Education system

Introduction

Extant literature proposes that there are several differences between private and public schools in term of administration, installations and even the course of study. These surveies do nevertheless enter both the similarities and differences of these establishments every bit good as the controversial facets of these establishments ‘ constructions. Like other states of the universe, Kuwait has besides assorted factors that affect the running of public and private schools. In this context, it is true that many several pupils experience and see the difference that exists between private and public schools. The general consensus nevertheless is that private schools are better as compared to the public schools as postulated by Hannaway ( 1991 ) when he argued that ” private schools perform better due to greater school degree liberty and their reactivity to the demands of pupils and parents. ”

Public schools have ever paid for higher instruction plans out of general public revenue enhancement. This has prompted several pupils to pay small or no tuition fees at all and has besides enabled figure of admittances in the public schools as compared to the small or instead fewer admittance in the more expensive private establishments. Most pupils have been able to derive entree to public establishments for higher instruction through selective tests plans ; this is chiefly in an attempt to hold of quality instruction and better public presentation in these schools which normally enjoy equal authorities support. Due to the difference in pupils abilities and competition in public schools, pupils with low ability have a pick of increasing their instruction degree or being uneducated depending on their fiscal capablenesss. This merely means that a pupil with a low ability can every bit be enrolled in a private school but after paying full tuition money which is ever really expensive. On the other manus, a pupil with low ability and lacks adequate fundss remains uneducated. But surveies have shown that there is an increasing demand for public schools due to high demand of higher quality instruction coupled with high degree of pupils ‘ competition for the authorities funded learning chances.

Overview of the Kuwaiti Education system

The Kuwaiti instruction system in the early twentieth century comprised of really basic instruction that was delivered through really few Koranic schools with support from the assorted affluent Kuwaiti citizens. The Koranic schools chief taught the pupils how to read write and work out. The initial measure towards the modern instruction system began in 1921.Thse schools chiefly concentrated on the instruction of commercialism and mathematics. It was later on that that composing accomplishments were introduced. In 1967, it became necessary to compulsory to inscribe pupils or instead school traveling kids to primary schools ( Kjeilen,2009 ) .

The Kuwaiti authorities dedicated a really big amount of money in support of its educational system. The authorities besides has made attempts to device plans that aid in bettering the entry of the Kuwaiti adult females from instruction establishments to their professional work life.A considerable per centum of the Kuwaiti instruction is made up of private schools with approximately 40 % being in the kindergartens and secondary class. The private schools are chiefly financed by aliens while the tuition fees and other subsidies are derived from authorities support. In a nutshell, the Kuwaiti instruction system ranks really high and attending is unfastened to both sexes. The Kuwaiti instruction is besides mandatory and free for all the Kuwaiti citizens.

Social alterations in Kuwait have quickly sped up since the oil roar that started in 1950 ‘s. Right before the super richness which was caused by oil, Kuwait as a state was one of the poorest provinces both technologically and economically ; the people from Kuwait majorly lived and survived on activities such as trading, crowding, pearling and fishing. The decennaries following the development in Kuwait after 1950 ‘s attracted many immigrants particularly those from poorer provinces that include Arabs from the Middle East who wanted to be portion of Kuwait by Citizenship. As clip accelerated to a different Kuwaiti epoch, more and more developments were established as the native Kuwaitis led much comfy lives in urbanisation, therefore go forthing most of the labour work to the aliens who were more of labourers.

Early instruction foundation was based on merely a few Quranic schools that provided majorly spiritual instructions and basic literacy in Arabic tuition at the beginning of the twentieth century. In the Middle East, Kuwait was one of the states that flagged the most sophisticated, generous, and comprehensive educational substructures that enabled a much extended instruction boosting in the state. Al Mubarakiyya school was founded in the twelvemonth 1912 as one of the most profound and modern educational establishments in Kuwait through support by merchandisers to provide clerks who at least had the basic cognition in Fieldss of commercialism, missive authorship and arithmetic. This was subsequently followed by debut of other topics in the course of study like geographics, history and art. English classs were foremost stated in the twelvemonth 1921 by Al Ahmadia School and shortly followed by the first misss ‘ school which was founded and established to offer instructions in place economic sciences, Islamic surveies and Arabic.

In the 1930 ‘s, the modern period of constitution of educational installations was initiated and on traveling ; this was after the pearling based desolation of the Kuwaiti ‘s economic system. In the twelvemonth 1935, public instruction was established after the instruction system was partially adopted for control by the Kuwaiti province. This chapter initiated the starting of new schools, directing of Kuwaiti pupils abroad for higher acquisition and besides initiation of an instruction mission by Palestine instructors. Among the schools which were founded, three of those schools merged a sum of 600 male childs, while the other primary schools were established for misss and were able to suit a sum of 140 misss. A twelvemonth subsequently in 1936, a section of instruction was instituted in order to supervise the running of the public schools, oversee foreign instructors from Iraq, Egypt, Syria, Palestine, and Lebanon who were the innovators of the secondary instruction plan in Kuwait. By the twelvemonth 1945, a sum of 17 schools in the state were established.

In the academic twelvemonth of 1954-1955, the first proficient school and the first kindergarten were established. This clearly shows the rapid acceleration of instruction installations in Kuwait since the twelvemonth 1950 ‘s. In the proficient college, the first twelvemonth saw adjustment of 80 pupils who were enrolled and an addition in figure classs which were bit by bit introduced as demand for more Fieldss of survey heightened. The educational developments continued pacing up as a new establishment for the blind was inaugurated in the twelvemonth 1956 with a sum of 36 students in registration records. This was non plenty since by the twelvemonth 1973, there were about 1,644 pupils who were identified to be in demand of particular installations for instruction. Some of these pupils include the blind, the deaf, and other disabled 1s. All these particular pupils were enrolled in 11 establishments which were specially designed for them in geting instruction as other normal pupils. Adult instruction for adult females officially came underway in the twelvemonth 1963 ; this was a consequence of the bing similar plans for adult females though hibernating ( Meleis et al,1979 ) . This system saw uninterrupted registration of about 45,000 pupils of which 18,000 were misss. The instruction section of Kuwait was so officially inaugurated as the Education Ministry in the twelvemonth 1962. This constitution gave the instruction ministry full authorization to supervise and pull off all waies in instruction care and development over the decennaries.

Kuwait ‘s province instruction has since progressed since the Kuwaiti subjects got involved in their instruction procedure twenty old ages back from the beginning of the millenary. This advancement made has been rather singular particularly in footings of exile to national ratio of instructors who were employed. In the twelvemonth 1982, there were 24,367 instructors in entire ; 6,478 instructors were Kuwaiti subjects. The academic twelvemonth of 1997-1998 saw sum of 27,359 instructors employed in public schools and an estimation of 10,000 instructors in private schools. Of the 27,359 instructors in public school, 17,357 instructors were Kuwaiti. The ratio of Kuwaiti instructors to deport 1s changed from about 1.7:1 from 1:3.76. The province of Kuwaiti managed to advance their instruction procedure by extensively increasing the figure of Kuwaiti instructors between the early 1880ss to the late 1890ss. The doubling of the Kuwaiti instructors between the 1880ss and the 1890ss has relieved the trust of foreign professional instructors in Kuwaiti schools. This was a great alteration but non good plenty since most of the Kuwaiti professional instructors were peculiarly in pattern at the lower degrees, largely the primary schools. The entry of male instructors in the profession besides saw many of them learning in primary schools.

Kuwait ‘s transmutation into a modern state with singular instruction establishments has been so, thanks to the authorities ‘s early determination to administer the oil grosss to citizens through investing of instruction, societal public assistance, lodging and health care.

The Kuwaiti instruction system is tailored to provide for the state ‘s demands. In their enterprise to guarantee that most of its citizens are educated, the Kuwaiti authorities has ensured that the instruction is provided free of charge. This has been the instance since 1966.In order to guarantee that the portion of national budget that is targeted towards the proviso of free instruction output good result in footings of raising the Kuwaiti Literacy degree, the authorities has made instruction to be compulsory for pupil aged 6-14.

The Kuwaiti authorities has in its vision and committednesss the demand to supply its citizens with a stable and extremely educated human resource base. This is in an attempt to run into the societal challenges attributed to development challenges as outlined in their Millennium Development Goals ( MDGs ) .This is through the warrant of an instruction slot to each and every citizen who wishes to prosecute their instruction to whatever degree that they desire. It is rather apparent from the figure of schools entirely, the authorities ‘s committedness towards guaranting that the Kuwaiti population is decently educated.

The general Kuwaiti instruction system is made up of simple, intermediate and secondary schooling systems. As of 1995, there were about 861 province and private establishments ( schools ) that fell into these classs. Once an person goes past these three basic degrees of instruction, they proceed to establishments of higher acquisition such as the Kuwait School and other educational centres where they learn assorted classs in assorted Fieldss of survey

Cost of private schooling in Kuwait

The private instruction in Kuwait makes a really important component of the Kuwaiti instruction system. There is a really strong authorities presence in the private schools in Kuwait. The private schools do inscribe about one tierce of kids at the simple level.The cost of private schooling in Kuwait was a preserve for the high income households merely before Kuwaiti was invaded by Saddam.This state of affairs has nevertheless changed and pupils from moderate and modest households besides do enroll in the private schools. This move is chiefly fueled by the sensed diminution in the quality of instruction in the public school system. Their chief attractive force is nevertheless pegged on the quality instruction that they desire for their kids. There is nevertheless state of affairss that necessitate the parents to return their kids to the public schooling system due to the addition in the school fees paid in the private schools in Kuwait. Some of these parents resort to this move despite the handiness of loans to fund for their kids ‘s instruction ( Kuwaiti Times, 2007 )

Different pupils get enrolled in different schools majorly due to their degree of public presentations and their household income, this has ever been the inquiry asked largely and a major beginning of argument whether pupils in private schools are better than their opposite numbers in public schools. Several parents and defenders have developed the outlook that paying excess money for their childs ‘ instruction makes all the difference every bit far as quality and success in their kids ‘s instruction is concerned. With this sort of belief in being, more affluent parents or defenders prefer paying so as to procure good the hereafter of their kids in the private acquisition establishments. On the other manus, some parents, defenders, pupils and even college professors believe that instruction is by and large the same whether it is from a public establishment or a private 1. This depends on the attitude and mental readiness of the pupil towards their instruction and hereafter.

When comparing the public schools to the private 1s, it is rather obvious that the quality of instruction in private schools is much lower than those in public schools. This is chiefly reflected in the schemes used when viing for pupils. In public schools, there has ever been a scene of making which must be achieved by a pupil before being accepted for admittance ; this sort of admittance scene is designed to enable public schools act as monopolies whereby zero tuition fees for pupils with high abilities is initiated. When it comes to private schools, the manner of viing for pupils is non through the ability of a pupil but the fiscal capableness. This means low ability pupils can be admitted so long as they can pay for the private fee ; this has enabled many pupils to submit higher instruction, therefore boosts entire income in the economic system.

Competition between private and public schools is determined by legion variables including exams taken every bit good as general monetary values in the establishments. An active function played by schools in puting the tests and the tuition fees determines the degree of quality of instruction provided. While public schools have ever maximized public excess. That is, the entire amount of pupils net incomes less the all the costs spent in supplying instruction, the private schools have ever aimed at maximising net incomes ; which is, all income generated by the pupils who have been admitted in the establishment less all the disbursals incurred in supplying instruction for the pupils in the schools. This clearly shows that private schools use monetary value as admittance policy so as to determine their sustainability in supplying better instruction, this is because money from pupils is fundamentally the lone support they use in running their establishments. Equally far as monetary value is concerned, there are fluctuations in pricing in different private schools depending on assorted factors of which educational quality is the most overriding. Thus the better the quality degree of a private school, the higher the tuition fees paid by the parents ( Tabora, 2008 ) .

Students who attend public schools under public monopoly are fundamentally the same pupils who are admitted in these establishments under competition. These pupils have ever obtained similar quality in school in both instances. The being of private schools for higher has raised entire public assistance since pupils who have non been admitted in the public monopoly have been given a opportunity of fall ining the private schools and acquire educated. When detecting the market dividers in which both populace and private schools compete for pupils, there is a really alone equilibrium that exists in which the private schools are lower in quality than the public schools.

Importance of schooling

The construct of schooling was invented in order to authorise the human capital. Previous research on human capital has nevertheless been targeted on the quality and measure of returns that a individual obtains as a consequence of schooling. As advanced by Mincer in his outstanding and standard preparation, the sum of investing invested in a peculiar cause can be translated into assorted discernible differences that assorted from one person to the following ( Mincer, 1976 ) . Therefore, in instance the investing in an person ‘s instruction is considered to worsen on a additive graduated table, an all the sum of investing are considered to be forgone income, a really simple and direct correlativity can be derived between the net incomes and the old ages that an single spends while schooling. The application of the commonly available informations portrays that there is a characteristic that is high in all the schools allover the universe.

Is really of import that the universe provide their citizens with the best degree of instruction. The importance of the human capital can non be overemphasized. This is because of the assorted additions that consequence of the gainful and discernible alterations that come with holding a population with a high literacy rate. Every state in the universe must hold its ain reliable and experient work force in order for it to win in its enterprises of being both crowned head and comfortable. This requires the single states to device their ain efficient and customized instruction system and course of study that would to the full take attention of its industrial and rational lacks. The investing in human capital hence really important for the success of every state. In certain instances nevertheless, it becomes important for certain sectors of a state ‘s economic system to necessitate specialist support from exiles. This is due to the fact that certain classs or instead instruction demands are ne’er relevant or instead are ne’er to a great extent invested on in certain specialist countries of the economic system. Thus the demand for expatriate support in certain countries such as technology and other really proficient countries of the economic system.

It is hence necessary for every authorities to be to a great extent involved in the instruction of its citizens. This is really applicable in about every state. There is nevertheless a generalizability that is used as an index of the function and importance of return fluctuation of schooling investing in different states across the Earth ( Psacharopoulos, 1994 ) . The exact function of authorities in instruction is nevertheless still capable to argument and is capable to assorted different positions. It is worthwhile to observe that a high returns on the schooling degree does non needfully connote that it is the function of authorities intercession that has subsequent resulted to the better academic output. However, in order to once and for all warrant the degree of authorities intercession, it is of import to take into history assorted parametric quantities that affect the educational outputs or instead result. For rather a long clip, the function of instruction to a given society has been researched upon by assorted bookmans. The function of the authorities has been featured as one of the major determiners of the success in footings of schooling in the lives of the citizens. Kuwait for illustration has her authorities put in topographic point assorted mechanisms to guarantee that the citizens and aliens who attend its instruction system do acquire certain critical impressions and thoughts imparted upon them. Kuwait being a Muslim province, has most of its schooling demands tailored to run into the rigorous demands of the Muslim faith. In fact in earlier old ages, the regulations that govern schooling were really rigorous. The instruction of the miss kid for illustration was forbidden for a long clip. But subsequently on, partially due to the effects of Westernization, the instruction of the girl kid became recognized as one of the stairss toward a democratically balanced Kuwaiti society. The function of authorities intercession can nevertheless be justified utilizing certain mechanisms such as market failure.

Importance of resources handiness to the quality of instruction

Several research workers have focused their attending to the of import function that is played by the handiness of resources to the success in the schooling procedure in assorted states. It is nevertheless really of import that the sum of resources that are devoted to the procedure of geting proper instruction can non be straight tied to the result of the assorted schooling procedures. In Kuwait for illustration, the private schools that are in kernel tally and managed by aliens are better equipped as compared to the public schools. The analysis that focuses on the function of resources in the result of schooling procedure is nevertheless capable to a batch of treatments and argument. This is because of the multivariate nature of the schooling procedure. Despite the contentions that surround the analysis, there is nevertheless a considerable sum of grounds that supports that fact that a positive correlativity exists. This is based on the minority of scholarly work that exposes a significant and positive correlativity ( Schneider, 2002 ) .

Other surveies nevertheless, are focused on the simple relationship between the resources and the result of the schooling procedure. In these surveies, a simple correlativity is devised in order to associate the causal factors and the results of the schooling procedure. The relationships that have been derived do non nevertheless have a systematic reappraisal but the causal factors do hold a certain degree of support in the reappraisal procedure. A proxy relationship can nevertheless be once and for all be justified as appropriate. The being of this stronger relationship that exists between the resources and other causal factors may be applicable. Factors such as the sum of wealth in a pupil ‘s household background may to a big extent be an influence and a major subscriber to the degree of pupil ‘s public presentation as a consequence of a dedication and proviso of more resources into the schooling of the pupil. The growing puting nevertheless, has no direct placeholder relationship. In certain cases, hapless placeholders have nevertheless been assigned to the procedure of acquiring a correlativity between the sum of resources and the result of schooling ( Hanushek & A ; Kimko, 2000 ) .

International schooling policies have been supported enormously and are now deriving increased income. Numerous arguments have been carried out and the statements have supported intercessions by the authorities based on spillovers which are as a consequence of the growing procedure in instruction. This is why the general endogenous growing theoretical account has clearly shown that instruction degree in an economic system influences the growing of a state. That is, if the instruction degree of an economic system is low, the growing of that peculiar state will decidedly drag unlike if the instruction degree is was higher. The construction of the endogenous development theoretical account brings in a spillover that people will non take into consideration their ain determination devising procedure. Empirical work carried out has underscored the virtues of schooling measure in these peculiar topographic points. The relationship between single net incomes and schooling have shown the most consistent and strongest support in instruction public presentation ; when an single utilizations ain money to finance schooling, the earnestness becomes utmost to the extent that exam public presentation of that person turns out to be rather delighting. While establishing trust on grounds that is limited, there has been rather promising support that exists on the importance of instruction and schooling in relation to effects of growing every bit good as the distribution of net incomes ( Gregorio, 1999 )

The economic effects as a consequence of differences in educational quality of secondary and simple schools are non good comprehended as the effects of measure, particularly in relation to the aggregative public presentation the state ‘s economic system. This hapless apprehension of the deductions of quality in instruction makes it hard to reflect measuring. It is really hard to exactly specify the quality of instruction since the term quality reflects the extent of an establishments knowledge base every bit good as the analytical accomplishments employed as the focal points of larning establishments. To decently construct the base of this treatment, this survey will trust on informations sourced from standardised tests of accomplishments in faculty members and pupil ‘s ability in instruction. Re lying on this information from standardised trials to reflect quality steps is controversial in a manner that there are spreads available in grounds and besides the emanated decisions follow ( as stated below ) . All in all, these steps prove to be the most effectual indexs available of quality and have a relationship with the consequences that we positively satisfy us.

Numerous research surveies have been carried out and documented in the field of labour markets which straight focus on personal differences when it comes to cognitive ability and effects in net incomes ( every bit good as modify the estimations of returns in footings of quality ) . 4. The latest direct research survey of cognitive accomplishment have recorded significant returns in the labour market has measured single fluctuations when it comes to cognitive accomplishment. For illustration, O’Neill ( 1990 ) , Murnane, Willett, and Levy ( 1995 ) , Bishop ( 1989, 1991 ) , Neal and Johnson ( 1996 ) , Currie and Thomas ( 2000 ) , Grogger and Eide ( 1993 ) , and Murnane et Al. ( 2000 ) each conclude that the net incomes advantages are rather significant when standardized trial are extremely achieved. These decisions have been extracted from assorted attacks.

Bishop ( 1989 ) is much concerned about the mistakes that result in the most testing environments and stress on extreme attention when covering with that job since it has really dramatic effects on the estimated importance of the trial fluctuations. On the other manus, Grogger and Eide ( 1993 ) , O’Neill ( 1990 ) , Neal and Johnson ( 1996 ) , and Bishop ( 1991 ) have greatly put their trust on the latest labour market information every bit good as representative sampling which suggests that net incomes advantage to measured fluctuations in accomplishment is much greater than those of the earlier times and earlier research surveies ( even when dependability of the trial is non corrected.

In Kuwait, merely like in other quickly-developing instruction systems, one chief sphere of involvement is guaranting that the quality of instruction that is offered by both private and public suppliers is up to criterions needed. This paper elaborates by manner of a thorough reappraisal the history of development of Kuwaiti instruction system since its induction. It considers several quality systems that are presently employed in other states in the Gulf States so as to place the effects of the instruction systems both private and public on the attitudes of the pupils towards schooling.

Two chief consequences emerge from the present analysis. The first suggests that there are no important effects from category attending. The 2nd indicates that smaller categories do non interpret into additions in accomplishment. Other consequences include the deficiency of important equal effects and grounds of variableness in learning effects, which is, nevertheless ; besides non important. These findings need to be interpreted carefully. For case, the consequence of no attending effects may non needfully bespeak that attending does non count per Se: on the contrary, it can alternatively be the instance that attending does count but that the pupils in our informations take optimally how many categories to go to, so that fringy fluctuation around that attending degree does non interpret into any additions in footings of accomplishment.

The mentality of the twenty-first century Kuwaiti instruction

The Gulf States have undergone a figure of serious challenges both on their economic and political being. These legion challenges have been brought about by the prosperity and accelerated growing every bit good as the heightened degrees in societal services. There tends to be some kind of misrepresentation in some certain degrees when one looks at the external wealth and modernness of some of these Gulf States. For illustration, it is true that Kuwait as a state is in ownership of 9.5 % of the proved oil militias in the universe ( out of a combination of 64.9 % of all Gulf States ) and many of the Kuwaitis are really rich people thanks to their oil rich state. While this is so, the oil grosss in Kuwait are really modest when comparings are made to the gross domestic merchandise of the developed states of the universe. The fluctuating monetary values of oil have greatly influenced the dependability of development every bit good as long term planning ; this is so particularly when the monetary value per every barrel remains low on the universe market like it was in the 1880ss and the 1890ss. Harmonizing to dependable beginnings, surveies have shown that the low oil monetary values in 1980 ‘s was the cause of shortage budget operation by the Gulf States ; which was hardly the size of Switzerland ‘s GDP if they were combined i.e. ( U.A.E, Kuwait, Oman, Iran, Bahrain, Iraq, Saudi Arabia, Qatar ) . The Gulf States wealth semblance is as a consequence of control of the oil militias by merely a manus full of people who easy entree the universe markets through exports in ships ; this clearly explains the long spread between the rich and the hapless ; which is bad for the economic system.

These Gulf States have had to cover with the grapnels that affect their budgetary uncertainnesss in the oil markets. Some of these jobs are public sector laterality, seeable and concealed unemployment, hapless grosss for the immense populations, laterality of foreign workers among, and besides hapless engagement in the determination doing procedure with the exclusion of Kuwait which has an elected organic structure that represents it.

The nucleus characteristic of this analysis, nevertheless, is how the quality of schooling influences the national and economic growing. It is obvious that schools ( no affair their geographical locations ) have legion fluctuations every bit far as cognition and general quality is concerned. These differences are ever really hard to cover with since the deductions for groking the nucleus issues are emphasized in this survey.

Bibliography

  • Bishop, John. ( 1989 ) . Is the trial mark diminution responsible for the productiveness growing diminution? American Economic Review 79, no.1:178-197.
  • Gregorio, J ( 1999 ) . Education and Income Distribution: New Evidence from Cross-country Data
  • Grogger, J, & A ; Eric, E. ( 1993 ) . Changes in college accomplishments and the rise in the college pay premium. Journal of Human Resources 30, no.2 ( Jumping ) :280-310.
  • Hannaway, J. ( 1991 ) . The organisation and direction of public and Catholic schools: Looking inside the black box. International Journal of Educational Research, 15:463-481.
  • Hanushek, E.A. ( 1986 ) . The Economics of Schooling: Production and Efficiency in Public Schools, Journal of Economic Literature 49 ( 3 ) , pp. 1141-1177.
  • Kjeilen, T ( 2009 ) .Kuwaiti & lt ; hypertext transfer protocol: //lexicorient.com/e.o/kuwait.education.htm & gt ;
  • Kuwaiti Times ( 2007 ) . Private school fees ‘heavy load ‘ . Published: April 15, 2007 hypertext transfer protocol: //www.kuwaittimes.net/read_news.php? newsid=OTA0MjIxODQ3
  • Meleis, A, El-Sanabary, N & A ; Beeson, D ( 1979 ) . Women, Modernization, and Education in Kuwait Comparative Education Review, Vol. 23, No. 1 ( Feb. , 1979 ) , pp. 115-124
  • Mincer, Jacob. ( 1970 ) . “ The distribution of labour incomes: a study with particular mention to the human capital attack. ” Journal of Economic Literature 8, no.1 ( March ) :1-26.
  • Murnane, Richard J. , John B. Willett, Yves Duhaldeborde, and John H. Tyler. ( 2000 ) . “ How of import are the cognitive accomplishments of adolescents in foretelling subsequent net incomes? ” Journal of Policy Analysisand Management 19, no.4 ( Fall ) :547-568.
  • Schneider, Mark. 2002. Make school installations affect academic results? Washington, D.C. : National Clearinghouse for Educational Facilities. Retrieved August 8, 2003, from hypertext transfer protocol: //www.edfacilities.org/pubs/outcomes.pdf
  • Tabora, J ( 2008 ) .Making Quality Higher Education More Accessible in the Philippines: Person Has To Pay the Price