Healthy Living For Homeless Families Health And Social Care Essay

Chronic diseases are the prima causes of decease and disablement nation-wide. Populations with economic and societal unfairnesss are unreasonably affected by chronic disease, predominately fleshy and fleshiness. Statisticss have shown the incidence of all chronic diseases is higher for people in the two lowest-income groups than for those in the three upper-income groups ( 1 ) . Overweight and fleshiness are the major signifiers of malnutrition in stateless households ( 2 ) and mortality rates of the homeless in North America are at least 3-5 times greater than that seen in the general populations of Canada and the U.S ( 3 ) . Low income groups besides engage in more high hazard behaviours, such as coffin nail smoke, unhealthy diet, and deficiency of physical activity, than groups with higher incomes ( 1 ) .

Interventions concentrating on the primary bar of chronic disease utilizing physical activity and nutrition instruction in the low-income population have been developed and reviewed in the yesteryear. These intercessions proved to hold successful result steps within participants, including an addition of fruit and vegetable ingestion, physical activity and healthy weight loss. There has been deficient committedness at the national, province and local degrees to implement policies and give support and resources to the enlargement of comprehensive primary preventive plans that deliver services to this alone population.

Statement of Problem

The intent of this survey is to find the effectivity of a community-based nutrition instruction and physical activity intercession plan to a low-income population. The intercession will be designed and facilitated by a Loma Linda University nutrition alumnus pupil. Workshops will be implemented in traditional group Sessionss dwelling of one hr each hebdomad for five hebdomads. Participants are enrolled in the Inland Temporary Homes plan in Loma Linda, California. Fundss for the plan will be provided by the City of Loma Linda through the awarded California Healthy Cities grant.


Will the nutrition and lifestyle intercession plan have positive wellness results of participants harmonizing to evaluated informations from pre and station intercession study ‘s and pre and station intercession trials?

90 % of the participants will go to all five workshops.

90 % of participants will reply more inquiries right on the post-test than on the comparable pretest.

90 % of participants will increase fruit and vegetable ingestion compared to their pre-intervention study.

90 % of participants will increase physical activity compared to their pre-intervention study.

60 % of participants, harmonizing to pre and station study consequences, will travel up one phase of alteration from baseline towards the action stage as evaluated utilizing the Transtheoretical Model.

Null Hypothesis:

There will be no difference between the pre and station intercession studies of the participants measuring the effectivity of the nutrition and physical activity intercession.

Boundary lines:

Boundary lines of this survey include geographical location, cost measuring and the rating of one workshop. Participants are limited to those of the Inland Temporary Homes located in Loma Linda, CA. The consequences of this survey may non be generalized to other locations or income categories. Four sets of workshops are offered to participants each twelvemonth. This survey will merely include the consequences from one of the Sessionss.


Language and literacy barriers may be restrictions of the survey. This survey will be limited by the self-reporting truth of the participants. Specifically, participants will be asked to supply information on statements of their personal life style wonts, nutritionary, physical activity degree. Any inaccuracy of these self-reports may impact the survey consequences. The research worker has no control over who attends the workshop and how many abodes will take part during the evaluated workshop.


The undermentioned premises are made: a ) the participants ‘ self-report on the study is honorable, accurate, and complete.

Operational Definitions:

Inland Temporary Homes: a non-profit organisation that provides lodging, rehabilitation, and ongoing support to homeless households throughout the Inland Empire.

Transtheoretical Model: Assesses an person ‘s preparedness to move on a new healthier behaviour, and provides schemes, or procedures of alteration to steer the person through the phases of alteration to action and care.

Chapter 2

Literary Review

Population Background

Homelessness is a quickly intensifying job in both rural and urban United States. Health jobs associated with homelessness documented throughout literature show that about 40 % of stateless persons are reported to hold some type of chronic disease ( 4 ) including increased rate of cardiovascular and infective diseases ( 5 ) along with inordinate rates of substance ( baccy, intoxicant and cocaine ) maltreatment ( 6 ) . Many of these instances, nevertheless, travel un-reported. In the United States, more than 50 % of the stateless deficiency wellness coverage ( 7 ) , doing diagnosing and intervention of their cardiovascular hazard factors even more ambitious. Overweight and fleshiness are the major signifiers of chronic disease and malnutrition in stateless households.

Corpulent is defined as holding a BMI of 30 or greater and being morbidly corpulent is holding a BMI of over 40 ( 8 ) . Bing fleshy or corpulent is associated with many diseases and conditions such as: coronary bosom disease, high blood pressure, shot, malignant neoplastic disease, increased cholesterin and triglycerides, sleep apnea and gynaecological jobs ( 8 ) .

Dietary Habits of Low-Income Population

Homeless people eat nutrient prepared, by municipal and charity shelters, drop-in centres, fast nutrient eating houses, 24-hour convenience shops and from refuse bins ( 3 ) . Research suggests that because diets high in refined grains, added sugars, and added fats by and large cost less than healthful diets composed of thin meats, whole grains and fresh fruits and veggies, the low-income population has greater exposure to an unsanitary diet ( 9 ) . Calorie-dense, processed and nutritionally unequal nutrient points are easy accessible in low-income vicinities and more cost-efficient options to healthier nutrient picks. Devouring these nutrient points may lend to fleshy and fleshiness and lead to chronic disease in the low-income population. Datas on the nutritionary consumption of stateless population is slightly limited. However, most surveies report a high prevalence of inadequate or unbalanced food, vitamin and mineral consumption puting the homeless at hazard for nutrition-related upsets and lending to the increased prevalence of ill controlled diabetes, high blood pressure and cholesterin ( 10 ) , all good established hazard factors for Cardiovascular disease. Luder et Al ( 11 ) revealed that stateless people ‘ s diets are frequently high in concentrated fats and cholesterin and inadequate in indispensable foods, lending to adverse lipid profiles. Another survey of nutritionary position among a group of grownup stateless adult females found that recommended day-to-day allowances ( RDA ‘s ) were normally exceeded for Na and saturated fats, both of which are independently associated with increased cardiovascular disease hazard ( 12 ) .

Intervention Programs Targeting the Low-Income Population

Interventions concentrating on bar of chronic disease with purposes to change physical activity and nutritionary wonts have been developed and reviewed in the yesteryear. Outcome measures for these plans have shown an addition of fruit and vegetable ingestion, physical activity and fat decrease ( 1 ) . Intervention plans targeted at low-income audiences with the most successful results tend to be delivered in an synergistic ocular format, to be culturally appropriate, supply trim stuffs, administered in accessible primary attention scenes, and to give inducements to move on the information provided ( 1 ) .

Nutrition intercession plans with successful results involved some signifier of nutrient readying and tasting ( 1 ) . The end of this attack was to turn to the 5 -A -Day message ( devouring 5 helpings of fruits and veggies per twenty-four hours ) with vibrant shows, while supplying participants with an chance to savor and smell alimentary nutrient samples in a comfy acquisition environment. Educators besides demonstrated easy and cheap ways to fix and function veggies and fruit, and provided participants with promotional take-home stuffs such as formulas, booklets, spines and magnets ( 1 ) .

A gulf between diet and wellness among low-income groups calls for nutrition intercessions that educate low-income households on cheap, healthful feeding and chronic disease bar in a structured environment. This literature reappraisal will assist set up the principle for planning and implementing a nutrition and lifestyle intercession plan aiming the homeless population. The intent of this reappraisal is to detect and compare assorted methods of plans developed for the aforesaid population to better program and implement the intercession plan.

Overview of Intervention Programs

A figure of intercession schemes advancing primary bar and wellness have been intended to better the nutritionary position of the stateless population. Interventions ranged in a assortment of attacks from traditional group Sessionss taught by wellness professionals, peer-led workshops, one-on-one guidance and home-based telephone and mail intercessions to multimedia schemes and experiential activities such as nutrient presentations, educational picture and group exercisings ( 1 ) .

One survey ( 13 ) implemented and evaluated an educational plan for female parents who resided in a homeless shelter. The aim was to better the nutritionary position of stateless kids ages 18 months to 6 old ages. Mothers ‘ cognition of nutrition was tested before and after plan engagement. Four lessons aiming the nutritionary demands of immature kids based on growing and development demands were designed and addressed by a registered dietician. Classs were offered over a nine moth period and each category lasted an hr. As an inducement to promote engagement, female parents ‘ who completed all four categories were given bus base on ballss for one hebdomad, and their kids were given a healthy bite. Subjects for the four lessons were: Benefits of Beverages, Building Strong Bones and Muscles, Healthy Meal Choices, and Nutritious Snack Ideas. Teaching stuffs, press releases, and category activities were developed in a low-literacy format. Teaching stuffs were visually appealing, with a assortment of colourss and images. Ocular presentations were used to demo the differences in fat and sugar in healthy and non-healthy nutrient points. Consequences of the intercession found that female parents significantly scored higher on each post-test than on the comparable pretest ( 14 ) .

Theory of Framework

The bulk of intercessions incorporated theoretical theoretical accounts or were guided by theories. Such documented theories included the transtheoretical ( phases of alteration ) theoretical account, societal cognitive theory theoretical account, the societal ecological model, the community intercession theoretical account, and the wellness publicity manner ( 1 ) . These theories were tailored to the participants ‘ conceptual adulthood.

The Transtheoretical Model ( TTM ) will be used as a model for the intercession. Participants may be in different phases of the TTM throughout the plan, and the plan will on each phase of alteration so that everyone participating may profit.

Nutritional Counseling in Intervention

Methods of nutrition reding with behavioural dietetic guidance have proved good in increasing low-income grownups ‘ long term alterations in ingestion of fruit and veggies ( 14 ) . The combination of turn toing the importance of fruit and vegetable ingestion and its benefits to wellness with specific, individualized advice and short-run and long-run goal-setting proved to bring on alteration in this population. Steptoe et Al ( 14 ) compared brief nutrition reding with behavioural dietetic guidance in a primary attention puting. Each 15- minute audience was supported with written information, and an overall mark was to increase the consumption of veggies and fruit from baseline degrees. The nutrition reding group received instruction about the importance of increasing the consumption of veggies and fruit, and the nutritionary benefits were emphasized. The behavioural group was given reding tailored to each individual ‘s demands harmonizing to motivational preparedness, with personalized, specific advice and short-run and long-run end scene. Both methods of reding proven good in increasing low-income grownups ‘ ingestion of veggies and fruit.


Incentives were used in many intercessions to promote engagement and/or straight affect results. Incentives can be used to increase engagement and battle in the acquisition activities. Surveies have demonstrated that low-income populations may profit from inducements such as nutrient vouchers to better the affordability of veggies and fruit, and therefore increase ingestion ( 1 ) . These surveies provide grounds that authorities attempts should concentrate on taking the barriers of cost and handiness of healthy nutrients by turn toing societal and economic factors that will extenuate wellness unfairnesss.


The reviewed literature provided positive results of step on ends of increasing nutritionary position and cognition of low-income participants. Nutrition intercessions aimed at low-income audiences tend to be delivered in an synergistic ocular format, are culturally appropriate, administered in accessible scenes, and give inducements to move on the information provided.

Get the better ofing barriers refering to this population is of concern when planning this intercession plan. These barriers include low literacy, handiness, cognition and skill degree, and deficiency of clip and money. Experiential activities such as cooking presentations, group exercisings, and synergistic pictures have been used as schemes to turn to these barriers. Suggestions for polish of intercessions included: kid attention for care-givers and convenient timing of categories, integrating motivational factors impacting female parents ‘ abilities to use wellness publicity, and turn toing other factors other than instruction, such as life style, that affect healthy behaviours.

Chapter III


The intent of this survey is to measure the effectivity of a community-nutrition intercession plan for low-income occupants take parting in the Inland Temporary Homes plan in Loma Linda, CA. Residence of Inland Temporary Homes will be take parting in a series of nutrition and lifestyle workshops. The plan is designed to increase the cognition of wellness and nutrition while advancing healthy life and feeding in a community of predominately low income households. Chapter III is an overview of the research participants, plan design and execution of the nutrition intercession.

Survey Participants

Participants of the survey are limited to low-income grownups ( ages 18 and older ) who presently participate in the Inland Temporary Homes ( ITH ) . Inland Temporary Homes is a non-profit organisation that provides lodging, rehabilitation, and ongoing support to homeless households throughout the Inland Empire ( 15 ) . Inland Temporary Homes is a nurturing place environment where households can emerge self-empowered with the cognition and tools to re-establish themselves in the community. Applications to inscribe in the plan are considered throughout the twelvemonth although infinite in the places is limited. Throughout their 60-90 twenty-four hours residence, it is required that each grownup complete certain plans. One of the plans is go toing the City of Loma Linda ‘s series of nutrition workshops. Engagement in the Nutrition Workshop depends on when occupants enroll in the ITH plan and managers facilitate who attends the five hebdomad session of categories during the twelvemonth. Nutrition Workshops are offered four times a twelvemonth to suit for new enrollees and to do certain each occupant gets the chance to take part. Past workshops have accommodated anyplace from three to fifteen participants during a given session of categories. Once occupants of Inland Temporary Homes have been rehabilitated, they re-enter back into the work force with their households. Many of the participants find lodging in Loma Linda ‘s North Central Neighborhood.

Study Design

The survey will be a formative rating research survey focused on run intoing the plan, behavioural and learning aims. Knowledge of nutrition and physical activity will be tested before and after engagement in the plan. Pre-and post-intervention studies will besides be filled out by participants. The intercession calls for a upper limit of 15 participants to go to a 60 minute seminar together one time per hebdomad for a sum of five hebdomads. Weekly seminars will be developed and facilitated by a current MPH/Nutrition pupil at Loma Linda University and tailored to increase consciousness and cognition of the importance of physical activity, increasing fruit and vegetable ingestion and schemes relevant to accomplishing a healthy diet and life style and cut downing chronic disease hazard.


A alimentary repast will be prepared for participants at each workshop. Free nutrient is a great inducement for participants to go to the workshop. Free kid attention during the workshop will besides be offered to those who have little kids and cut down restrictions to go to. Participants will have a booklet consisting of reading stuff for each lesson program. Each hebdomad after the lesson, inquiries will be asked to the participants. If they answer the inquiries right, they will able to pick from a assortment of healthy nutrient options and awards. Participants will be able to maintain workshop stuff and booklets after go toing the fifth and concluding workshop. These inducements will heighten engagement within the population and attain attending throughout the full series of workshops.

Meal Engagement

A healthy and alimentary repast will be prepared for participants at the beginning of each workshop. Some repasts will include synergistic engagement from occupants. For illustration, a pizza crust along with shredded veggies will be premade and displayed and participants will be responsible to add veggies and low-fat cheese to their pizza. This battle of activity with the repasts will let participants to prosecute in merriment and healthy behaviours in a hands-on environment. Each formula prepared for category will be simple and easy to follow, low-cost and easy for participants to seek at their ain place with their households. Recipes for the highlighted repast will be given to each participant each hebdomad.

Lesson Plans

Each hebdomad a different subject will be covered. The subjects covered by hebdomad will be: 1. Introduction to the Food Guide Pyramid, 2. Reading a Label, 3. How to Shop in a Grocery Store, 4. The Basics of Cooking and Snacking and 5. Why Should You Trouble oneself with Nutrition? Videos will besides be shown during category as synergistic acquisition tools. Group engagement and treatment will be encouraged each hebdomad. This will give participants the opportunity to inquire inquiries, talk with each other, job solve and be accompanied by a nutrition pupil who can help them with any barriers they may hold sing the subjects. After each session, participants will compose down short term and long term ends they would wish to accomplish. The group atmosphere will promote participants to remain accountable of their ends.

Data Collection and Procedures

Measures and Interpretation

Pre and post trial and studies will be conducted to mensurate and construe the effectivity of the intercession. The trials and studies will be administered in a manner so that the participant will remain anon. , but besides so the pre and station information can be compared on the same individual. Each set of studies and trials will hold a figure from 1 through 15 on the upper right manus corner. Each participant will randomly pick a set of documents and must retrieve the figure on their paper. Merely the participant will cognize their figure. A piece of paper will be handed out so that participants can compose down their name on the line matching to the figure they randomly picked. This paper will be kept in a safe topographic point in instance participants bury their figure. At so terminal of the intercession, studies and trials will besides hold Numberss 1 through 15. Each participant will be asked to make full out the study and trial inquiries from the paper with the same figure they had during the pre-survey and pre-test. This will let the participants to experience more comfy reacting to the inquiries without uncovering themselves to the pupil. It will besides let comparing ratings to be determined for each participant.

Surveies will utilize simple footings and be easy to read. Surveys will give participants the ability to turn to what they would wish to larn from the category and how good the category was for them. This will let the pupil to turn to specific issues within the lessons. Participants will be able to measure how they felt about the category anonymously with the manager of Inland Temporary Homes, and the information will be directed back to the pupil research worker.

Surveies ( see appendix ) will besides inquire participants sing ; how frequently they visit fast nutrient constitutions, how many times they eat inside the place, soft drink and intoxicant ingestion, fruit, veggie, whole grain, dairy and meat ingestion, if they read nutrient labels, how many yearss per hebdomad they engage in physical activity and preparedness for alteration.

The study will measure their phase of alteration in conformity to the Transtheoretical Model. Participant ‘s phase will be measured at the beginning and at the terminal of the intercession utilizing two methods. Measured on a graduated table of one to ten ( one being least confident, 10 being most confident ) participants will be asked to mensurate their current preparedness to increase fruit and vegetable ingestion from baseline ingestion and their self-efficacy to accomplish this end. Participants will besides be asked to weigh the Pros and Cons of increasing fruit and vegetable ingestion. Precontemplation is the phase in which people are non meaning to take action in a six month period. In this phase, the Pros of fruit and vegetable ingestion far outweighs the Cons and self-efficacy tonss are low because they may be uninformed about the wellness benefits or held back by fiscal agencies or other grounds. Contemplation is the phase in which participants are meaning to alter in the following six months. In this phase, the Pros and Cons are more equal and self-efficacy mark may be mean. In the Preparation, Action and Maintenance phases, the Cons of fruit and vegetable ingestion outweigh the Pros and self-efficacy tonss are comparatively high ( 16 ) .

The pre and station trials ( see appendix ) will inquire inquiries refering to the lesson programs throughout the five hebdomads. Trials will inquire consecutive forward inquiries and be of appropriate literacy degree. Test tonss will be measured to measure if cognition was gained as a consequence of the lesson programs.

Ethical Considerations

The IRB regulations and ordinances will be followed during the class of this survey. Participants will be informed that any information they provide in respects to studies and trials will be kept confidential and non attached to anything that will take to the designation of the person who provided the information. Information provided will non specifically place the supplier of information. The pupil research worker must be a Certified Food Worker in the county of San Bernardino in order to fix and manage nutrient decently for the workshops.


There will be no prejudice refering to the research worker sing the population, category treatments or results of the ratings. All information from participants will be kept confidential and merely accessible to the pupil research worker who will analysis the informations. Pre-and post-tests and studies will be graded and consequences will be implemented into SPSS by the pupil research worker.

Data Measurement and Analysis

Datas from the studies will be entered into the SPSS plan and consequences evaluated. Pre and station trials will be graded manually by the pupil, and that information will be entered into SPSS for rating. To find the phase of alteration pre and station intercession, both the graduated table and list of pros and cons will be evaluated pre and station intercession by the pupil and entered into SBSS for comparing. The effectivity of the intercession will be determined by the consequences of the participants pre and station studies, trials, and rating of phase of alteration.


The City of Loma Linda with the fiscal assistance of the California Healthy Cities Grant aimed to better nutrition and the quality of life among the low income occupants of Inland Temporary Homes. The grant enables the City of Loma Linda to engage a pupil houseman from the Loma Linda School of Public Health, Nutrition Department as the Nutrition and Wellness Educator. The financess will patronize the workshops for Inland Temporary Homes.

Annual Cost of Workshop ( For 15 Participants )

Forces Cost:

-Student Intern $ 1,000

-Child Care $ 200


-Prizes- $ 100

-Folders $ 20

-Printed Material $ 50

Food & A ; Beverage: $ 800

Transportation system: $ 100

Facility: $ 250

Entire COST $ 2,520


Chaudhary N. Kreiger N. Nutrition and Physical Activity Interventions for Low-Income Populations. Canadian Journal of Dietetic Practice and Research. 2007 ; 68:201-206.

Schwarz K, Garrett B, Hampsey J, Thompson D. High Prevalence of Overweight and Obesity in Homeless Baltimore Children and Their Health professionals: A Pilot Study. MedGenMed. 2007 ; 9 ( 1 ) :48.

Jones C, Perera A, Chow M, Ho I, Nguyen J, Davachi S. Cardiovascular Disease Risk Among the Poor and Homeless-What We Know So Far. Current Cardiology Reviews. 2009 ; 5:69-77.

Plumb J. Homelessness: attention, bar, and public policy. Ann Intern Med. 1997 ; 126:973-975.

Schanzer B, Dominguez B, Shrout PE, Caton CLM. Home-lessness, wellness position, and wellness attention usage. Am J Public Health. 2007 ; 97:464-469.

Chau S, Chin M, Chang J, et Al. Cancer hazard behaviours and testing rates among stateless grownups in Los Angeles County. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2002 ; 11:431-438.

Burt MR. Helping America ‘s Homeless. Washington, DC: Urban Institute Press ; 2001. ( Statistics in this brief are based on the 1996 National Survey of Homeless Assistance Providers and Clients, conducted by the U.S. Census Bureau: 1996 ) .

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. ( 2008, 2009 ) . Childhood Overweight.

Retrieved January 13, 2010 from hypertext transfer protocol: // a/obesity/childhood/index.htm

Dammann K, Smith C. Factors Affecting Low-income Women ‘s Food Choices and the Perceived Impact of Dietary Intake and Socioeconomic Status on Their Health and Weight. Journal of Nutrition Education and Behavior. 2009 ; 41 ( 4 ) :242-252.

Strasser JA, Damrosch S, Gaines J. Nutrition and the homeless individual. J Commun Health Nursing. 1991 ; 8:65-73.

Luder E, Boey E, Buchalter B, Martinez-Weber C. Assessment of the nutritionary position of urban homeless grownups. Public Health Rep. 1989 ; 104:451-457.

Hu FB, Willett WC. Optimal diets for bar of coronary bosom disease. JAMA. 2002 ; 288:2569-2578.

Yousey Y, Leake J, Wdowik M, Janken J. Education in a Homeless Shelter to Better the Nutrition of Young Children. Public Health Nursing. 2007 ; 24 ( 3 ) :249-255

Steptoe A, Perkins-Porras L, McKay C, Rink E, Hilton S, Cappuccio Fp. Behavioural reding to increase ingestion of fruit and veggies in low income grownups: randomized test. BMJ 2003 ; 326:885-861

Inland Temporary Homes. Available at: hypertext transfer protocol: // . Accessed February 13, 2010.

Prochaska, J.O. , et Al. Detailed Overview of the Transtheoretical Model. Retrieved 11/06/09 from: hypertext transfer protocol: //