1-Identification and definition of a clinical job / contention in my country of involvement /expertise. Problem: Even though HCV is a deathly virus, its hazard factors are many, and its prevalence is high, many people either cognize nil about it or disregard its importance. Unknowingness is particularly a job among immature grownups due to a deficiency of instruction in schools, and to a figure of socio-demographic and socio-economic factors.
designation of the population of involvement for the reappraisal of the literature.
HCV is a disease that targets everyone ( all ages / males and females ) , and in the literature, surveies focused on prevalence of HCV among people of all ages. However few surveies concentrated on the relation of HCV prevalence with certain occupational exposures such as tattoo, organic structure piercing, socioeconomically background aˆ¦ In add-on to that few surveies concentrated on childs and the prevalence of hepatitis C in their age group.
So if a survey is to be done on the relation between consciousness and HCV, an age group from 18 to 21 is the best to analyze because they are the most who get involved in hazardous behaviours such as drugs and they are the major age group who get tattoos and body piercings.Majority of patients that were HCV positive were below age of 50 ( Jamal et al. ,2010 )
Population of involvement: Lebanese immature grownups with tattoos and/or piercings in Lebanon, with and without HCV aged 18-21.
Dependent variable: HCV infection
Independent variable: Awareness
Brief debut of the job or contention ( why I selected, its significance and clinical deductions.
Harmonizing to the World Health Organization, the prevalence of Hepatitis C virus ( HCV ) worldwide is estimated to be 3 % ; this translates to about 170 million people infected with the virus globally ( CDC, 2009 ) . The prevalence varies from state to state, In the Middle East ( Lebanon included ) , the prevalence is reported to be 1-5 % ( Jamal et al. ,2010 ) . The prevalence even varies between different populations-with the prevalence of HCV in blood giver populations being every bit low as 0.6 % and every bit high as 80 % in endovenous drug users ( Jamal et al. ,2010 ) . HCV causes redness of the liver which has damaging effects on wellness, taking to liver harm or liver failure-in many instances, it may ensue in decease ( CDC, 2009 ) . HCV can besides take to liver cirrhosis or liver malignant neoplastic disease ( CDC, 2009 ) . Hepatitis C can do either an acute infection, or in 75-85 % of the instances, chronic infection ( CDC, 2009 ) . In many cases, chronic hepatitis C tends to travel unnoticed-early symptoms are normally flu-like such as febrility, weariness, sickness, purging and icterus, and be given to be in most cases over-looked by an septic individual ( CDC, 2009 ) . When symptoms do develop, the individual is already at an advanced phase of the disease, following harm to the liver caused by the virus. Infection is normally detected coincidentally by mensurating liver map and liver enzymes through everyday blood trials ; as a consequence, HCV is known as the “ silent-killer ” ( CDC, 2009 ) .
HCV is blood-borne and can be transmitted through direct contact with septic blood such as through needle sharing ( as in the instance of drug maltreatment ) , sharing panpipes ( for illustration in blood transfusion centres ) , assholes from a needle-stick in infirmaries, and sharing bathroom gears such as razors or toothbrushes ( CDC, 2008 ) . In add-on, in scenes where there is hapless infection control-Hepatitis C can be transmitted via tattooing and piercing acerate leafs ( CDC, 2008 ) .
This bring up the thought that these exposures are preventable, so it is a good survey to be done to research the original causes ( unawareness, neglect, peer pressureaˆ¦ ) in order to undertake the job by the proper agencies ( instruction, rigorous regulations and ordinances, better testing techniquesaˆ¦ )
This type of survey is of great significance because of:
High figure of Hepatitis C instances in in-between E ( Lebanon included ) =4.6 %
Catching diseases are taboo in Lebanon, and notably HCV
Adolescents tend to acquire tattooed and/or pierced in secret because their parents do n’t accept the thought
Adolescents may non be cognizant of the safety demands associated with handling acerate leafs
Peoples affected by HCV tend to maintain it a secret and this increases the opportunities of disease transmittal
No anterior surveies in Lebanon have attempted to analyze the impact of raising consciousness to hygienic patterns and infection control
Summary of 6 articles ( Questions 4,5,6 )
Screening run of hepatitis C among underprivileged people confer withing in wellness Centres of Lyon country, France ( F. Sahajian, 2006 )
In a cross-sectional survey conducted by F. Sahajian et Al. in Lyon, France, the prevalence of anti-HCV antibodies among 944 underprivileged persons patronizing 8 different wellness centres was found to be about 4.7 % ( 95 % CI: 3.4-6.2 ) . Participants were given both a written questionnaire, which remained anon. , and depending on their wellness position, or whether there was a linguistic communication barrier or non, were screened for anti-HCV antibodies. Hazard factors found to be independently associated with HCV infection utilizing a multivariate logistic arrested development theoretical account were IVDU [ OR=15.99, 95 % CI= 3.73-68.63, P & lt ; 0.0001 ] , holding received healthcare abroad [ OR= 4.46, 95 % CI= 1.90-10.43, P=0.001 ] and have oning tattoos [ OR=2.75, 95 % CI= 1.01-7.51, P= 0.048 ] . Characteristics found to be independently associated with HCV infection included: age between 40-49, being holders of AME, or holding no societal security. Patients who were found to be HCV seropositive were given follow-up intervention with the counsel of their physician and the Lyon Reference Center of HCV Infection.
F. Sahajian, P. V. et Al. ( 2006 ) . Screening run of hepatitis C among underprivileged people confer withing in wellness Centres of Lyon country, France. European Journal of Public Health, 17 ( 3 ) , 263-271. Retrieved on Mar 19, 2010, from hypertext transfer protocol: //www.oxfordjournals.org
Cardinal words: HCV, hazard factors ( EBSCO Host )
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Increased hazard of viral hepatitis in Chinese male conscriptees with tattoos. ( M-D.Shi,2007 )
Consequences of another cross-sectional survey conducted among 1,897 Chinese male conscriptees showed that 2.5 % were infected with HCV ( Shi et al, 2007 ) . Furthermore, conscriptees infected with HCV had 5 times higher odds of exposure to tattooing than others, with an OR= 5.00 ; 95 % CI: 1.83-13.67 ; P & lt ; 0.01 ( Shi et al, 2007 )
Shi MD, Lee SY, Lee YB. ( 2007 ) Increased hazard of viral hepatitis in Chinese male conscriptees with tattoos. Military Medicine, 172 ( 5 ) , 539-540. Retrieved on Mar 19, 2010, from hypertext transfer protocol: //www.ingentaconnect.com
Cardinal words: HCV, tattoos ( EBSCO Host )
Hazard factors for Hepatitis C virus infection among street young persons. ( E.Roy,2001 )
Roy et Al ( 2001 ) found, in a survey conducted among street young persons in Montreal, that among those young persons infected with HCV, 56.5 % had at least one tattoo ( rough OR=4.1, 95 % CI: 2.3-7.4 ) . After multivariate logistic arrested development, it was found that when participants had more than one tattoo, there was a fringy association with HCV infection, adjusted OR=1.8, 95 % CI: 0.95-3.6 ( Roy et al, 2001 ) ; even though 1 is included in the assurance interval, a fringy association was established due to the little sample size.
Roy E. , Haley N. , Leclerc P. , Boivin J. , Cedras L. , Vincelette J. ( 2001 ) . Hazard factors for Hepatitis C virus infection among street young persons. Canadian Medical Association, 165 ( 5 ) , 557-560. Retrieved on Mar 19, 2010, from hypertext transfer protocol: //www.cmaj.ca/cgi/reprint/165/5/557.pdf
Cardinal words: HCV, adolescents ( EBSCO Host )
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Infection control among professional tattooists in Minneapolis and St. Paul, MN. ( M.Raymond,2001 )
In a survey conducted by Monica Raymond et Al ( 2001 ) among 61 professional tattooists in Minneapolis, it was found that the bulk of participants agreed that blood borne pathogens are a hazard to clients if no attending is paid. Of the tattooists, 95 % strongly believed that a tattooist could catch disease from a client, and 87 % strongly agreed that they could distribute blood-borne pathogens from client to client if they were non hygienic ( Raymond et al, 2001 ) . The conformity to infection control patterns was besides evaluated and it was found that older tattooists ( with & gt ; 10 old ages of experience ) had the lowest mark of ascertained infection control ( 65.3 % ; 95 % CI 58.9-71.8 ) compared to tattooists with experience & lt ; 10 old ages ( 74.6 % 95 % CI 68.5-80.7 ) ( Raymond et al, 2001 ) . The survey besides showed that stores with a high figure of go toing professionals tended to hold better cognition in footings of infection control due to sharing of experience and cognition ( Raymond et al, 2001 ) . Raymond et Al ( 2001 ) eventually concluded that though there was high consciousness about hazards involved with blood-borne diseases, their control, and the demand for safeguards among tattooists, this was non wholly applied in pattern.
Raymond M. , Pirie P. , Halcon L. ( 2001 ) . Infection control among professional tattooists in Minneapolis and St. Paul, MN. Association of Schools of Public Health, 116 ( 3 ) , 249-256. Retrieved on Mar 19, 2010, from hypertext transfer protocol: //www.publichealthreports.org/userfiles/116_3/116249.pdf
Cardinal words: tattoos, HCV, consciousness ( EBSCO Host )
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Epidemiology of Hepatitis C virus ( HCV ) infection ( M. Jamal,2006 )
In an epidemiological article reappraisal Jamal M. et Al. identified the differences in HCV prevalence between different states and countries in the universe, values ranged from as 1.7 % in America to every bit high as 4.7 % in in-between E and 5.3 % in Africa.The reappraisal besides showed the difference in HCV prevalence between different groups with different hazard factors being every bit high as 90 % in endovenous drug users, the reappraisal besides identified the prevalence among blood givers, those who get haemodialysis and those who got the disease from sexual activity. The reappraisal eventually identified some bar techniques to undertake the issue and cut down the prevalence.
Mazen J. ( 2006 ) . Epidemiology of Hepatitis C Virus ( HCV ) Infection. International Journal of Medical Sciences,3 ( 2 ) , 41-46. Retrieved on Mar 19, 2010, from hypertext transfer protocol ; //www.medsci.org
Cardinal words: HCV, in-between E ( EBSCO Host )
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Prevalence of Body Art ( Body Piercing and Tattooing ) in University Undergraduates and Incidence of Medical Complications ( Lester B. Mayers, 2002 )
With the aims of finding the prevalence of organic structure art ( both tattoos and organic structure piercings ) among undergraduate university pupils and to find the incidence of medical complications associated with these patterns, Lester B. Mayers et al surveyed 454 pupils at Pace University in Pleasantville, NY. The cross-sectional study was voluntary, anon. , and included inquiries about organic structure piercings and tattoos ( both current and removed ) and their location on the organic structure, age and sex, undergraduate category, physical features ( weight, tallness, BMI ) , athletic position, every bit good as whether or non they faced any medical complications following organic structure art.
Prevalence of organic structure piercings was found to be 51 % , while that of tattoos was found to be 23 % . I‡2 analysis was used to find both differences and relationships between tattoos/piercings, and surveyed features, such as age and sex, undergraduate category, athletic position, tallness, weight, BMI ; it was besides used to find relationships between medical complications and sex. Valuess greater than 1.96 or less than -1.96 were considered statistically important ; significance for all other statistics was set at P & lt ; 0.05. I‡2 analysis showed that piercings were higher among females than males ( P=0.002 ) and that there was no statistically important difference between tattooing and sex. Other relationships that were found included: male jocks were more likely to hold tattoos than non-athletes ( P=.02 ) .
Prevalence of medical complications associated with organic structure piercings was found to be 9.2 % . The chief medical complications that were associated with organic structure piercings were local injury, that is, local hurt or lacrimation of the site ( 1.5 % ) , shed blooding ( 2.4 % ) , and/or bacterial infections ( 4.6 % ) ; no viral infections were reported. Oral complications were reported in 6 % of lingua perforated pupils. Prevalence of complications differed between locations of piercings. No medical complications were associated with tattooing, and, as the writers province, this could be due to a figure of grounds: inquiries about hurt associated with tattooing in the study were non really clear ; and holding assumed that the pupils were likely to hold gotten their tattoo in the old 3-5 old ages, this window period was non a long adequate clip to observe infection with HBV, HCV, or HIV.
Lester B. Mayers et Al. ( 2002 ) . Prevalence of Body Art ( Body Piercing and Tattooing ) in university undergraduates and incidence of medical complications. Mayo Clinic Proceedings, 77 ( 1 ) , 29-34. Retrieved on Mar 19, 2010, from hypertext transfer protocol: //www.mayoclinicproceedings.com.
Cardinal word: tattoos, pupils ( EBSCO Host )
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To place the spread, it is of import to expose the restrictions of each survey, In the first survey ( Prevalence of Body Art ( Body Piercing and Tattooing ) in University Undergraduates and Incidence of Medical Complications ) , the writer delt with the issue in one university puting which may take to non generalizability of the survey. In add-on to that, he measured the medical result utilizing a questionare which would n’t give the right prevalence of such diseases since it is largely soundless ( no serological trials were run to find prevalence of viral infections, and the deficiency of describing viral infections could be due to pupils non cognizing that they are infected instead so them non being infected at all. )
Both ( Screening run of hepatitis C among underprivileged people confer withing in wellness centres of Lyon country, France ) and ( Increased hazard of viral hepatitis in Chinese male conscriptees with tattoos. ) where not generalizable to the whole population since in the first, the topics are people from certain centres ( underprivileged ) . While in the 2nd survey topics were selected from a military background-subjects were of a specific age group, had a high degree of unsusceptibility, and had a better wellness profile than the remainder of the population. Besides Risk factors for Hepatitis C virus infection among street young persons ( Roy et al,2001 ) had little sample size.
The survey conducted by Raymond et Al, 2001 ( Infection control among professional tattooists in Minneapolis and St. Paul, MN. ) which tackled the issue of consciousness but non among people who get tattoos but among tattooist and stores had describing prejudice ( Questionnaire ) , and so their pattern was monitored which could hold lead to alter in behavior under monitoring.
Most of the old surveies dealt with the prevalence of HCV and its relation with Tattoos and piercing ( causes ) and other societal and fiscal factors, they besides studied medically its results, medical diagnosing and remedies, but they did n’t undertake the issue of consciousness among people who are at hazard of HCV to analyze the existent cause behind high degree of this infective diseases.
Therefore, no anterior surveies in Lebanon have attempted to analyze the impact of raising consciousness to hygienic patterns and infection control that should be in usage during tattooing or organic structure piercing and the hazard of undertaking Hepatitis C even though there are increasing marks that Lebanese adolescents are indulging in hazardous behaviours.