Formation Of Nanocomposite For Ceramic Film Process Engineering Essay


We are Super Solar Sdn Bhd which is a ceramic based company that produces window solar movies. In respond to your petition to integrate the elements of green technology into the day-to-day procedures in the mill, we are subjecting this proposal to upgrade our industry by implementing the construct of green technology into the industry. Before we start let us to give a brief account on nano ceramic movies.

Nano ceramic movies are particular movie bed used on difficult stuffs to protect them from wear and tear. They play a large function in maintaining the strength and quality of stuffs such as metals, plastic and many other merchandises used in industrial and consumer applications. Ceramic coatings are typically made up of particular compounds that possess stronger belongingss than regular coating. Compounds in ceramic coatings include carbides, borides, nitrides, and silicides that are difficult plenty to maintain the stuff from roll uping residue and going prone to breakage while in usage. There are two types of ceramic coatings, single-layer and multi-layer. Single-layer coatings are normally applied on already strong stuffs that are non ever exposed to damage, such as PVC plastic and non-metallic merchandises. Multi-layer coatings are used on more delicate merchandises such as fibreglass, metals and other points used for particular research lab or industrial intents.

The nano ceramic movie that we produce in our mill is specifically tailored to function as shade or coat for edifice Windowss and vehicles. Our movie ( Solar Tint ) applied straight to the inside of Windowss in a place or commercial concern to organize a protective barrier against the Sun ‘s harmful infrared and ultraviolet radiation. As for automotive movies, the coatings allow a certain sum of Visible Light Transmission, while barricading out of the Sun ‘s infrared heat. The technique we are using to bring forth our nano ceramic atoms is known as Thermal Plasma where the ceramic atoms are heated to high temperature that causes vaporization of the little micron size atoms. Then, to surface the nano ceramic atoms onto Polyethylene Terephthalate or PET movies, the thermic crop-dusting method is used whereby the beginning of heat and energy is a high-temperature plasma. The nano ceramic movies are now formed.

Presently there are many issues on natural resources depletion due to industrial procedures. One of the methods to get the better of this job is by implementing the rules of green technology in our industrial procedure. Green technology is the procedure and design of merchandises that conserve natural resources, and impact the natural environment every bit small as possible. The usage of green engineering besides referred as clean engineering is supposed to cut down the sum of waste and pollution that is created during production and ingestion. There are many types of green engineering such as energy, edifice, preferable buying, chemical science and besides nanotechnology. Our focal point is traveling to be chiefly on nanotechnology, efficiency maximization, energy preservation and lastingness.

Nanotechnology involves pull stringsing stuffs to the smallest nanometre therefore it can be best to implement green nanotechnology is the usage of green rules in the field. Nanotechnology involves the use of stuffs at the graduated table of the nanometer, one billionth of a metre. Based on this green technology rule, we would wish to present the nano ceramic coating. Nano ceramic coatings provide non merely the usual protection of single-layer and multi-layer coatings, but besides feature thermodynamic belongingss. Nano ceramic window movies are fade and corrosion free, outliving other conventional stuff ( bleached and metals ) based movies by more than 50 % . They are known with the term spectrally selective because they reject blaze and block heat while supplying seeable light and optimal lucidity. Their alone heat control belongingss can merely be exhibited at nano graduated table and the preciseness of the fabrication procedure consequences in a thin bed with even thickness to accomplish a uniform, impersonal coloring material tone and public presentation.


Presently, we have been bring forthing nano ceramic movies ( Solar Shade ) used as shade and coat for Windowss in edifices and automotives with the intent of cut downing heat and seeable beam. We have been utilizing the Thermal Plasma procedure to organize nano ceramic atoms of Sn oxide from the majority Sn oxide atoms. These atoms are so used to surface the Polyethylene Terephthalate or PET movies to organize nano ceramic movies. These procedures use up enormous sum of thermic energy and are really dearly-won. There have been programs to cut down the energy ingestion and cost without compromising the quality of the merchandise. Apart from that, the competition in the ceramic movie devising industry is really high and we need to bring forth high quality nano ceramic movies that can run into the demands and demands of our clients. With the on-going argument on the benefits of implementing green engineering in our industrial procedures and programs to better our merchandise quality every bit good as cost decrease, we are doing a proposal to incorporate green engineering in the processing and production of our nano ceramic movies and take necessary steps to do more efficient nano ceramic movies.


Briefly, being a ceramic based company, we are bring forthing nanoceramic atoms, SnO2 from bulk ceramic atoms utilizing the thermic plasma method and use them to surface Polyethylene Terephthalate, PET movies that we are purchasing from a PET maker. The surfacing stuff that we are utilizing is SnO2 utilizing a thermic crop-dusting method known as Vacuum Plasma Spraying ( VPS ) . And the nano ceramic movies are formed. This films maps as solar heat control window movies for residentials and automotive. In item, the procedures involved are as follows:

In nanotechnology, a atom is defined as a little object that behaves as a whole unit in footings of its conveyance and belongingss. Atoms are farther classified harmonizing to size: in footings of diameter, all right atoms cover a scope between 100 and 2500 nanometers.On the other manus, ultrafine atoms are sized between 1 and 100 nanometres. Similar to ultrafine atoms, nanoparticles are sized between 1 and 100 nanometres. Nanoparticles may or may non exhibit size-related belongingss that differ significantly from those observed in all right atoms or majority materials.There are several methods for making nanoparticles, and the method we are utilizing presently is known as thermal plasma which deliver the energy necessary to do vaporization of little micron size atoms. The thermic plasma temperatures are in the order of 10,000 K, so that solid pulverization easy evaporates. Nanoparticles are formed upon chilling while go outing the plasma part. The types of the thermic plasma torch used to bring forth nanoparticles are ( RF ) initiation plasmas. In RF initiation plasma torches, energy matching to the plasma is accomplished through the electromagnetic field generated by the initiation spiral. The plasma gas does non come in contact with electrodes, therefore extinguishing possible beginnings of taint and leting the operation of such plasma torches with a broad scope of gases including inert, cut downing, oxidising and other caustic ambiances.

The nano atoms that are formed in the earlier measure will now be used as surfacing stuff.There are assorted thermic spraying methods for coating of nano ceramic atoms on the PET movie. One method is vacuum plasma crop-dusting ( VPS ) . As with all plasma spraying methods, the beginning of heat and energy in VPS is a high-temperature plasma. In plasma burner an discharge is produced which heats an inert gas watercourse by ionisation and recombination reactions to temperatures of up to 20,000 K. The stuff to be deposited, in this instance SnO2 is fed in pulverization signifier into this high-energy plasma watercourse with the assistance of a bearer gas. The pulverization atoms are accelerated, heated to a liquefied province and projected at high velocity onto the substrate, which causes them to flatten and organize a lamellar coating. Depending on the continuance of the crop-dusting operation surfacing thicknesses from several ?m to a few centimeter can be produced.

Bulk ceramic atoms

Nano ceramic atoms

Thermal Plasma

Vaccum Plasma Spraying

PET Films

Nano Ceramic Film

Figure 1: Diagram of processing of nano ceramic movies


Design Procedure

Below is the suggested alteration to the current processing of movie that complies with the rules of Green Technology.

The execution of green technology in the procedure and production of nano ceramic movies will give us a positive impact in the hereafter, where we will name the undermentioned impacts at the following pages. The modified nano ceramic movie is named as Green Solar Tint.

The modified procedure methodological analysis:

Nano ceramic atoms of Tin Oxide formed from the thermic plasma procedure ab initio is replaced by Wet Chemical Process.

The PET movies are ab initio coated with nano Tin oxide atoms utilizing the Vacuum Plasma Spraying are now replaced by surfacing bed of TiN ( Ti nitride ) followed by a bed of Tin oxide utilizing the PVD ( Physical Vapor Deposition ) Method.


Initially our company used thermic plasma as our procedure to bring forth nano atoms. As our concern about green engineering, we suggested to utilize Wet Chemical Process to bring forth nano atoms. Wet chemical methods enable inexpensive, low-temperature, mass-scale fabrication paths. They produce powdered porous and heavy micro-structures that can non be realized otherwise. In wet-chemical processing, clean nano atom scatterings are deposited on the substrate at, chiefly, ambient conditions. The deposition is followed by a rapid thermic processing intervention to take liquids and organic additives, to change over precursors to the mark composing, and to set up the concluding porous and heavy micro-structure. In the synthesis of precursor scatterings it is really of import to obtain nano atoms with a near-isometric form and a reasonably narrow atom size distribution, without the formation of secondary agglomerate constructions. In peculiar the latter requires careful control of solution and interfacial chemical science to accomplish proper colloidal stableness, during and after the synthesis procedure.


Previously in our ceramics movie procedure, we applied thermic crop-dusting for movie coating. Our old surfacing stuff was Tin oxide entirely. Now as we are suggesting our ceramic movie industry based on green technology, we suggest titanium nitride to be used as our surfacing stuff with a protective bed of Sn oxide. There are few procedures that can be carried out for movie coating. Those are nitriding, thin coat engineerings, thermic crop-dusting and optical maser engineering. Based on our findings sing these procedures, thin coat engineerings is sensible and more convenient to be applied for our ceramics movie industry. Nitriding and thermic spraying need a really high force per unit area and temperature to execute the procedure, where the temperature is capable of transcending boulder clay 20 000 K. Then for optical maser engineering, it requires high tech equipment for surfacing which can be really dearly-won. Hence, we are suggesting the Thin Coat Technology or specifically Physical Vapor Deposition for surfacing procedure.

Thin coat engineerings

1. The thin coating engineerings used with Ti are PVD ( Physical Vapor Deposition ) these are chemical/physical vapor deposition methods used to fabricate protective coatings.

2. PVD procedures are carried out under vacuity conditions. The procedure involved four stairss: vaporization, transit, reaction and deposition.

Evaporation-During this phase, a mark, dwelling of the stuff to be deposited is bombarded by a high energy beginning such as a beam of negatrons or ions. This dislodges atoms from the surface of the mark, ‘vaporizing ‘ them.

Transport-This procedure merely consists of the motion of ‘vaporized ‘ atoms from the mark to the substrate to be coated and will by and large be a consecutive line matter.

Reaction-In some instances coatings will dwell of metal oxides, nitrides, carbides and other such stuffs. The atoms of metal will so respond with the appropriate gas during the conveyance phase. For the above measure, the reactive gases that can be used is nitrogen which is more abundant compared to methane and O.

Deposition-This is the procedure of surfacing construct up on the substrate surface. In our instance, we are surfacing TiN onto the surface of PET movies.

Why is our modified procedure better than the initial procedure?

Thermal plasma – initial procedure used to bring forth nano atoms

Thermal plasmas have high temperatures up to15, 000 K because the plasmas are generated at comparatively high force per unit areas where near to atmospheric force per unit area ; they have high densenesss and are considered to be at equilibrium. Since we need a high temperature, we need a higher heat content to bring forth the temperature. In this production method, jobs arise from the residuary coarse atoms. When precursor pulverizations are injected into thermic plasma in which temperature and flow distributions exist both radially and axially, some of the precursor atoms are non evaporated wholly. The non evaporated portion, although little, necessitates an extra station separation procedure

Wet Chemical Process- modified procedure to bring forth nano atoms

This is the scope of techniques that are most applicable for word picture by light dispersing techniques. These are basically ‘bottom-up ‘ techniques, where they start with ions or molecules and construct these up into larger constructions. These wet chemical science techniques presently offer the best quality nano atoms from a figure of points of position. They produce nano atoms that are already in the signifier of scattering, therefore high inter-particle forces can be designed in to forestall agglomeration. The formation of sums can be reduced or eliminated. The nano atoms can be made to be really same size to within little tolerances. The chemical composing and morphology can be closely controlled.

Vacuum Plasma Spraying- initial procedure used to bring forth surfacing

This system, as the name implies, uses an electric discharge as the heat beginning which is much hotter than the temperature produced by an oxy-acetylene fire. This means that higher thaw point stuffs can be deposited at higher speeds ( 200-400 m/s ) taking to high bonded strength in vacuity plasma praying. Hence higher energy ingestion is needed for surfacing procedure. Other disadvantages are that the procedure requires more expensive equipment and that it is non suited for manual operation in instance of power break.

Physical Vapor Deposition. – modified procedure to bring forth surfacing

PVD coatings are deposited for legion grounds. Some of the chief 1s are improved hardness and wear opposition, reduced clash and improved oxidization opposition. The usage of such coatings is aimed at bettering efficiency through improved public presentation and longer component life. They may besides let coated constituents to run in environments that the uncoated constituent would non otherwise have been able to execute. Materials can be deposited with improved belongingss compared to the substrate stuff. Almost any type of inorganic stuff can be used every bit good as some sorts of organic stuffs. The procedure is more environmentally friendly than procedures such as electroplating.


As mentioned above, the PET movies are ab initio coated with nano Tin oxide atoms entirely are now replaced by surfacing bed of TiN ( Ti nitride ) followed by a bed of Tin oxide. Why TiN?

TiN bearing movie is oxidation-resistant and has first-class scratch opposition. It besides has superior light rarefying features, peculiarly reduced seeable coefficient of reflection and decreased colour. Using TiN as a solar shield on architectural Windowss can cut down the solar heat addition during hot conditions, Ti nitride coating is the most advantageous pick for most applications because of the comparative easiness with which gaseous precursors to the coating can be formed and handled on processing equipment. A solar shade bearing Ti nitride ( TiN ) as the chief barrier is coated with a thin bed of protective transparent movie of Sn oxide. Tin oxide is believed to hold the most favourable combination of mechanical, optical and infra ruddy emmisivity belongingss to complement solar shield applications.

Design OF PRODUCT ( Green Solar Tint )


By and large, our improved nano ceramic movies ( Green Solar Shade ) offer better heat rejection, low coefficient of reflection and better lastingness as compared to the old ceramic movies ( Solar Shade ) that offer limited heat rejection:

By cutting down intolerable heat, our nano ceramic movies cool the vehicle more expeditiously and cut down fuel ingestion.

Residents are besides protected from the harmful Ultra Violet rays that are damaging to the eyes and tegument through the high Ultra Violet rejection transcending 90 % .

Improves the overall comfort of drive, offers fade control and protects the vehicle by widening the life of the vehicle ‘s inside every bit good.

High Infra Red heat rejection up to 96 % and auto interior temperature reduced.

Reduces blaze and driving weariness therefore heightening driving comfort. Protects drivers/passengers from the Sun ‘s harmful radiation.

100 % dye-free and no stain and estimated to hold longer life rhythm than the conventional dyed and metallic movies.

Extends lifetime of vehicle inside with fade protection. Improves shatter-resistance of windshields.

Significant heat decrease lowers chilling burden of air-conditioning and fuel ingestion

Prolongs lifetime of air-conditioning compressor and reduces replacing costs. Generally helps salvage energy and indirectly saves environment because decrease of fuel ingestion means lesser harmful gases released into the air.


Conventional ceramic movies seem to filtrate out excessively much of the natural visible radiation go forthing their places excessively dark or they let in excessively much visible radiation and capable their trappingss and loved 1s to the detrimental effects of Ultra Violet beams. Whereas, our improved nano ceramic movies ( Green Solar Shade ) :

Reduce the Infra-Red heat build-up in the house and besides cut off more than 90 % of the Ultraviolet rays that cause tegument jobs and attenuation of insides.

While protecting valuable place trappingss and widening their lifetime, nano-ceramic movies have the added characteristic of low contemplation at dark and the position is hence non obscured.

The bed of movie besides provides an added degree of safety by maintaining glass fragments together in the event of inadvertent breakage.

Significant Infra-Red Heat rejection lowers chilling burden of air-conditioning ingestion

Enhances interior comfort and life environment with reduced blaze

Cost Analysis for Nano Ceramic Films ( Solar Tint V Green Solar Tint ) .

Presently our company bring forthing nano ceramic atoms from bulk ceramic atoms utilizing the thermic plasma method and use them to surface Polyethylene Terephthalate, PET movies by utilizing thermic spray techniques. We are bring forthing 150000 ft2 of nano ceramic movie per batch. The continuance which we took to finish 1 batch is 10 working yearss ( 2 hebdomads ) . The followers is the cost analysis for one batch which affecting production of nano ceramic atoms and besides surfacing procedure.

Solar Shade

Materials ( RM/KG ) ( Tin oxide + PET movies )


Water/Electricity ( RM )


Labor ( RM )


Maintenance ( RM )


Rent ( RM )


Entire Cost ( RM )


The natural stuff which is used to bring forth nano ceramic atoms is tin oxide and about 45000 kilograms of Sn oxide is being used for a batch ( market monetary value 0.68 cents per Kg ) . 20000 KW/h are being used for a batch for making nano atoms and undergo coating procedure. Entire Cost of the production are RM 816400 and our merchandising monetary value is RM 8.50 ( 1 ft2 ) . The overall net incomes from the production per batch are RM 458600 which is about 36 % from the overall gross.

Estimated Cost Analysis for ( Green Solar Tint )

The estimated continuance to bring forth 150000 ft2 of Green Solar Tint is 10 working yearss ( 2 hebdomads ) . The followers is the cost analysis for one batch.

Cost Analysis


Materials ( RM/KG ) ( Tin oxide+ TiN+ PET movies )


Water/Electricity ( RM )


Labor ( RM )


Maintenance ( RM )


Rent ( RM )


Entire Cost ( RM )


The natural stuff which is used to bring forth ceramic movies is tin oxide and about 45000 kilograms of Sn oxide is estimated to be used for a batch ( market monetary value 0.68 cents per Kg ) .The estimated energy ingestion will be 14600 KW/h. Estimated energy ingestion will be lower for Green Solar Tint production compared to Solar Tint because it does n’t affect thermic procedures which consume high energy. The estimated energy decrease will be 27 % ( 5400KW/h ) . Entire Estimated Cost of the production are RM 707,000 and our merchandising monetary value is RM 9.00 ( 1 ft2 ) .The overall net incomes from the production per batch are RM 643000 which is about 47.63 % from overall gross.

Social and Environmental Impacts

Bulidings and places

Social Impact:

The Green Solar Tint removes up to 90 % of the Sun ‘s damaging UV beams, which cause fast attenuation of trappingss, carpets, images and other belongingss and sun harm. So this lengthens the life rhythm of stuff and furniture at place. Besides that, Green Solar Tint offers window movies that block basically all harmful UV beams, the taking cause of skin malignant neoplastic disease and other unsafe conditions that impact all ages. With this, we can protect our loved 1s from hamful UV rays.Solar shade besides offers added safety for everyone and anything in the house. In instances of larceny or natural catastrophes like temblors and twister, the solar shade movie is competent at maintaining the broken pieces of glass together. This can avoid or at the really least lessen physical injury to your pets and relations and extra harm to your belongings. Extra benefits include an elegant visual aspect, reduced blaze and improved comfort and the Sun ‘s heat that comes through the window being reflected off.

Environmental Impact:

Green Solar Tint ‘s capableness to reject important sum of Infra Red heat lowers chilling burden of air conditioning ingestion. This means energy can be saved at place by utilizing lesser air conditioning. And indirectly, we can assist cut down the emision of harmful CFC to the environment.


Social Impact

Green solar shade is besides efficient in cut downing Sun blaze which is really utile most particularly to the driver ( automotive application ) , since it is really helpful in forestalling oculus strain and weariness. Aside from that, riders will besides detect the auto seats get hot easy doing uncomfortableness to sit on. Through Green Solar Tint, non merely is the upholstery of the auto protected, but the riders are protected as good. Green Solar shade is capable of barricading up to 90 % of UV beams so one time installed on every auto window you can be assured that you and your household are protected from its detrimental effects. Aside from these grounds that are already given, solar shade besides serves as an added shield that facilitates to your safety and security. The movies will forestall broken pieces of glass from shattering in instance of an accident. This will so minimise possible physical injury both from exterior and inside the auto.

Environmental Impact

Green solar shade is besides really efficient in barricading heat from the Sun. This is a really economical manner of salvaging fuel because of decreased use of air con. And less use of air con means less fuel ingestion. This manner we get to salvage our natural resources ( fuel ) every bit good as cut down pollutant emitted by vehicles.


As a decision, the modified Green solar shade will supply good solar rejection and it is cheaper than Solar shade ( initial merchandise ) .


1. The natural stuffs that we traveling to utilize for ceramic procedure, should be maximized, so that the merchandises besides will be maximized. Hence, the dimension of the reactors should be design harmonizing to our company penchant. Overall, we can cut down the use of energy by non reiterating the procedure once more.

2. First, the mixture of our natural stuffs in an organic dissolver should be every bit pure as possible. This can be done, by holding an extra procedure of separation and purification of our natural stuffs. As a consequence, we can forestall the wastage. The drosss from the separation, we can re-use it back as our side merchandises.

3. Normally, it is impossible to derive 100 % pureness in our merchandises. There should be some by- merchandises produce. The byproducts can be re-usable or can be re-cycling back to our provender. It is a good investing for our company.


Zinc oxide is one of the drosss from our natural stuffs. So, it is non necessary for us to divide the drosss as Zn oxide have a superior UV barricading belongingss compared to its majority replacement. Actually, this dross is frequently used in ties readying of sunscreen lotions and it is wholly photo stable.

Impurities or waste merchandises like nanoscale atoms that being produced in our industry can be used for biomedical application as drug bearers or imaging agents. We can do it as our side investings.