Energy Trends And Energy Policy In Malaysia Environmental Sciences Essay

In the twelvemonth 2005, the energy ingestion in Malaysia is about 38.9 Mtoe which is addition about 5.6 per centum from the twelvemonth 2000. Oil is a significant part of energy consumed which is about 63 per centum. It is chiefly used in the industrial and conveyance sector. Natural gas ingestion besides increased in analogue with the fuel electricity demand. Although it is decrease from 77 per centum in yea 2000 to 70 per centum in twelvemonth 2005 but it still considered as a high in the portion of natural gas with the electricity coevals. Actually the authorities wants to increase the portion of coal in the electricity coevals mix, but it merely reached about 22 per centum in 2005.

In twelvemonth 1980, Malaysia authorities introduced the National Depletion Policy. It is because Malaysia has many conventional energy resources ( oil and gas ) and renewable energy such as hydro, biomass and solar energy. The intent of this policy is to develop the economic system ‘s oil and gas in a sustainable mode and fixed the maximal day-to-day oil and gas production degrees. The production degrees for the natural gas militias are expected to last another 33 old ages and oil militias are expected to last another 19 old ages.

Malaysia authorities introduced the Five Fuel Strategy in order to happen alternate energy beginnings after oil, coal, natural gas and hydro. In 2005, biodiesel was introduced for the conveyance sector to accomplish sustainable energy development through variegation of fuel beginning.

Energy demand

The portion of Malaysia ‘s urban population will increase from 63 per centum in 2002 to 78 per centum in 2030. Besides, the existent GDP besides increase about 3.4 per centum per annum. The increasing of population and existent GDP will take to alter in lifestyle and do energy demand besides increase in the conveyance, commercial and industrial sector.

Beginning: Global Penetrations ( 2005 )

Figure: Real GDP and Population

The concluding energy demand until 2030 shows the industry sector will hold the highest growing rate which is about 4.3 per centum. The 2nd growing rate is transport sector at 3.9 per centum and followed by residential at 3.1 per centum. The lowest growing rate energy demand is commercial sector at 2.7 per centum. The concluding energy demand is shown in figure below.

Beginning: APERC Analysis ( 2006 )

Figure: Final Energy Demand

Although the concluding energy demand for the industry sector is the growing rate, but its mean one-year growing is decrease about 7.5 per centum over the past two decennaries. It is because of the switching industry construction from energy intensive to non-intensive energy and betterment of energy efficiency. Energy demand for natural gas is expected to growing at 43 per centum of industrial demand in 2030. Hence, substitute the oil as a primary fuel in Malaysia. Malaysia authorities makes many programs in order to happen alternate renewable fuel. It can see by the development of biomass energy in Malaysia. Biomass energy is used in cogeneration by palm oil industries.

Intro Production

The Malayan authorities stated that mush and paper industry as one of the of import sector for investing in the 2nd industrial maestro program ( IMP 2 ) . The chief aim of this program is to accomplish a province of ego sufficient, cut down import and promote foreign capital influx. Although, in the twelvemonth 1997 occur Asiatic Crisis, the mush and paper industry still can last to make their production. No mill was closed down or taken by larger companies at this clip. The mush and paper industry merely produce little production because they cutting the cost of production but still efficient. This industry besides concentrating on niche markets at the national graduated table. Until now, this industry becomes one of the of import sectors that contribute to development of Malaysia economic system. The entire capacity of mush and paper production is about over than one million tones per twelvemonth and it is increase twelvemonth by twelvemonth.

In Malaysia, the production of mush and paper industry does non carry through the domestic ingestion. Malaysia had ever dependent on newspaper import.

Figure: Malaya Pulp Production and Consumption

Figure: Malaysia Paper Production and Consumption

Malaya is turning in the paper recycling procedure. Many mills use about 95 per centum wastepaper as a natural stuff base. Some company makes net income by selling the wastepaper to another company. The authorities decided to censor export of wastepaper to do certain that all of the wastepaper collected stayed in the state.

Figure: Pulp and Paper mill in Malaya

From the figure, there are 20 mills of mush and paper in Malaysia. For the instance survey, three mills were selected. The mills are:

Cenpak Holding ( M ) Sdn Bhd

Plo 59, Jalan Perusahaan 4,

Senai Industrial Estate,

81400 Senai, Johor.

The company specialising in the maker of expandible polystyrene boxes and corrugated

paper cartons merchandises. This company was established in twelvemonth 1991.

2 ) Genting Sanyen Industrial Paper Sdn Bhd

Batch 7090. Mukim Tg. 12, Karung Berkunci 206,

42700 Banting, Selangor

Malaya

The company specialising in the maker of line drives and corrugated medium documents. This

company was established in twelvemonth 1992. It has approximately 600 employees working in this company.

The company is able to bring forth 250,000 M/T of industrial paper per twelvemonth.

3 ) Ornapaper Industry ( M ) Sdn Bhd

No. 8998, Kawasan Perindustrian Peringkat IV

Batu Berendam

75350 Melaka

Malaya

The company specialising in the maker of corrugated cartons and boards. This company

was established in twelvemonth 1990.It has approximately 300 employees working in two displacements. The company is

able to bring forth 100,000 M/T of corrugated boards and cartons per twelvemonth.

Table shows the entire operating hr and net production for each mill. From the tabular array below, the highest production and runing hr is from Genting Sanyen compared to Ornapaper and Cenpak. It is because Genting Sanyen has a big works and many fabrication machines that allow to bring forth a big sum of production.

No

Item

Unit of measurement

Cenpak

Genting Sanyen

Ornapaper

1

2

Operating hr

Net Production

h/yr

t/yr

6240

6,645

8400

196,631

5840

43,756

Table: Entire runing hr and net production

Operational government and production figures

Cenpak Holding ( M ) Sdn Bhd

The works operates for 24 hours a twenty-four hours throughout the twelvemonth. The operational government of the works differs harmonizing to the procedure as shown in table below.

No

Item

Unit of measurement

Figure

1.0

2.0

3.0

4.0

5.0

6.0

7.0

8.0

Base information

CCB

Corrugator machine

Flexo Printing machines

Waste H2O intervention

EPS

Preexpansion

Modeling machines

Dryers

Boiler room operation

Boiler 1

Boiler 2

h/yr

h/yr

h/yr

h/yr

h/yr

h/yr

h/yr

h/yr

3,120

3,120

3,120

6,240

6,240

6,240

6,240

3,120

Plant operational government

The monthly net production end product for the period January 2000 to December 2000 is shown in the undermentioned tabular array.

Calendar month

Unit of measurement

Expanded polystyrene

Corrugated carton box

Jan

Feb

Mar

Apr

May

Jun

July

Aug

Sept

Oct

Nov

Dec

Sum

T

T

T

T

T

T

T

T

T

T

T

T

T

59

74

62

48

57

65

66

66

53

64

45

36

695

567

743

478

479

478

422

533

472

453

565

456

306

5,950

Entire net production for the mention period

Genting Sanyen Industrial Paper Sdn Bhd

Operational government and production figures

The works operates for 24 hours a twenty-four hours throughout the twelvemonth. The operational government of the works for each section is shown in table below.

Department

Working

( yearss )

Number of Shifts

Working Hours

Annual Operating Hours

Stock readying

7

3

24

8,400

Paper machine

7

3

24

8,400

Care

7

3

24

8,400

The monthly production end product for the twelvemonth 2000 is given in the tabular array below.

Calendar month

Production ( T )

Jan

Feb

Mar

Apr

May

Jun

July

Aug

Sept

Oct

Nov

Dec

Entire

16,055

16,073

15,961

16,266

16,928

17,078

16,944

16,686

14,960

17,144

15,743

16,795

196,631

Ornapaper Industry ( M ) Sdn Bhd

The Ornapaper works operates 16 hours a twenty-four hours on two displacements. However, certain subdivisions operate over longer periods. The one-year operating hours of the works harmonizing to the procedure are shown in Table below

Plant one-year runing hr

Unit of measurement

Figure

Corrugator machine

Printing machine

Waste H2O intervention

Boiler

Compressor

Hr/yr

Hr/yr

Hr/yr

Hr/yr

Hr/yr

5840

5840

5840

5840

5840

The monthly production end product of the works for the twelvemonth 2002 is shown table below

Calendar month

Unit of measurement

Corrugated box

Jan

Feb

Mar

Apr

May

Jun

July

Aug

Sept

Oct

Nov

Dec

Tones

Tones

Tones

Tones

Tones

Tones

Tones

Tones

Tones

Tones

Tones

Tones

4,234

2,976

4,054

3,946

4,256

3,818

3,375

3,157

3,190

3,571

3,659

3,520

Entire

Tones

43,756

Monthly production for the twelvemonth 2002

Manufacturing procedure

For the instance survey, fabricating procedure for each mill is different. It is because each works produces different merchandise and different machine. In order to accomplish energy salvaging step, it is of import to cognize the fabrication procedure and it energy ingestion in the procedure.

Cenpak Holding ( M ) Sdn Bhd

The company produces expandible polystyrene boxes and corrugated box. The production of corrugated box based on the client specification. The production procedure is begins with starch readying and paper axial rotations.

The following phase is corrugators subdivision. In this subdivision, the corrugator machine will convey together a sheet of paper to organize individual or dual bed corrugated paper. The paper is produced in a uninterrupted procedure harmonizing to the merchandise design and specifications.

The machine is divided into chief subdivisions, flute and hot home base subdivisions. The flute subdivision is divided into flutes portion and dual angel. The paper axial rotations are transported under the axial rotation stands utilizing conveyers. The operator so feeds the axial rotations into the corrugators. In the individual facer, the paper is which give the paper the fluted form. Starch is applied to the tips of the flutes on one side and the interior line drive is glued to the flute. The corrugated flute medium with one line drive attached to it, is called individual phaser web and travels along the machine towards dual angel. This subdivision is known as line preheater. There, the individual facer web meets the outer line drive and forms the corrugated board.

After the board emerges from dual angel, it passes a steam heated a steam flatcar known as hot home base, the cutter cuts the board to the exact required length to obtain the corrugated sheet. Finally, corrugated sheets are stacked and sent to the 2nd subdivision of the corrugators hall by operators.

Then, the corrugated carton box goes to following procedure which is publishing and slotting, cutting, turn uping and pasting the board to fabricate a corrugated box. In this subdivision, it have flexographic or flexo machines. This machine will publish, cuts, creases and glues the board into the concluding form in one operation. Unfortunately, non all operation can be managing with flexo machine. For the big poster board or more sophisticated packaging manner instance, it will travel to decease cutting and sewing or pasting procedure manually.

Last, the corrugated carton box will be sent to review subdivision. In this subdivision, the merchandise will be inspects whether it is fulfill the client specification or non. After the review subdivision is complete, the merchandise will be sent to the client.

Flow Diagram of corrugated box procedure

Starch Preparation

Paper Rolls

Corrugator

Printing

Die Cut

Gluing/Stitching

Inspection

Delivery

The 2nd of merchandise in this company is expandible polystyrene boxes. Figure below shows the general procedure to do the expandible polystyrene boxes.

EPS RESIN

NEW MOULD

EXPANDER

SILO AGING

Molding Machine

REQUIRE DRYING

DRYING

Packing material

STORING

Delivery

Energy use at modeling procedure.

Polystyrene modeling procedure requires the supply of steam, compressed air, electricity, chilling H2O and vacuity. Steam is required to provide heat for the formation of the polystyrene mold and chilling H2O to chill the vacuity pumps and molds. Compressed air is chiefly needed for the control of the molding procedure, purge of H2O and gap of the mold. Vacuum is required in the chilling and emptying of extra steam before the mold gap.

Genting Sanyen Industrial Paper Sdn Bhd

Flow diagram of production procedure of paper

Waste Paper

Raw stuff Storage

Stock Preparation

Paper Machine

Whitewater Preparation

Wire Section

Imperativeness Section

Dryer Section

Completing Section

Paper Rolls

First, the waste paper is collected and some waste paper is import from another company. After that, the natural stuff will be store up to six-month supply. The stock readying starts with the cleansing procedure. It starts with the centrifugal cleansing of the diluted mixture of contaminated fibres. The diluted waste paper mixture is pumped to different machines whose intent it is to divide the useable fibres from the ink or any other soiled stuff, which might be attached to the fibre.

The mixture has to be farther diluted, dewatered, washed and pressed to hold those fibres reclaimed, which are clean and transcend a certain fibre size, the remainder is discarded as sludge.

The fibres are separated in short and long fibres to command the strength and quality of the paper by choosing the appropriate mixture in the paper production subsequently on.

Then, the procedure continues to the paper machine subdivision. The paper machine is used as a large drier which transform the loose fibres into solid sheet of paper. The paper machine can be spliting into another subdivision which is the white water readying system, the wire subdivision, the imperativeness subdivision, the drier subdivision with size imperativeness and finishing subdivision.

Whitewater readying is provides the circulating H2O for the paper machine. The wire subdivision is orientating the fibres on a traveling screen ( wire ) and allows large measures of H2O to go through through. The imperativeness subdivision presses the H2O in the imperativeness felt which in bend is cleaned with hard-hitting H2O noses and suction tubings for H2O remotion. For the drier subdivision it will distilling inside the cylinder and heats the surface to about 140 & A ; deg ; C. Lastly, the finishing subdivision provides a steel calendar for smoothing the surface.

Ornapaper Industry ( M ) Sdn Bhd

The company produce corrugated box which is same with the Cenpak Holding. Hence, the fabrication procedure to bring forth corrugated box besides same. The procedure involve with starch readying and paper axial rotations, corrugators, printing, dice cut, pasting, review and bringing.

Energy use at the corrugator

The energy consumed at the corrugators subdivision is electrical and thermic energy. Electrical energy is used to run motors, fans and compressor. Thermal energy or steam supplied to the assorted subdivisions of the corrugators. . Boiler is used to bring forth steam for corrugator subdivision to blow H2O intervention works ( WWTP ) . Steam is supplied through a distribution pipe and the distribution is shown in figure below.

Boiler

Steam Heading

Conveyer

Hot Plate

Double Becker

Preheater

Water Tank

Intro energy ingestion

Energy ingestion of mush and paper industry is about 3 per centum from the entire industrial energy ingestion in Malaysia. The mush and paper industry self-generates from the energy required to back up the fabrication procedure. Wood waste fuels, chemical waste fuel watercourse and power cogeneration is the illustration of the spontaneous. Table below show the Malayan industrial energy ingestion in 2003.

Cenpak Holding ( M ) Sdn Bhd

Energy and public-service corporations ingestion

The public-service corporations supplied to the site are electricity, Medium Fuel Oil ( MFO ) and H2O. The entire energy ingestion of the mill and the one-year energy and public-service corporation costs in the twelvemonth 2001 is shown in table below.

No

Item

Unit of measurement

Measure

Cost th.RM

1

2

3

4

MFO

Electricity

Water

Sum

th.ltr

MWh

th.m3

Th.RM

1,363

2,961

35

736

688

76

1,501

Annual energy public-service corporation ingestion and costs for the twelvemonth 2001

Chart: one-year energy public-service corporation ingestion ( 2001 )

From the pie chart, we can see that MFO and electricity contribute major energy to the Cenpak Holding. Therefore, it recommended concentrating to this energy to cut down the cost.

Description of the electric web

The mill is billed under Duty E2 by TNB. The electric use, demand and cost sum-up for 2001 is shown in table below.

Calendar month

On-peak ( KWh )

Off-peak ( KWh )

Entire ( KWh )

Jan

Feb

Mar

Apr

May

Jun

July

Aug

Sept

Oct

Nov

Dec

Entire

Annually cost ( th.RM/yr )

Average monetary value RM/KWh

167,160

157,800

156,450

141,350

113,510

151,000

151,320

185,440

170,200

157,130

152,220

124,810

1,828,390

380

96,390

91,250

88,690

98,050

76,980

96,920

107,710

119,000

101,440

102,330

88,550

65,780

1,133,090

145

263,550

249,050

245,140

239,400

190,490

247,920

259,030

304,440

271,640

259,460

240,770

190,590

2,961,480

688

0.232

Electricity duty

Item

Unit of measurement

Rate

Electrical energy

Duty codification

On peak period rate

Off peak period rate

Maximal demand for each KWh

RM/KWh

RM/KWh

RM/month

E3S

0.208

0.128

21.70

From the graph, we can see that the highest electricity ingestion was in August and the lowest is in May. The electricity ingestion is all of a sudden reduced in May and get down addition from June to August. The peak clip and off extremum is reduced towards the terminal of the twelvemonth.

Fuel supply and ingestion

The fuel used at Cenpak Holding is Medium Fuel Oil ( MFO ) . MFO is used in the boiler. The MFO ingestion and costs for the twelvemonth 2001 is shown in table below.

No

Fuel

Unit of measurement

Figure

Entire cost ( th.RM )

1

MFO

ltr

1,363,250

736

Water Consumption

Water ingestion for the twelvemonth 2001 is shown in table below.

Calendar month

Consumption ( M3 )

Cost ( RM )

Jan

Feb

Mar

Apr

May

Jun

July

Aug

Sept

Oct

Nov

Dec

Entire

2,351

2,560

2,806

2,720

2,747

3,473

2,743

2,580

2,251

3,486

3,720

3,077

34,514

4,558.93

5,722.81

6,274.98

6,080.85

6,142.08

7,768.32

6,132.37

5,768.00

5,031.04

7,797.05

8,320.85

6,881.28

76,478.56

From the graph, we can see that the highest H2O ingestion was in November and the lowest is in January. The cost for the H2O ingestion is parallel with the H2O ingestion. Higher the H2O ingestion, higher the cost.

Genting Sanyen Industrial Paper Sdn Bhd

Energy and public-service corporation ingestion

The public-service corporations supplied to the site are electricity, steam, and H2O. The one-year energy cost in the twelvemonth 2000 for each public-service corporation is shown in table below.

No

Utility

Unit of measurement

Consumption

Equivalent Energy

Cost

GJ

%

1000 RM

%

1

2

3

Electricity

Steam

Water

MWh

T

M3

98,602

316,199

2,247,232

1,268

867,334

868,602

0.15

99.85

100

19,720

7,905

1123.6

28,746

25

73

3

100

Chart one-year cost for each public-service corporation

From the pie chart, we can see that electricity consume the major portion of the cost which is 69 % . Therefore, it is recommended concentrating the electricity energy to cut down the cost.

Specific electricity ingestion per ton ( EUI )

The specific electricity ingestion per ton ( EUI ) for the twelvemonth 2000 is shown in the tabular array below.

Calendar month

Electricity ( MWh )

Production ( T )

EUI ( MWh/t )

Jan

Feb

Mar

Apr

May

Jun

July

Aug

Sept

Oct

Nov

Dec

7,185

7,063

6,929

7,246

7,365

8,623

8,772

8,766

8,201

9,319

8,693

10,441

16,055

16,073

15,961

16,266

16,928

17,078

16,944

16,686

14,960

17,144

15,743

16,795

0.45

0.44

0.43

0.45

0.44

0.50

0.52

0.53

0.55

0.54

0.55

0.62

Entire

98,602

196,631

0.50

Table specific electricity ingestion per ton ( EUI )

From the graph, we can see that specific energy ingestion per ton ( EUI ) reaches the highest in December and lowest in March. The mean electricity ingestion is 0.50 MWh/ton.

Specific steam ingestion

The specific steam ingestion ( EUI ) for the twelvemonth 2000 is shown in the tabular array below.

Calendar month

Steam ( T )

Production ( T )

EUI ( t/t )

Jan

Feb

Mar

Apr

May

Jun

July

Aug

Sept

Oct

Nov

Dec

26,074

26,270

26,023

27,029

27,142

27,024

24,658

28,111

27,247

28,353

22,333

25,935

16,055

16,073

15,961

16,266

16,928

17,078

16,944

16,686

14,960

17,144

15,743

16,795

1.62

1.63

1.63

1.66

1.60

1.58

1.46

1.68

1.82

1.65

1.42

1.54

Entire

316,199

196,631

1.61

Table specific steam ingestion per ton ( EUI )

Specific steam ingestion

From the graph, we can see that specific steam ingestion ( EUI ) reaches the highest in September and lowest in November. The mean electricity ingestion is 1.61 t/t.

The specific H2O ingestion for the twelvemonth 2000 is shown in the tabular array below.

Calendar month

Water ( M3 )

Production ( T )

Spec. Water Consumption ( m3/t )

Jan

Feb

Mar

Apr

May

Jun

July

Aug

Sept

Oct

Nov

Dec

18,2257

16,6727

17,7752

17,7061

17,9752

18,5445

20,6532

19,7667

19,4102

20,0148

18,2558

19,7231

16,055

16,073

15,961

16,266

16,928

17,078

16,944

16,686

14,960

17,144

15,743

16,795

11.35

10.37

11.14

10.89

10.62

10.86

12.19

11.85

12.97

11.67

11.60

11.74

Entire

2,247,232

196,631

11.43

Table specific H2O ingestion.

From the graph, we can see that specific H2O ingestion ( EUI ) reaches the highest in September and lowest in February. The mean electricity ingestion is 11.43 m3/t.

Energy and Utilities Consumption

The major energy consumed in their works is light fuel oil ( LFO ) , electricity and diesel oil. Electricity is utilised chiefly for its procedure machine such as corrugator, publishing machines, sewing machine, compressor, fan and office. LFO is used by boiler to bring forth steam while Diesel is chiefly used for vehicles. The entire energy and public-service corporations ingestion for the twelvemonth 2002 is shown in table below.

No

Item

Unit of measurement

Measure

Cost th.RM

1

2

3

4

LFO

Diesel

Electricity

Water

Sum

th.ltr

th.ltr

MWh

M3

th.RM

1,485

102

3,294

24,346

980

64

605

36

1,685

Chart: one-year energy public-service corporation ingestion ( 2002 )

From the pie chart, we can see that LFO and electricity contribute major energy to the Ornapaper. Therefore, it recommended concentrating to this energy to cut down the cost.

Electricity duty

The site belongs to TNB ‘s duty codification E2 – Medium Voltage Peak / Off-peak Industrial Tariff. Table below shows the duty rate.

Item

Unit of measurement

Rate

Electrical energy

Duty codification

On peak period rate

Off peak period rate

Maximal demand for each KWh

RM/KWh

RM/KWh

RM/month

E2

0.208

0.128

21.70

Electricity ingestion

Table below shows the monthly electricity ingestion and costs for the twelvemonth 2002.

Calendar month

On-peak ( KWh )

Off-peak ( KWh )

Entire ( KWh )

Jan

Feb

Mar

Apr

May

Jun

July

Aug

Sept

Oct

Nov

Dec

Entire

198,000

195,860

200,350

218,840

209,570

209,570

210,520

215,850

215,380

202,780

212,690

186,130

2,475,540

100,270

85,040

111,930

111,460

112,460

112,460

73,460

84,720

78,260

73,060

61,250

62,640

1,067,010

298,270

280,900

312,280

330,300

322,030

322,030

283,980

300,570

293,640

275,840

273,940

248,770

3,542,550

Annually cost ( th.RM/yr )

515

137

651

Average monetary value ( RM/KWh ) 0.184

Graph: Electricity Consumption ( 2002 )

From the graph, we can see that the highest electricity ingestion was in April and the lowest is in December. The peak clip is about same throughout the twelvemonth but the off extremum is reduced towards the terminal of the twelvemonth.

Fuel ingestion

Light Fuel Oil ( LFO ) and Diesel are used at Ornapaper. As reference before, LFO is used for boiler to bring forth steam and Diesel is used for vehicle. Table below shows the fuel ingestion for the twelvemonth 2002.

No

Fuel

Unit of measurement

Figure

Entire cost ( th.RM )

1

1.1

1.2

Liquid fuel

LFO

Diesel

ltr

ltr

1,621,280

101919

1070

64

Entire Cost

1134

Specific Energy Consumption ( 2002 )

Calendar month

Electricity ( KWh )

LFO ( ltr )

Production ( metric tons )

Specific Energy Consumption

Electricity ( Kwh/tonnes )

LFO ( GJ/tonnes )

Jan

Feb

Mar

Apr

May

Jun

July

Aug

Sept

Oct

Nov

Dec

298,270

280,900

312,280

330,300

322,030

322,030

283,980

300,570

293,640

275,840

273,940

248,770

99,655

71,182

160,527

93,764

239,073

130,255

145,800

149,236

87,873

164,152

143,427

136,337

4,234

2,976

4,054

3,946

4,256

3,818

3,375

3,157

3,190

3,571

3,659

3,520

70.4

94.4

77.0

83.7

75.7

84.4

84.1

95.2

92.1

77.2

74.9

70.7

0.85

0.86

1.43

0.86

2.03

1.23

1.56

1.71

1.00

1.66

1.42

1.40

Entire

3,542,550

1,621,280

43,756

81.6

1.33

Graph specific energy ingestion ( electricity )

From the graph, we can see specific energy ingestion highest in February and the lowest in January. Specific energy ingestion is cut down from October to January. Therefore, it is chances to cut down the electricity ingestion.

Graph specific energy ingestion ( LFO )

From the graph, we can see specific energy ingestion highest in May and the lowest in January. Specific energy ingestion is about same from January to February. Therefore, it is chances to cut down theLFO ingestion and step energy salvaging for the boiler.

Water Consumption

Water is used for boiler to bring forth steam and for publishing procedure at the Ornapaper. The H2O ingestion for Ornapaper in the twelvemonth 2002 is given in table below.

Calendar month

Figure ( M3 )

Entire Cost ( th.RM )

Jan

Feb

Mar

Apr

May

Jun

July

Aug

Sept

Oct

Nov

Dec

Entire

1,480

1,581

2,486

1,994

2,349

2,331

2,245

1,986

1,171

1,194

1,676

3,265

23,758

2,175.60

2,324.07

3,654.42

2,931.18

3,453.03

3,426.57

3,300.15

2,919.42

1,721.37

1,755.18

2,463.72

4,799.55

34,924.26

Graph H2O consumotion and cost ( 2002 )

From the graph, we can see that the highest H2O ingestion was in December and the lowest is in September. The cost for the H2O ingestion is parallel with the H2O ingestion. Higher the H2O ingestion, higher the cost.