribusiness and technology.
Both primary and secondary informations will be collected. The extended secondary informations demands to be consulted foremost. This includes assorted paperss, publications, books, and paperss from the cyberspace. After the secondary information has been collected, the primary informations research will be done through a guided questionnaire study. The questionnaire will be administered chiefly to trainee instructors in a TVET instructor developing institute. The obtained information will go a model for informations analysis and reading.
Site, population, sample size and sampling method
The survey will be conducted at a TVET instructor developing institute. The population of survey consists of TVET instructor trainees, pupils who are being trained to go instructors. In qualitative attack, the informations aggregation should include the purposeful sampling attack and informations aggregation signifier such as observations, interviews, paperss, etc. , ( Creswell, 2009 ) . Therefore, the sample will be made up of 60 respondents selected utilizing the purposive sampling technique. The sample includes 30 participants from agribusiness group, and 30 participants from technology group. The instructor trainees will be selected from the 12th Cohort at a TVET instructor preparation plan at a TVET instructor instruction which is being trained in the academic twelvemonth, 2012- 2013. Three 100s of TVET teacher trainees are recruited and trained every twelvemonth and all instructor trainees are divided into different categories based on their major accomplishments. Thirty instructor trainees will be indiscriminately selected from each category base on their countries of survey, where they come from, and the ages so as to guarantee the research is representative. Then, the selected respondents will be courteously asked to make full in the questionnaires and six of them will be selected to be interviewed.
Data collection processs
Data will be collected from a TVET instructor instruction institute, referred as Institute A, in Phnom Penh by agencies of two chief classs of study questionnaire and interview, aiming 30 in agribusiness big leagues and 30 in technology big leagues.
The research worker will explicate about the intent of research to all groups of instructor trainees and randomly choice 60 of them in the field of agribusiness and technology. All selected teacher trainees will be asked to finish a study signifier with some multiple picks inquiries and open-ended inquiries. The inquiries focus on the motive factors or grounds why they have chosen TVET as their calling. For illustration, what were the two chief grounds why you have chosen a calling in TVET? Who influence your determination to go a TVET instructor? There will be some more inquiries about their background.
To guarantee success in the expected research program and expect possible troubles, the research worker will carry on a pilot survey prior to the existent research. The research worker will choose six teacher trainees indiscriminately to reply the inquiries in the questionnaire. After they have answered all the inquiries, the research worker will larn if the instructor trainees understand the inquiries and are able to wholly complete all the inquiries in a fit period of clip. The research worker will do any necessary alterations if he/she finds any misunderstand inquiries to suit with the existent state of affairs and besides to guarantee the expected consequence in the existent survey.
The research worker will non-randomly choose three trainee instructors from each group, agribusiness and technology. The pupils will be asked about what factors influenced their determination to analyze at the TVET teacher instruction institute and what outlooks they are keeping from their survey after their graduation and travel to the existent instruction work. Along with the two major inquiries, there will be some more relevant inquiries about their background. The interview inquiries will be developed based on three of import phases. First, interview inquiries will be designed based on audiences with experient research workers. Second, the subjects which emerge from the study questionnaire I will administrate will supply a footing for some inquiries. Finally, semi-structured interviews will be conducted along with some extra inquiries for respondents ‘ elucidation if necessary in order to roll up more in-depth information.
The survey will be conducted in a TVET instructor instruction institute in Phnom Penh. The research worker will inquire for a missive from the MEd Program at RUPP to seek permission from the mark institute prior to informations aggregation. The intent and significance of the survey will be attached with the permission-seeking missive and clearly explained to the manager of the institute and all the participants. The manager will be asked to subscribe an blessing for the survey in his/her institute. Likewise, the research participants ( teacher trainees ) will be asked to subscribe an understanding to bespeak their willingness to take part in the survey. The names of the participants or IDs and the institute will be kept anon. . No information refering the study and the interviewees ‘ responses will be used other than the intent of the survey. Besides, the engagements in this survey will be genuinely voluntary. While replying the inquiries, the participants can retreat from the interview or jump any inquiries if they prefer to make so. Creswell ( 2009 ) stated that “ the research proposal needs to turn to the function of the research worker: past experiences, personal connexions to the site, measure to derive entry, and sensitive ethical issues ( p.201 ) ” . The connexions between the research workers and the participants, where the research worker behavior the survey at his/her ain organisation, will confront hard power issues and the consequence will be biased and uncomplete, ( Creswell, 2009 ) . Therefore, as the research worker in this survey work as a lector in the institute being studied, there will be a power inequality between the research worker and the participants. However, the research worker will inform the participants that they will experience comfy to decline the requesting to take part in the survey. After the publication of the concluding findings, a transcript of the consequences will be given to the institute.