Hybrid Technology Of Biomass And Solar Energy Environmental Sciences Essay

Energy is the ultimate factor responsible for both industrial and agricultural development. The usage of renewable energy engineering to run into the energy demands has been steadily increasing for the past few old ages. However the of import drawbacks associated with renewable energy systems are their inability to vouch dependability and they are thin in nature. Import of crude oil merchandises constitutes a major drain on our foreign exchange modesty. Renewable beginnings are considered to be the better option to run into these challenges.

The use of renewable energy resources becomes really of import particularly for the rural and distant countries where entree to run into the demand. Renewable energy resources such as solar thermal, air current, hydro, geothermic, biomass and ocean thermal can play a important function in supplying energy demands every bit good as prolonging the environment resources.

India, a state with a population of about 1.1 billion people, has still a comparatively low per capita energy ingestion of 260 kilogram of oil equivalent in 1998. But the commercial energy ingestion in India has been increasing at an one-year growing rate of 6.5 % between 1995 and 2005, a growing rate that is much higher than in any industrialised state. Due to the increased per capita electricity demand, a population turning at a rate of 1.8 % and an increased commercialisation and industrialisation, the turning demand for electricity outpaces the generating and capacity add-on, taking to a demand and supply spread.

It is estimated that the demand and supply spread is about 8 % for the base energy deficit, whereas in extremum hours the demand is 30 % higher than the supply. As the energy demand is expected to go on to turn in the hereafter, the necessity of an enlargement of the power bring forthing capacity at an accelerated velocity seems to be inevitable. Otherwise, if the energy demand can non be satisfied, India could confront serious negative economic effects.

Chapter 2

Aim OF THE PAPER

The usage of renewable energy engineering to run into the energy demands has been steadily increasing for the past few old ages. However the of import drawbacks associated with renewable energy systems are their inability to vouch dependability and they are thin in nature

At present in Tamilnadu the capacity of air current energy installed is 3800MW, but the generated capacity is 1700 MW. It is chiefly due to seasonal fluctuation of air current.

The usage of biomass for power coevals gained impulse and tonss of promotional strategies have been introduced by the authorities for solar energy. The aim of the present undertaking is to use the biomass and solar energy in combination with the air current energy to supply guaranteed auxiliary energy with conventional power coevals.

Chapter 3

HYBRID ENERGY SYSTEM

Hybrid energy system produces power from more than one bring forthing beginning such as wind-driven turbines and solar panels, biomass works and hydro turbine. The system shops extra power in battery storage units, and could be configured besides to utilize power from the local electric power grid when the modesty power storage ( batteries ) is low. The systems provide the right combination of biomass and solar energy coevals and system constituents. These systems take the conjecture work out of choosing and put ining a renewable energy coevals because every system should be tailored to run into the power coevals demands of the specific energy resources available at the specific site.

The energy demand in the development parts is an indispensable job for economic development in a figure of states. This applies to the developed and developing states. Normally, these parts are short in energy resource and are chiefly depending on the renewable energy resources.

A individual, energy resource is non normally justified to run into the demand for sufficient energy production. In this regard the loanblend system has proved to offer the possible possibility for energy production from different energy production systems. Puting together several energy systems is the possible option for run intoing the demand for energy in the part and is a promising energy scheme in many states.

Chapter 4

RENEWABLE ENERGY IN INDIA: STATUS AND POTENTIAL

4.1 Introduction

India had a population of 1.1 billion and a Gross Domestic Product of 33 trillion Rupees ( 728 billion US $ ) in 2006. A dissolution of India ‘s primary commercial energy shows that more than 80 % is supplied from fossil fuels. If we besides consider traditional fuels and biomass, India ‘s entire primary energy ingestion was about 20 EJ in 2004-2005 ( an norm of 18 GJ/capita/year ) . Fig. 3.1 shows the portion of different energy beginnings in India ‘s primary energy supply. Fossil fuels account for approximately 64 % of the entire primary energy while traditional biomass histories for approximately 33 % of the sum.

Fig.3.1 Primary Energy Production in India

India histories for 17 % of the universe ‘s population but merely 4 % of the universe ‘s primary energy ingestion. Modern renewable history for a little part of the entire energy mix. India is one of the lone states in the universe that has a separate Ministry of New and Renewable Energy ( MNRE ) , earlier known as the Ministry of Non-Conventional Energy Sources. In position of the scarce dodo fuel militias, energy security and clime alteration concerns it is expected that renewable energy will play a important function in India ‘s future energy mix. Fig. 3.2 provides an overview of the different renewable energy beginnings.

Fig.3.2 Schematic of Renewable Energy Options

4.2 GEOTHERMAL ENERGY

The geothermic resources in India have non been exploited commercially for heat or power coevals. The geothermic resources have been mapped and the Geological Survey of India estimates the possible to be of the order of 10,000MW ( vitamin E ) . Most of the current use of geothermic energy is for direct usage for bathing and swimming. It estimates an installed capacity of 203MW ( thermal ) with an one-year energy usage of 1607 TJ/year and a capacity factor of 25 % . It is expected that the geothermic beginnings can be used for low class warming and direct use in the nutrient processing industry.

4.3 Ocean thermic energy transition ( OTEC )

An OTEC works was attempted off the seashore of Tamil Nadu ( 60 kilometers off Tuticorin ) by the National Institute of Ocean Technology ( NIOT ) with a gross coevals capacity of 1MW ( net power 500 kilowatt ) . This is the universe ‘s first natation works. The constituents were tested nevertheless there was a job in set uping the kilometre long high denseness Poly Ethylene grapevine. This undertaking has been abandoned. NIOT ‘s scheme seems now to match the OTEC works with the cold H2O shrieking being installed for desalinization.

4.4 Wave energy

India has experimented with a 150-kW moving ridge energy system at Thiruvananthapuram ( Kerala ) in 1983. The system mean end product was 25 kilowatt during December-March and 75 kilowatt during April- November in 1983. The mean wave potency along the Indian seashore is around 5-10 kW/m. India has a coastline of about 7500 kilometer. Even a 10 % use would intend a resource of 3750- 7500MW. However though paradigms have been built and some operating experience obtained, this is non yet a commercially available engineering. A moving ridge energy works installed by NIOT presently yields 6-7 kilowatts to bring forth 7000-8000 liters of desalinated H2O per twenty-four hours.

Chapter 5

AVAILABILITY OF BIOMASS FOR ENERGY

Biomass for energy has to vie with other biomass merchandises. The major usage of biomass is in the domestic sector, for cookery and for heating bath H2O, in industries and in constitutions. At the national degree, 51 % of families use fuel wood for cooking.Estimates of fuel wood used for cooking scope from 93 to 309 Mt yearly. Though biomass is besides used for heating bath H2O, it is most frequently non in surveies and histories for merely 3.6 % of the family energy ingestion as compared to cooking which histories for 88 %

.

Harmonizing to a national study, 35 % of the families in urban countries use fuel wood, and its usage in the urban domestic sector is about 30 Mt. Biomass is besides used in the industry of building stuffs such as bricks, tiles and calcium hydroxide, and in agro-processing such as in the hardening of baccy, readying of spices and petroleum sugar, etc. The usage of lumber in the lodging industry in India is non important and histories for less than 5 % of the entire usage of fuel wood. The usage of biomass in constitutions in urban countries is estimated to be 10 Mt yearly. In the rural sector, cooking energy demand could be met from the biogas potency of cattle droppings ; the foliage biomass from dedicated energy plantations and harvest residues can well cut down or even extinguish the usage of fuel wood. The fuel wood saved from cookery could be made available for power coevals for illuming and shaft-power applications, taking to the preservation of fossil fuels and to cut down imports. By 2010, fuel wood and wood coal ingestion will account for 80 % of the unit of ammunition wood production in India, while industrial unit of ammunition wood and sawn-wood will account for 10.5 % and 9.5 % severally. Non-energy biomass use is limited in India and the major usage of biomass is for cooking. Hence, the biomass from dedicated energy plantations can be to the full utilised for electricity coevals intents without noteworthy competition from other utilizations of biomass.

It is assumed that 43 Mha of land is available for biomass production in India under S2 and, in add-on, the present unit of ammunition wood production continues. Conservative productiveness degrees under S2 are considered for biomass production. By 2010, the wood produced from the plantations on these lands will be considered to run into the fuel wood, industrial and sawn wood demands of the turning population. The first precedence of plantation forestry is to run into these biomass demands. Any excess biomass, after the use of wood for the above terminal uses, could potentially be used for the production of energy.

The demand for fuel wood, industrial wood and sawn wood by 2010 is estimated to be 283 Mt, presuming no important fuel wood preservation programmes are implemented. If the unit of ammunition wood production continues at the 1993 degrees, the wood that can be cultivated on the available land will run into the demands of the turning population. Surplus wood can be obtained and utilized for modern biomass energy coevals. By 2010, the possible wood production from the dedicated plantations and the bing biomass beginnings is estimated to be 514 Mt ( Table 4.3 ) . A excess of 231 Mt is estimated to be available for usage as feedstock for energy coevals ( Table 4.3 ) . If steps for conserving fuel wood such as biogas and improved range programmes are implemented, extra biomass would be available as feedstock for bio energy.

Chapter 6

POtential of solar thermic power in India

To find the possible usage of solar thermic power workss in India, one has to look foremost at the geographical and climatic conditions. India ‘s land surface is about 2,973,000 km2. The one-year planetary solar radiation ranges from 1750 kWh/m2 in the north-eastern portion to over 2350 kWh/m2 in the north-western portion of India. The one-year planetary solar radiation is the most of import parametric quantity to find the suitableness of a part for solar thermic power workss, as it has a major impact on the electricity coevals and, therefore, the energy cost. To ease the computation of the potency of solar power workss in India, the state can be divided into four parts harmonizing to their one-year planetary solar radiation. See table 5.1

S.No

Annual solar radiation ( kWh/m2 )

Land Area ( km2 )

1.

& A ; lt ; 1900

231.305

2.

1900-2100

2535.058

3.

2100-2300

461.516

4.

& A ; gt ; 2300

60.150

Table 5.1. Annual Global Solar Radiation in India.

The land country with a solar radiation higher than 1900 kWh/m2 is considered as suited for solar thermic power workss. India ‘s land country lies within this scope. Apart from the radiation, the land handiness is an of import stipulation for the building of solar thermic power workss. As India is a really dumbly populated state, agricultural land and woods are non considered for the building of power workss. This land is needed for nutrient and biomass production for the turning population. Therefore, merely barrens are considered as building sites. It is estimated that India has 1.58 million km2 of barrens. Most of the barrens are located in the cardinal portion and the north-western portion of India where the solar radiation is highest. Rajasthan, Gujarat and Haryana, with 320,000 km2 of barrens, most of it deserts, and one-year planetary solar radiations of 2100 to more than 2350 kWh/m2, seem to be particularly suited locations. Taking merely 10 % of the barren country as a possible building site for solar thermic power workss, 158,000 km2 still remain. This indicates that land handiness will non be the confining factor in the hereafter. Even if merely solar chimneys, the engineering with the highest land demand, were used, 790 GW could be installed. It is instead the production capacity that limits the coevals of solar thermic electricity on a big graduated table in the close hereafter, as solar thermic power works engineerings are either still in a presentation stage or merely really few workss are in commercial operation. Therefore, the most of import limitation for an increased building of solar thermic power workss in India are fiscal restraints at the minute.

Chapter 6

Decision

The present scenario in the Renewable energy use has been studied. The range and potency for the use of solar and biomass are analyzed in inside informations.

There is great possible for increasing biomass productiveness through the usage of appropriate tree- species mix, genetically superior seting stuff, fertiliser and manure application, dirt and H2O preservation patterns and H2O application in suited locations. One of the executable options for increasing biomass production in developing states such as India is through the acceptance of genetically improved seting stock. Hence, a huge potency in footings of land and productiveness can be realized in India, and this can be utilized for making eco-friendly bioenergy options.

Solar energy is the possible solution to run into the energy demand because of its abundant handiness, non pollution, clean and sustainable nature. The solar mission launched by the Government of India to advance solar energy use for warming and power coevals in the state may gives a good beginning for the exponential growing of solar energy use in this state.

Since Tamilnadu is holding 40 % of its energy coevals capacity through air current energy which is seasonal in coevals, decidedly requires extra power coevals through biomass and solar to do it more meaningful and efficient manner of renewable energy use.

It is planned to carry on a elaborate appraisal for biomass and solar energy possible territory wise in the 2nd stage of this undertaking and a theoretical account will be developed for the better use of the bing air current Millss and the proposed solar and biomass based workss.