Factors to Instructors Satisfaction of Learning Management Systems

Learning direction systems ( LMS ) enable establishments to administrate their educational resources, back up their traditional schoolroom instruction and distance instruction. LMS survive through teachers ‘ uninterrupted usage, which may be to great extent associated with their satisfaction of the LMS. Consequently, this survey examined the cardinal factors that influence the teachers ‘ satisfaction of LMS in blended acquisition, and how this satisfaction is related to their purpose to continuously utilize LMS in blended acquisition and strictly for distance instruction. These investigated factors are related to teachers ‘ single features ( computing machine anxiousness, engineering experience and personal innovativeness ) , LMS ‘ features ( system quality, information quality and service quality ) , and organisation ‘s features ( direction support, inducements policy and preparation ) . The findings indicated that computing machine anxiousness, personal innovativeness, system quality, information quality, direction support, inducements policy and preparation are cardinal factors to teachers ‘ satisfaction of LMS in blended acquisition. Furthermore, teachers ‘ satisfaction is a important determiner of their uninterrupted purpose to utilize LMS in blended acquisition, and their purpose to strictly utilize LMS for distance instruction.

Introduction

Learning Management Systems ( LMS ) and e-learning have become recently the difficult sell among stakeholders in instruction and preparation. A figure of top universities around the universe have adopted LMS for teachers and pupils to heighten the educational procedure ( Hawkins & A ; Rudy 2007 ; Browne et al. , 2006 ; National Center for Educational Statistics, 2003 ) . More than 90 per centum of all take parting academic establishments in the US are following LMS ( Hawkins & A ; Rudy, 2007 ) . Similarly, about 95 per centum of take parting establishments in the UK have adopted LMS ( Browne et al. , 2006 ) .

Users ‘ satisfaction of an information system is critical to its uninterrupted success. Likewise for a LMS, its success to a great extent depends on teachers ‘ satisfaction of the system. Measuring single users ‘ credence and usage of the e-learning systems is a “ basic selling component ” ( Kelly & A ; Bauer, 2004 ) . Teachers may non to the full use all the characteristics, even when LMS are good in topographic point ; a study of more than 800 teachers at 35 LMS-adopting establishments found that really few teachers use LMS tools for measuring pupils or advancing community ( Woods et al. , 2004 ) . Research besides indicated that fright of engineering and deficiency of clip may restrict teachers ‘ acceptance of LMS ( Yueh & A ; Hsu, 2008 ) . Teachers ‘ demands and capablenesss should exhaustively be investigated when deploying LMS applications ( Yueh and Hsu, 2008 ) . Therefore, teachers ‘ satisfaction of LMS is important and should be carefully studied to guarantee successful LMS deployment. LMS survive through teachers ‘ uninterrupted usage, which may be to great extent linked to their satisfaction of the LMS.

Consequently, the aim of this survey is to look into the cardinal factors lending to teachers ‘ satisfaction of LMS usage in blended acquisition environment. These factors can be categorized as teachers ‘ single features ( computing machine anxiousness, engineering experience and personal innovativeness ) , LMS ‘ features ( system quality, information quality and service quality ) , and organisation ‘s features ( direction support, inducements policy and preparation ) . Investigating the non-technical factors is of import to advance the acceptance and diffusion of LMS enterprises ( Albirini, 2006 ; ElTartoussi, 2009 ) . In add-on, the survey besides assesses how teachers ‘ satisfaction of LMS usage in blended acquisition is related to their uninterrupted purpose to LMS usage in blended acquisition, and their purpose to strictly utilize LMS for distance instruction. Several organisations initiate their LMS acceptance by utilizing them in blended acquisition environment, to promote the hazards of a complete pure LMS usage for distance instruction. The undermentioned subdivisions discuss the background literature, research model and methodological analysis, analysis and consequences, and the decision.

Background

Learning Management Systems & A ; Benefits

Harmonizing to the World Bank ( 2010 ) , a LMS is a package bundle that automatically administers instruction and trains human resources. It is the usage of a Web-based communicating, coaction, larning, cognition transportation, and developing to add value to scholars and concerns ( Kelly & A ; Bauer, 2004 ) . In peculiar, a LMS is an Internet application that aims to back up instruction and preparation activities ( Cavus and Momani, 2009 ) and provides a platform to back up e-learning activities ( Yueh & A ; Hsu, 2008 ) . Course Management Systems ( CMS ) and Learning Content Management Systems ( LCMS ) are sometimes used to bespeak LMS ( Yueh & A ; Hsu, 2008 ) ; other related footings are Computer-assisted Learning ( CAL ) , Computer-based Learning ( CBL ) , and Online Learning ( Chan, 2008 ) . It should be noted, nevertheless, that LMS applications are non alone to educational establishments ; even public and private organisations use such systems for preparation intents.

Many LMS applications are available. The most popular LMS used at colleges and universities in the US is Blackboard followed by WebCT, which was acquired by Blackboard, Inc. in 2006 ( Falvo & A ; Johnson, 2007 ) . Other LMS solutions are Moodle, ATutor, Learn.com, Joomla, and Krawler. LMS applications offer teachers several functionalities that benefits and contribute to learning procedure. Course direction tools, group confabs and treatment, assignment entry, and class appraisal are the primary tools in LMS ( Yueh & A ; Hsu ; 2008 ) . In add-on, LMS aid teachers provide scholars with educational stuffs and track their engagement and appraisals ( Falvo & A ; Johnson, 2007 ) . More technically sophisticated LMS characteristics include keeping office hours online, making pupil groups, and delegating on-line undertakings to groups, harmonizing to Yildirim et Al. ( 2004 ) . Besides, Ceraulo ( 2005 ) indicated that ePortfolios is a cardinal characteristic in some LMS applications, which enable teachers to keep pupil entries throughout the class ( i.e. , trials, assignments, undertakings ) . LMS solutions purpose besides to increase involvement in larning and learning among scholars and teachers, severally ( Mahdizadeh et al. , 2008 ) . Furthermore LMS enhance learning procedure efficiency and consequence in cost-savings ( Aczel et al. , 2008 ) .

Prior Studies on LMS

LMS have been adopted by academic and developing establishments to back up their distance instruction and/or supplement their traditional manner of instruction ( Rainer et al. , 2007 ) . Users ‘ satisfaction of LMS, as any other information system, is critical to their uninterrupted success ( DeLone & A ; McLean, 2003 ) . There are a figure of surveies that have investigated the scholars ‘ credence, usage and/or satisfaction of LMS such as Arbaugh ( 2000 ) , Pituch and Lee ( 2006 ) , Roca et Al. ( 2006 ) , Liaw et Al ( 2007 ) , Raaij and Schepers ( 2008 ) , Sun et Al. ( 2008 ) , and Wu et Al. ( 2006 ) . However, limited quantitative surveies have investigated teachers ‘ credence, usage and/or satisfaction of LMS. In the LMS context, research workers have studied LMS credence and success, from teachers ‘ position, in assorted ways. Liaw et Al. ( 2007 ) assessed factors act uponing scholars ‘ and teachers ‘ behavioural purpose to utilize e-learning, which is influenced by sensed utility, perceived self-efficacy, and perceived enjoyment. Ball and Levy ( 2008 ) investigated the impact of teacher ‘s single features on teachers ‘ purpose to utilize LMS. Teo ( 2009 ) assessed the instructors ‘ perceived utility of LMS and perceived easiness of usage. However, users ‘ satisfaction of an information system is critical to its uninterrupted usage and resulted benefits ( DeLone & A ; McLean, 2003 ) . Furthermore, cardinal factors that might impact the teachers ‘ acceptance of LMS can be related to their single features ( Ball & A ; Levy, 2008 ; Liaw et al. , 2007 ; Raaij & A ; Schepers, 2008 ; Teo, 2009 ) , LMS features ( Pituch & A ; Lee, 2006 ; Roca et al. , 2006 ) and organisation features ( Sumner & A ; Hostetler, 1999 ) .

None of these surveies, nevertheless, investigated the direct impact of teachers ‘ features, LMS ‘ features, and/or an organisation ‘s features on teachers ‘ satisfaction. User satisfaction is an of import index of IS success ( DeLone & A ; McLean, 2003 ) . In add-on measuring the impacts of organisation features along with teachers ‘ features and LMS features on teachers ‘ satisfaction is critical.

Teacher Features

The acceptance and satisfaction of LMS may, to a great extent, be determined by the features of its users. Several dimensions of users ‘ features have been proposed and investigated as determiners of engineering credence. In the context of e-learning, few surveies have investigated the impact of teachers ‘ dimensions on LMS credence. Ball and Levy ( 2008 ) investigated the impact of self-efficacy, computing machine anxiousness, and engineering experience on teachers ‘ purpose to utilize emerging larning experience in a little private university in the US and found that self-efficacy was the lone major determiner of teachers ‘ purpose. Teo ( 2009 ) found that computing machine self-efficacy straight impacts pre-service instructors ‘ perceived utility, perceived easiness of usage, and behavioural purpose in Singapore. Liaw et Al. ( 2007 ) found that perceived self-efficacy determines teachers ‘ behavioural purpose to utilize e-learning in Taiwan. Albirini ( 2006 ) investigated the perceptual experience of school instructors of the usage of ICT in instruction in Syria, and the consequences highlighted the importance of instructors ‘ vision of engineering, their experiences with it, and the cultural conditions on their attitudes toward engineering. Mahdizadeh, Biemans, and Mulder ( 2008 ) found that instructors ‘ old experience with e-learning environments and easiness of usage explain instructors ‘ perceptual experience of the utility of e-learning environments and their existent usage of these environments. Teachers ‘ innovativeness is of import to the satisfaction of e-learning ( Raaij & A ; Schepers, 2008 )

LMS Features

The features of LMS may hold a great impact on the teacher ‘s credence and usage of LMS. Features of any information system, including LMS, may be related to system, information, and service support quality as classified by DeLone and McLean ( 2003 ) . E-learning systems ‘ quality was found to be important on the teachers ‘ perceived utility, perceived enjoyment, and perceived self-efficacy, which accordingly affect their purpose to utilize the system in the schoolroom ( Liaw et al. , 2007 ) .

In the e-learning context, few surveies have examined the general quality of engineering or specific dimension. For case, from teachers ‘ and scholars ‘ position, Liaw et Al. ( 2007 ) investigated the impact of e-learning systems ‘ general quality on sensed utility, perceived enjoyment, and perceived self-efficacy, which accordingly affect their purpose to utilize the system in the schoolroom, and found it important. Albirini ( 2006 ) indicates that teachers ‘ vision of engineering impacts their attitudes toward the usage of ICT in instruction. Two important surveies on the impact of engineering on users ‘ credence of LMS are Pituch and Lee ‘s ( 2006 ) and Roca et Al. ‘s ( 2006 ) , but they are from the scholars ‘ position. Roca et Al. ( 2006 ) investigated scholars ‘ perceived system quality from three dimensions ( system quality, information quality, and service quality ) . They found that scholars ‘ sensed system factors ( system quality, information quality, and service quality ) straight affect their e-learning satisfaction and purpose to utilize and indirectly their sensed utility. Pituch and Lee ( 2006 ) examined the impact of system quality from three dimensions: the system ‘s functionality, interactivity, and response.

As indicated, limited surveies provide a elaborate scrutiny of the influence of the three dimensions ( system quality, information quality, service quality ) of LMS on teachers ‘ satisfaction. This survey integrates these three dimensions of LMS on the teachers ‘ satisfaction.

Organization Features

An organisation ‘s features play a major function in the behaviours of its employees, including the credence usage and satisfaction of any engineering such as LMS. Corporate civilization plays a cardinal function in the success of any undertaking. Schein defines civilization as “ the manner we do things around here ” ( 1985, p. 12 ) . Cultural values shape an organisation ‘s norms and patterns, which accordingly influence employees ‘ behaviours such as LMS use. Some of an organisation ‘s features that might be relevant to the use of LMS are direction support, inducements, and preparation.

There is a deficiency of empirical surveies that capture the influence of organisation factors on the credence and usage of LMS by and large. In the e-learning context, senior direction support and the alliance of e-learning with the section and university course of study are of import for its acceptance ( Sumner & A ; Hostetler, 1999 ) . Incentives are besides an of import factor for teachers ‘ credence to incorporate the engineering in learning. Incentives or inducements for teachers can be enforced by holding the usage of the engineering as a factor in a nomination for learning award, publicity, and term of office ( Sumner & A ; Hostetler, 1999 ) . Finally, developing end-users is of import, and can be in signifier of workshops, on-line tutorials, classs, and seminars. In add-on, Teo ( 2009 ) found that easing conditions, measured by proficient support, preparation, and administrative support, indirectly affect instructors ‘ credence of engineering in instruction.

Teachers ‘ SATISFACTION OF LMS

Framework Development

This survey aimed to analyze the impact of teacher ‘s single features, LMS ‘ features, and organisation ‘s features on teachers ‘ satisfaction of LMS in blended acquisition, and accordingly, on their uninterrupted usage in blended acquisition and pure usage purpose for distance acquisition. As indicated, few surveies have examined this incorporate probe of teachers ‘ LMS credence and use. This survey assessed the single features based on teachers ‘ computing machine anxiousness, engineering experience and personal innovativeness, LMS features based on system, information, and service quality ; and organisational features based on direction support, inducements policy and preparation. The impact of teachers ‘ ego efficaciousness was besides ab initio considered as portion of teachers ‘ features, but was dropped out after the analysis because of low dependability and cogency of the concept in this survey. Figure 1 illustrates this survey theoretical account.

Figure 1: Teachers LMS Acceptance and Use Model

Instructor Individual Characteristics Hypotheses

Computer Anxiety Hypothesis

Computer anxiousness is “ the fright or apprehensiveness felt by persons when they used computing machines, or when they considered the possibility of computing machine use ” ( Simonson, et al. , 1987, p. 238 ) . Computer anxiousness is an of import factor for the credence of the engineering ( Ball & A ; Levy, 2008 ; Piccoli et al. , 2001 ; Raaij & A ; Schepers, 2008 ; Sun et al. , 2008 ) . Fear of computing machines may negatively impact the credence of LMS and the user ‘s sensed satisfaction ( Piccoli et al. , 2001 ) . Empirical grounds of the impact of computing machine anxiousness was assorted. Ball and Levy ( 2008 ) did non observe a important nexus between computing machine anxiousness and teachers ‘ purpose to utilize the e-learning ; nevertheless, Sun et Al. ( 2008 ) found that computing machine anxiousness significantly impacts the scholars ‘ sensed satisfaction of e-learning, and Raaij and Schepers ( 2008 ) found the computing machine anxiousness impacts the scholar ‘s sensed easiness of usage of e-learning. Therefore we hypothesized that:

Hypothesis 1: Teachers ‘ computing machine anxiousness is negatively associated with their satisfaction of LMS.

Technology Experience Hypothesis

Users ‘ experience with the engineering ( EUT ) besides plays a major function in the credence of engineering ( Venkatesh & A ; Davis, 2000 ; Thompson et al. , 2006 ) . An person ‘s EUT is his/her exposure to the engineering every bit good as the accomplishments and abilities that are gained through utilizing a engineering ( Thompson et al. , 2006 ) . Therefore, EUT may impact teachers ‘ credence of LMS for their categories. Although empirical quantitative research, such as that of Ball and Levy ( 2008 ) , found no important impact of EUT on teachers ‘ purpose to utilize LMS, research workers Sumner and Hostetler ( 1999 ) indicated that current degree of computing machine accomplishments and extent of usage of calculating accomplishments in learning are of import for teachers ‘ credence of ICT in instruction. Likewise, Wan et Al. ( 2007 ) highlighted the importance of engineering experience on the acquisition procedures and, accordingly, larning results. Mahdizadeh et Al. ( 2008 ) suggested that teachers ‘ anterior experience with e-learning may explicate their perceptual experience of the utility of e-learning environments and their existent usage. Therefore we hypothesized:

Hypothesis 2: The teacher ‘s experience with the usage of engineering is positively associated with their satisfaction of LMS.

Personal innovativeness Hypothesis

Personal innovativeness is another issue that may be critical factor on teachers ‘ satisfaction of LMS. Personal innovativeness in information engineering context means individual ‘s attitude reflecting his inclination to experiment with and to follow new information engineerings independently of the communicated experience of others ; “ Bing used to accommodating to new systems and procedures might uncover the utility and easiness of usage more rapidly to an advanced individual than to a non-innovative individual ” ( Schillewaert et al. , 2005 ) . Teachers ‘ innovativeness is of import to the satisfaction of e-learning ( Raaij & A ; Schepers, 2008 )

Hypothesis 3: The teacher ‘s personal innovativeness is positively associated with their satisfaction of LMS.

LMS Characteristics Hypotheses

System Quality Hypothesis

System quality is indispensable for the user ‘s satisfaction of any engineering, including LMS. Researchers, such as DeLone and McLean ( 2003 ) , and Seddon ( 1997 ) highlighted the impact of system quality on engineering credence, usage or satisfaction and have introduced several ways to mensurate it. Teachers ‘ credence of LMS may be determined to a great extent by system quality. The more functionalities, interactivity, and response of LMS, the better is its credence and use ( Pituch & A ; Lee, 2006 ) . Quantitative empirical surveies found a important impact of system features on e-learning credence: dependability ( Wan et al. , 2007 ; Webster & A ; Hackley, 1997 ) , handiness ( Wan et al. , 2007 ) , and system functionality, interactivity, and response ( Pituch & A ; Lee, 2006 ) . Albirini ( 2006 ) indicated that teachers ‘ vision of engineering impacts their attitudes toward the usage of ICT in instruction. Therefore, we hypothesized that:

Hypothesis 4: Lumen system quality is positively associated with the teacher ‘s satisfaction of LMS.

Information Quality Hypothesis

Information quality is besides of import for teachers ‘ satisfaction of LMS, and refers to the perceived end product produced by the system. Information quality with great truth, relevancy, seasonableness, sufficiency, completeness, comprehensibility, format, and handiness are of import for the success of an information engineering ( Seddon, 1997 ) . There is a deficiency of research on the impact of information quality on teachers ‘ satisfaction of LMS. Some research was conducted from the scholars ‘ position. Roca et Al. ( 2006 ) measured information quality of LMS by indexs related to relevance, seasonableness, sufficiency, truth, lucidity, and format, and proved that information quality was straight important for scholars ‘ satisfaction and indirectly for sensed utility. Likewise, Lee ( 2006 ) found content quality was important for scholars ‘ perceived utility. Consequently, we hypothesize that:

Hypothesis 5: LMS information quality is positively associated with the teacher ‘s satisfaction of LMS.

Service Quality Hypothesis

Service quality refers to the quality of support services provided to the system ‘s end-users. Teachers ‘ credence of LMS may be related to the quality of the support services. Common measurings of service quality are tangibles, dependability, reactivity, confidence, and empathy ( Parasuraman et al. , 1988 ; Kettinger & A ; Lee, 1994 ) . Few surveies have investigated the impact of service quality on LMS acceptance and success. For case, Roca et Al. ( 2006 ) assessed service quality by indexs related to responsiveness, dependability, and empathy, and confirmed its direct significance on scholars ‘ satisfaction and indirect significance of sensed utility in the e-learning context. Therefore, we hypothesized that:

Hypothesis 6: LMS service quality is positively associated with teacher ‘s satisfaction of LMS.

Organization Features Hypothesiss

Management Support Hypothesis

Management support is a cardinal factor for the credence of any organisational enterprise. Senior directors ‘ unfastened blessing and indorsement of LMS acceptance promote teachers ‘ acceptance and credence of LMS. Directors may back up an LMS by promoting teachers to follow it and place a clear vision of the aim of the LMS and how it is aligned with the university vision. Small research has investigated the impact of direction support on teachers ‘ credence of LMS. However, in the e-learning context, senior directors should clearly place the end of LMS for the university course of study ( Sumner & A ; Hostetler, 1999 ) . This directors ‘ support assures teachers that utilizing LMS is portion of the organisation ‘s civilization and is utile and encourages them to follow and utilize the system. Directors are recognized as a high authorization ( Ali, 1990 ) ; therefore, teachers ‘ acceptance and credence of LMS may be associated with the indorsement of their senior directors. Management support of end-users significantly improves computing machine use ( Igbaria, 1990 ) . Facilitating conditions, including administrative support, indirectly affect instructors ‘ credence of engineering in instruction ( Teo, 2009 ) . Consequently, we hypothesized that:

Hypothesis 7: Management support is positively associated with the teacher ‘s satisfaction of LMS.

Incentives Policy Hypothesis

Incentives, in footings of inducements, are of import factors to promote teachers to incorporate LMS in their instruction. Incentives can be “ non-trivial ” pecuniary and non-monetary inducements. E-learning research lacks the appraisal of inducements on LMS credence. Incentives or inducements for teachers can be enforced by utilizing the LMS as a factor in nomination for a learning award, publicity, and term of office ( Sumner & A ; Hostetler, 1999 ) . These inducements ‘ policies push teachers to follow and use LMS for their instruction. Therefore, we hypothesized that:

Hypothesis 8: An inducement policy is positively associated with teacher ‘s satisfaction of LMS.

Training Hypothesis

Supplying end-users with preparation is of import, as preparation improves teachers ‘ acceptance of LMS and illustrates its possible utility, and encourages its usage in learning. Limited research has investigated the impact of developing on teachers ‘ satisfaction of LMS. Training can be in signifier of workshops, on-line tutorials, classs, and seminars ( Sumner & A ; Hostetler, 1999 ) . Facilitating conditions, including preparation, indirectly affect instructors ‘ credence of engineering in instruction ( Teo, 2009 ) . Therefore, we hypothesized:

Hypothesis 9: Training is positively associated with the teacher ‘s satisfaction of LMS.

Use and Future Intention Hypotheses

Continuous Blended Learning Intention Hypothesis

The purpose to utilize the engineering is significantly determined by users ‘ sensed easiness of usage and perceived usefulness ( Venkatesh & A ; Davis, 2000 ) . The higher the teachers ‘ perceived utility of LMS, and existent usage, the more likely it is that they will go on to utilize it. Continuous purpose to e-learning usage is determined by sensed usefulness and satisfaction ( Hyashi et al. , 2004 ) . Therefore, we hypothesized:

Hypothesis 10: The teachers ‘ satisfaction of LMS is positively associated with their purpose to continuously utilize LMS in blended acquisition.

Pure Use Intention hypothesis

Many organisations begin their LMS acceptance as a auxiliary tool to traditional schoolroom instruction, trusting that this auxiliary acceptance will finally advance the pure usage of LMS for distance instruction. Perceived easiness of usage, perceived usefulness, and existent usage may hold an of import impact on uninterrupted purpose for auxiliary usage and purpose for pure usage of the LMS for instruction. When teachers believe that LMS is utile, and can be utilized for auxiliary intents, they are more likely to follow it strictly for distance instruction. The sensed utility of a engineering is found to be important determiner of the purpose to utilize the engineering ( Venkatesh & A ; Davis, 2000 ) . Perceived usefulness and auxiliary usage are important determiners of scholars ‘ usage of e-learning for distance instruction ( Pituch & A ; Lee, 2006 ) . Thus we hypothesized:

Hypothesis 11: The teachers ‘ satisfaction of LMS in blended acquisition is positively associated with their purpose to strictly utilize LMS for distance instruction.

Methodology

Participants ‘ Profile

This survey included 82 teachers from Oman. Teachers can voluntarily follow Moodle LMS to supplement their traditional categories.

The teachers were from different colleges in the university and with different demographics. About 62 per centum of them were male and 38 per centum were female. About 5 per centum of them were adjunct lectors, 27 per centum were lectors, 50 per centum were adjunct professors, 13 per centum were associate professors, and 5 per centum were full professors. The teachers ‘ age varied from 20s to above 50s: approximately 8 per centum were in their 20s, 26 per centum were in their 30s, 16 per centum in their 40s, and 32 per centum were 50 or over. Almost 44 per centum had less than six old ages of work experience, 30 per centum had less than 11 old ages, 16 per centum had less than 16 old ages, 7 per centum had less than 21 old ages, and 2 per centum had more than 20 old ages. Most indicated that their computing machine accomplishments were above norm. Almost 71 per centum have above mean computing machine accomplishments ; 23 per centum, approximately norm ; and merely 6 per centum were below norm. The bulk, approximately 59 per centum, has used the LMS for categories for three old ages or more ; 30 per centum have used it for one to two old ages ; and 11 per centum have used it for less than one twelvemonth.

Research Questionnaire

The questionnaire was distributed to SQU teachers. An invitation electronic mail was sent to teachers to finish the survey questionnaire either online or on an affiliated MS Word papers. A reminder was sent two hebdomads after the initial invitation. Most of the teachers filled the questionnaire online ( about 95 per centum of them ) .

The questionnaire included the concepts to be measured for quantitative analysis, along with demographic inquiries ( e.g. , gender, age, grade, LMS use experience, work experience, and occupation rubric ) . Concept measurings points were phrased harmonizing to a five-point Likert graduated table ( 1= strongly disagree ; 2=disagree ; 3=Neutral ; 4= agree and 5=strongly agree ) . To statistically measure the survey model, 28 indexs were used. Tables 1 and 2 show the entire indexs used for each concept. The LMS characteristic concepts ( system quality, information quality, and service quality ) were adopted and modified from Roca et Al. ( 2006 ) and Pituch and Lee ( 2006 ) . Individual features concepts ( computing machine anxiousness and engineering experience ) were adopted from Ball and Levy ( 2008 ) ; while the personal innovativeness concept was adopted from ( Raaij & A ; Schepers, 2008 ) . Organizational features ‘ concepts ( direction support, inducements, and developing ) were self-developed, based on Sumner and Hostetler ( 1999 ) . The user satisfaction concept was adopted from Sun et Al. ( 2008 ) , and uninterrupted blended acquisition and pure LMS purpose were adopted and modified harmonizing to Pituch and Lee ( 2006 ) .

DATA ANALYSIS & A ; RESULTS

PLS Analysis Methodology

Data was analyzed by PLS-Graph 3.0 package. PLS ( partial least square ) is a variance-based structural equation theoretical account ( SEM ) technique that allows way analysis of theoretical accounts with latent variables ( Chin, 1998 ) . The PLS attack is a variance-based SEM that assists research workers in obtaining determinate values of latent variables for prognostic intents. The PLS does that by minimising the discrepancy of all dependent variables instead than utilizing the theoretical account to explicate the co-variation of all indexs ( Chin, 1998 ; Chin and Newsted, 1999 ) . Therefore, the theoretical account waies are estimated based on the ability to minimise the residuary discrepancies of the dependent variables. The PLS algorithm uses an iterative procedure for the appraisal of weights and latent variables tonss. The procedure about converges to a stable set of weight estimations. The rating of the theoretical account is based on ( 1 ) the appraisal of the theoretical account measurings by measuring their cogency, dependability, and discriminant cogency, ( 2 ) the analysis of the waies of the structural theoretical account ( Chin, 1998 ) . Table 1 and Table 2 show the independent and dependent concepts ‘ steps and lading severally.

Table 1: Independent Constructs Measures and Loads

Concept Measures

Loading

Computer Anxiety

I believe that working with computing machines is really hard.

0.8717

Computers make me experience uncomfortable.

0.9493

I get a sinking feeling when I think of seeking to utilize a computing machine.

0.8961

Technology Experience

I feel confident utilizing the e-learning system

0.7617

I feel confident downloading/uploading necessary stuffs from the Internet.

0.8460

I feel confident utilizing on-line communicating tools.

0.6333

Personal Innovativeness

I like to experiment with new information engineerings.

0.6713

Among my equals, I am normally the first to seek out new information engineerings.

0.9735

System Quality

The system offers flexibleness in learning as to clip and topographic point.

0.7046

The system offers multimedia ( audio, picture, and text ) types of class content.

0.7225

The response clip of the system is sensible.

0.7017

The system enables synergistic communicating between teacher and pupils.

0.8190

Information Quality

The information provided by the system is relevant for my occupation.

0.8537

The information in the system is really good.

0.9060

The information from the e-learning system is up-to-date.

0.8457

The information provided by the system is complete.

0.8186

Service Quality

The system support services give me prompt service.

0.8485

The system support services have convenient operating hours.

0.8388

The system support services are dependable.

0.8859

The system support services are easy to pass on with.

0.8769

Management Support

Senior decision makers strongly back up the usage of e-learning system.

0.8811

I get support by section chair or dean on my usage of e-learning system.

0.8253

My troughs highlight the importance of e-learning system on my course of study.

0.8624

Senior decision makers clearly identify the importance of e-learning to the course of study.

0.7517

Incentives

The usage of e-learning is a factor in the nomination for learning award.

0.9396

The usage of e-learning system is a factor in finding publicity.

0.9620

The usage of e-learning system is a factor in one-year lift of instruction.

0.9685

Training

I receive developing workshops on how to utilize e-learning tools.

0.8015

I receive online manuals on how to utilize e-learning tools.

0.7993

I receive seminars on the usage of e-learning tools.

0.8761

Table 2: Dependent Concepts Measures and Loads

Concept Measures

Loading

User Satisfaction ( SAT )

I am satisfied with the public presentation of the e-learning system.

0.8078

I am pleased with the experience of utilizing the e-learning system.

0.9133

My determination to utilize the e-learning system was a wise one.

0.8684

Continuous Intention to LMS Use in Blended Learning ( CUI )

I will often utilize e-learning system to make a instruction undertaking.

0.8743

I will utilize e-learning system on regular footing to supplement my categories in the hereafter.

0.8645

I will ever seek to utilize the e-learning system to make a instruction undertaking whenever it has a utile characteristic.

0.8917

Purpose to Pure LMS Use ( PUI )

I plan to learn strictly on-line classs for distance scholars.

0.9393

I will utilize e-learning system to learn strictly on-line classs.

0.9594

I plan to learn strictly on-line classs in every bit many occasions as possible.

0.9304

Concepts Validity and Reliability

The dependability and the cogency are two standards used by research workers to measure the pertinence of their measurings to their investigated theoretical account. Reliability refers to the consistence of the steps ( indexs ) of a specific latent variable ; whereas, cogency refers to how good the construct is defined by the steps ( Hair et al. , 1998 ) . With PLS, the dependability of the measurings was evaluated by internal consistence dependability, and the cogency was measured by the mean discrepancy extracted ( AVE ) , which refers to the sum of discrepancy a latent variable gaining controls from its indexs. AVE was developed by Fornell and Larcker ( 1981 ) to measure concept cogency. The recommended degree for internal consistence dependability is at least 0.70, and is at least 0.50 for AVE ( Chin, 1998 ) . Tables 1 and 2 show the theoretical account concepts ‘ measurings and lading. Table 3 shows that the survey concepts ‘ dependability and AVE are above the recommended degrees for all the concepts.

Table 3: Concepts Reliability and Validity

Concept

Entire

Items

Dependability

AVE

Computer Anxiety ( CA )

3

0.932

0.821

Technology Experience ( TE )

3

0.794

0.566

Personal Innovativeness ( PI )

2

0.818

0.699

System Quality ( SQ )

4

0.827

0.545

Information Quality ( IQ )

4

0.917

0.734

Service Quality ( SvQ )

4

0.921

0.744

Management Support ( MS )

4

0.899

0.692

Incentives ( IN )

3

0.970

0.915

Training ( TR )

3

0.866

0.683

User Satisfaction ( SAT )

3

0.898

0.747

Continuous auxiliary Use Intention ( CUI )

3

0.909

0.769

Pure Use Intention ( PUI )

3

0.960

0.889

To accomplish the discriminant cogency of the concepts, Fornell and Larcker ( 1981 ) suggest that the square root of AVE of each concept should transcend the correlativities shared between the concepts and other concepts in the theoretical account. The discriminant cogency is used to guarantee the differences among concepts ( Chin, 1998 ) . Table 4 shows that the theoretical account constructs satisfy that regulation, as the square root of the AVE ( on the diagonal ) is greater than the correlativities with other concepts. Therefore, all the theoretical account concepts have a satisfactory discriminant cogency concept.

Table 4: Concept ‘ Correlations and Discriminant Validity

Concept

Calcium

Tellurium

Pi

SQ

Intelligence quotient

SvQ

Multiple sclerosis

Inch

TR

Saturday

CUI

PUI

Computer Anxiety

( CA )

0.906

Technology Experience

( TE )

-0.153

0.752

Personal Innovativeness

( PI )

-0.295

0.551

0.836

System Quality

( SQ )

-0.092

0.159

0.260

0.738

Information Quality

( IQ )

-0.078

0.179

0.209

0.633

0.857

Service Quality

( SvQ )

-0.027

0.056

0.128

0.472

0.689

0.863

Management Support

( MS )

0.199

-0.174

0.125

0.298

0.226

0.229

0.832

Incentives

( IN )

0.227

-0.224

-0.106

0.158

0.124

0.142

0.530

0.957

Training

( TR )

0.020

0.003

0.165

0.271

0.348

0.353

0.241

0.297

0.826

User Satisfaction

( SAT )

-0.338

0.182

0.333

0.491

0.497

0.324

0.226

0.209

0.388

0.864

Continuous auxiliary Use Intention ( CUI )

-0.329

0.373

0.493

0.488

0.365

0.191

0.173

0.163

0.340

0.764

0.877

Pure Use Intention

( PUI )

0.008

0.123

0.374

0.103

0.054

-0.026

0.072

0.094

0.113

0.355

0.435

0.943

Model Evaluation and Paths Analysis

With PLS, R-square values are used to measure the prognostic relevancy of a structural theoretical account for the dependent latent variables, and the way coefficients are used to measure the effects of the independent variables ( Chin, 1998 ) . The significance of the theoretical account waies was assessed based on their t-values.

Table 5: Model Evaluation & A ; Paths Analysis

Way

Beta

( I? )

p-value

Hypothesis

CAi? SAT

– 0.3058

& lt ; 0.0005

H1: supported

TEi? SAT

0.0587

& gt ; 0.5

H2: non supported

PIi? SAT

0.1115

& lt ; 0.025

H3: supported

SQi? SAT

0.1808

& lt ; 0.025

H4: supported

IQi? SAT

0.2371

& lt ; 0.001

H5: supported

SvQi? SAT

0.0398

& gt ; 0.5

H6: non supported

MSi? SAT

0.1272

& gt ; 0.5

H7: supported

INi? SAT

0.1476

& lt ; 0.01

H8: supported

TRi? SAT

0.2046

& lt ; 0.001

H9: supported

SATi? CUI

0.7693

& lt ; 0.0005

H10: supported

SATi? PUI

0.3592

& lt ; 0.0005

H11 supported

Table 5 shows the R2 values of the endogenous dependent concepts. The analysis indicated that the theoretical account explains 47.1 per centum of discrepancy in the teachers ‘ satisfaction of LMS in blended acquisition. The analysis besides showed that teachers ‘ satisfaction of LMS in blended acquisition explains 58.4 per centum of discrepancy in their purpose to continuously utilize LMS in blended acquisition, and 12.6 % of their purpose to utilize LMS strictly for distance instruction.

Table 5 besides shows the waies ‘ coefficients analysis between the exogenic independent concepts ( teachers ‘ features, LMS ‘s features, and organisation ‘s features ) and the endogenous dependent concept ( teachers ‘ satisfaction of LMS in blended acquisition ) , and, accordingly, purpose ( uninterrupted LMS usage in blended acquisition, and LMS pure usage for distance instruction ) .

The analysis showed that most of the teacher ‘s features, the LMS ‘s features and the organisation ‘s features to some extent have impact on the teacher ‘s satisfaction of LMS in blended acquisition. First, teachers ‘ computing machine anxiousness negatively impacts their satisfaction of LMS ( Beta -I? = – 0.3058, P & lt ; 0.0005 ) ; therefore hypothesis 1 is supported. Second, the impact of teachers ‘ experience with the engineering is non important on their satisfaction of LMS ( 0.0587, P & gt ; 0.05 ) ; therefore hypothesis 2 is non supported. Third, teachers ‘ personal innovativeness positively impacts their satisfaction of LMS ( I? = 0.2371, P & lt ; 0.001 ) ; therefore, hypothesis 3 is supported. Fourth, system quality significantly impacts teachers ‘ satisfaction of LMS ( I? = 0.1808, P & lt ; 0.025 ) ; therefore, hypothesis 4 is supported. Fifth, information quality significantly impacts teachers ‘ satisfaction of LMS ( I? =0.2371, P & lt ; 0.001 ) ; therefore, hypothesis 5 is supported. Sixth, service quality is non important on teachers ‘ satisfaction of LMS ( I? = 0.0398, P & gt ; 0.05 ) ; therefore hypothesis 6 is non supported. Seventh, direction support significantly impacts teacher ‘s satisfaction of LMS ( I? = 0.1272, P & lt ; 0.025 ) ; therefore, hypothesis 7 is supported. Eight, incentives policy significantly impacts teachers ‘ satisfaction of LMS ( I? = 0.1476, P & lt ; 0.01 ) ; therefore, hypothesis 8 is supported. Ninth, developing significantly impacts the teachers ‘ satisfaction of LMS ( I? = 0.2046, P & lt ; 0.001 ) ; therefore, hypothesis 9 is supported. In add-on, teachers ‘ satisfaction of LMS in blended larning significantly impacts their purpose to continuously utilize LMS in blended acquisition ( I? = 0.7693, P & lt ; 0.0005 ) , and their purpose to strictly utilize LMS for distance instruction ( I? = 0.3592 P & lt ; 0.0005 ) ; therefore, hypothesis 10 and hypothesis 11 severally are supported.

DISCUSSION & A ; CONCLUSIONS

Discussion of Findingss and Deductions

LMS include several tools that provide academic and preparation establishments an efficient and effectual agencies to back up distance instruction and supplement their traditional instruction. Furthermore, LMS enable these establishments to capture their educational stuffs and continue them for future reuse. This survey examined the impact of teachers ‘ features ( computing machine anxiousness, engineering experience and personal innovativeness ) ; LMS ‘ features ( system quality, information quality, and service quality ) ; and an organisation ‘s features ( direction support, inducements, and developing ) on teachers ‘ satisfaction of LMS in blended acquisition, and, accordingly, their future purpose of utilizing LMS in blended acquisition and in pure e-learning for distance instruction. The consequences showed that teacher ‘ single features, LMS ‘ features, and organisation ‘s features have assorted impacts on teachers ‘ satisfaction of LMS in blended acquisition.

Sing the teachers ‘ single features, the survey, foremost, found that teachers ‘ computing machine anxiousness negatively impacts their satisfaction of LMS. In fact, the survey showed that teachers ‘ computing machine anxiousness is the chief cardinal factor act uponing teachers ‘ satisfaction of LMS. As indicated earlier, empirical surveies showed assorted impacts of computing machine anxiousness on LMS acceptance ( sensed easiness of usage, perceived usefulness and satisfaction ) . These assorted consequences might be linked to computing machine literacy or cultural issues. Nevertheless, organisations need to look into the causes of persons ‘ computing machine anxiousness in order to extinguish it and accordingly better the acceptance of LMS in their organisations. Second, even though qualitative research has suggested that persons ‘ engineering experience might lend to the LMS acceptance and satisfaction, this empirical survey was unable to happen a important impact of this factor on teachers ‘ satisfaction, which is consistent with Ball and Levy ‘s ( 2008 ) empirical survey. Third, the survey found that teachers ‘ personal innovativeness is another positive key factor to their satisfaction of LMS in blended acquisition, which is consistent with ( Raaij & A ; Schepers, 2008 ) . Therefore, bettering teachers ‘ personal innovativeness will better their satisfaction of LMS.

Refering the LMS ‘s features, the survey found system quality and information quality are besides positive cardinal factors to teachers ‘ satisfaction of LMS. This determination is consistent with Roca and his co-workers ‘ ( 2006 ) empirical survey on scholars ‘ satisfaction of e-learning. Therefore, for a successful deployment of LMS organisations should guarantee that system is with high functionalities and contains good information quality. Unfortunately this survey was unable to observe a important impact of service quality on teachers ‘ satisfaction inconsistent with Roca and his co-workers ‘ ( 2006 ) happening. This survey, compared to Roca and his co-workers ‘ survey on scholars, investigated more factors.

Refering the organisation ‘s features, the survey significantly found that direction support, inducements policy and preparation are cardinal factors to teachers ‘ satisfaction of LMS. Even though much qualitative research has suggested this issue, non much empirical quantitative research has asserted this impact on LMS satisfaction. Therefore, organisations and their senior directors should invariably back up the LMS enterprise and promote teachers ‘ usage. Senior directors should besides incorporate LMS usage in their inducements policy such as a factor in nomination for a learning award, publicity, and term of office. Finally, senior directors should supply sufficient preparation to teachers ; this preparation plan can be in signifier of workshops, online manuals or/and seminars

Finally, the survey found that teachers ‘ satisfaction of LMS is a cardinal determiner of their uninterrupted usage of LMS in blended acquisition. The survey besides found that teachers ‘ satisfaction of LMS in blended acquisition is a cardinal determiner of their purpose to strictly utilize LMS for distance instruction. Few surveies have examined the nexus between teachers ‘ usage of LMS in blended larning to their purpose of pure e-learning. Therefore, this survey showed organisations that are non ready for pure e-learning, that the usage of LMS in blended acquisition is a valuable option to fix organisations and teachers to finish digital transmutation through the usage of LMS strictly for distance instruction.

In decision, LMS is assuring for developing states, as they provide tools to expeditiously construct human resources. This survey offered important findings for research workers and practicians. The survey has demonstrated that single features, LMS ‘s features and organisation ‘s features are cardinal factors to teachers ‘ satisfaction of LMS in blended acquisition, and that teachers satisfaction of LMS is important factor on their hereafter purposes for blended acquisition or pure e-learning. Therefore, this survey provided utile penetrations for practicians ( teachers and academic establishments ) . Organizations, particularly in the Middle East where computing machine and Internet literacy is non every bit high as in developed states, should supply developing to decrease teacher ‘s computing machine anxiousness, and accordingly better their satisfaction of LMS. In add-on, organisations should follow high-quality LMS ( in footings of system quality and information quality ) to advance their acceptance and usage by teachers. Furthermore, direction support and inducements are of import to better teachers ‘ satisfaction of LMS in blended acquisition.

Restrictions and Future Research

This survey has few restrictions. First, the sample was from one academic establishment in Oman ; more research can be conducted in several organisations in different states to better the generalisation of the findings. Second, the survey assessed LMS use from teachers ‘ position ; farther research may measure it from scholars ‘ position. Third, this survey was unable to measure the impact of self-efficacy ; new measurings might be developed to better its dependability and cogency across different states. Furthermore, future research could besides analyze in item the benefits of LMS for teachers and the critical factors act uponing organisations ‘ deployment of LMS.