Hymer International Operations Of National Firms Economics Essay

This study has discussed different theoretical model of FDI that takes topographic point. These theories briefly explicate why houses go to problem when set uping or geting abroad. Theories that use on this study are Hymer ‘s parts, merchandise life-cycle theory, caves theory, internalization theory, the eclectic paradigm, strategic motives of foreign direct investing and investing way development ( IDP ) theory. This study besides evaluates Honda automotive as an illustration on how they survive and compete in the competitory international markets nowadays with utilizing FDI theoretical accounts, statistics and theories. Based on these analyses, I feel that FDI takes an of import function to both foreign and host states and besides impact steadfast behavior or effects on host economic systems.

Introduction

This study will discourse Foreign Direct Investment theories and measure the FDI of a taking participant industry that chosen, Toyota, Japan. Foreign direct investing ( FDI ) is the name given to treat where a house from a state provides capital to an bing or newly-created house in another state ( Jones, 2006 # 1 ) . For illustration, a foreign house may make up one’s mind to set-up production in the UK and by so making will prosecuting in the procedure known as FDI. Firms turn uping production in more than one state are frequently referred to as transnational endeavors ( MNEs ) . Tormenting ( 1981 ) notes there are two chief jobs with sing FDI. First, FDI is more than merely the transportation of capital, since merely as significantly it involves the transportation of engineering, direction and organisational accomplishments. Second, the resources are transferred within the house instead than between two independent parties in the market topographic point, as is the instance with capital ( Jones, 2006 # 1 ) . These factors give FDI own a alone cardinal theories and frequently cited as Hymer ( 1960 ) international operations of national houses ; Vernon ‘s ( 1966 ) merchandise life-cycle theory ; Cave ‘s ( 1971 ) horizontal and perpendicular theories ; Buckley and Casson ( 1976 ) Internalization theory ; Dunning ( 1977 ) eclectic theory ; Graham ( 1978 ) strategic behaviour of houses and John Dunning ( 1981 ) investing development way ( IDP ) theory. This study will get down by analyzing the Hymer ( 1960 ) theory.

( Keywords: Foreign Direct Investment, FDI, theory, Japan FDI, Honda )

Literature Review

1.1 Hymer ( 1960 ) international operations of national houses

Hymer ‘s ( 1960 ) , who saw defects in the prevailing position that direct investings and portfolio were synonymous with one another. Hymer noted that direct investing was chiefly performed by houses in fabrication, whereas there was a predomination of fiscal administrations involved in portfolio investing ( Jones, 2006 # 1 ) . Hymer was besides explained why direct investings across assorted states ( Kogut, 1998 # 2 ) . Hymer ( 1960 ) expressed his dissatisfaction with the theory of indirect ( or portfolio ) capital transportations to explicate the foreign value-added activities of houses ( Dunning, 2008 # 3 ) . In peculiar, he identified three grounds for his discontent. The first was that one time uncertainness and hazard, the cost of geting information and volatile exchange rates and doing minutess were incorporated into classical portfolio theory, many anticipations, for illustration, with regard to the cross-border motions of money capital in response to involvement rate alterations, became nullified. This was because such market imperfectnesss modified the behavioral parametric quantities impacting public presentation of houses and the behavior and, in peculiar, scheme in serving foreign markets ( Tormenting, 2008 # 3 ) . Second, Hymer stated that FDI involved the transportation of a bundle of resource ( i.e engineering, entrepreneurship, direction accomplishments, and so on ) , and non merely finance capital which portfolio theories such as Iversen ( 1935 ) had sought to explicate. The 3rd and possibly most cardinal feature of FDI was that it involved no alteration in the ownership of resources or rights transferred, whereas indirect investing, which was transacted through the market, did ask such a alteration. In effects, the organizational mode of both the dealing of the resources, for illustration, intermediate merchandises, and the value-added activities linked by these minutess was different. Furthermore, Hymer ‘s theory of FDI draws its influence from Bain ‘s ( 1956 ) barriers to entry theoretical account of industrial economic sciences ( Teece, 1985 ) . Hymer Begins by observing that there are barriers to entry for a house desiring to set-up production abroad. These are in the signifier of uncertainness, hazard, and host-country patriotism ( Kogut, 1998 # 2 ) . Uncertainty gives rise to costs in get the better ofing informational disadvantages associated with strangeness with local imposts. Each state has its ain linguistic communications, legal system, economic system and authorities, which place houses from exterior of the state at a disadvantage compared to houses that are of course resident to the state. The 2nd barrier is chauvinistic favoritism by host states, which may happen by the authorities with a protectionist docket, or by consumers of the host state who prefer to buy goods from ain national houses for grounds of loyal or trueness inclinations. The concluding barrier manifests itself as an exchange rate hazard ( Kogut, 1998 # 2 ) . As the house has to pay a dividend to its stockholders in the place state it has to repatriate the net incomes back to its ain currency.

Given these barriers to international productions, why do houses prosecute in foreign direct investing? Harmonizing to Hymer there are two grounds, whether of which could use, and both of which are expected to increase its net incomes ( Kogut, 1998 # 2 ) . First, the house removes competition from within the industry, by taking-over or by unifying with houses in other states. Second, the house has advantages over other houses runing in a foreign state. Examples of the latter are the ability of the house to get factors of production at a lower cost, the usage of better distributional installations, the ownership of cognition non known to its challengers or a differentiated merchandise that is now known in the other state. Both grounds stress the importance of ‘market imperfectnesss ‘ ( Dunning and Rugman, 1985 ) , and underlying these the investor has direct control of the investing.

Overall, these grounds are non sufficient for a house to prosecute in direct foreign investing, as what is necessary is that it must come in the foreign market in order to to the full allow the net incomes, for illustration, a house could licence its merchandise to a house in the foreign state, so that it need non straight put in the market. However, there are jobs with licencing the merchandise. These include the failure to make an understanding with the licensing house over the degrees of end product or monetary values, or the costs involved in the monitoring an understanding made between the houses.

1.2 Product Life-Cycle Theory

Vernon ( 1966 ) , argued that “ the determination to turn up production is non made by standard factor-cost or labour-cost analysis, but by a more complicated procedure ” ( Kogut, 1998 # 2, p.29 ) . The merchandise rhythm theoretical account was introduced in the 1960s to explicate market-seeking production by houses of a peculiar ownership or nationality ( Dunning, 2008 # 3 ) . On the other manus, the merchandise rhythm was the first dynamic reading of the determiners of, and relationship between, international trade and foreign production ( Dunning, 1996 # 5 ) . It besides introduced some fresh hypotheses sing demand stimulations, engineering leads and slowdowns, and information and communicating costs, which have later proved utile tools in the survey of foreign production and exchange ( Dunning, 1996 # 5 ) . Harmonizing to Vernon, a merchandise has a life rhythm that has three chief phases. These phases are of import as they have deductions for the international location of a merchandise as follows.

Phase One: Merchandise development procedure. In other words, the nature of the merchandise that the house is doing is non standardised ( Kogut, 1998 # 2 ) .

Phase Two: Maturing merchandise. This means that the demand for the merchandise to be situated near to its market diminutions, which allows for economic systems of graduated table. These impact on the locational determination of the house, particularly as the demand for the merchandise is likely to turn in other states, and the house will hold to make up one’s mind whether it is deserving puting up production abroad. Furthermore, this could even intend that the place state experiences exports back to it from the foreign works.

Phase Three: Standardized merchandise. This is an extension to the maturating merchandise phase, where the standardization of the merchandise has reached its ‘zenith ‘ , and a concluding model of the merchandise has been found ( Kogut, 1998 # 2 ) .

1.3 Caves Theory

Caves ( 1971 ) , expanded upon Hymer ‘s theory of direct investing, and placed it steadfastly in the context of industrial administration theory ( Jones, 2006 # 1 ) . The importance of Caves work is that this theory will associate Hymer ‘s theory of international production to the so current theories of industrial administration on horizontal and perpendicular integrating. Caves identify between houses that engage in horizontal FDI and those that undertake perpendicular FDI ( Dunning, 2008 # 3 ) . Horizontal FDI takes topographic point when a house enters into its ain merchandise market within a foreign state, whereas perpendicular FDI happens when a house enters into the merchandise market at a different phase of production ( Jones, 2006 # 1 ) .

1.4 Internalisation Theory

Coase ( 1937 ) , examines the function that dealing costs play in the formation of administrations known as internalization theory ( Jones, 2006 # 1 ) . In brief, Coase was concerned with why houses exist and why non all minutess in a n economic system occur in the market. Coase besides answered this in footings of the minutess costs involved in utilizing the market, where this is the cost of seeking and finding the market monetary value, or, one time the monetary value is found, the cost of dialogue, subscribing and enforcement of contracts between the parties involved in the dealing. The procedure of internalization is developed to explicate international production and FDI, and one of the taking advocates is Buckley and Casson ( 1976 ) . They present the MNE as basically an extension of the multi-plant house ( Dunning, 2008 # 3 ) . Bucley and Casson note that the operations of house, particularly big houses, take the signifier non merely of bring forthing services and goods, but activities such as selling, preparation, development and research, direction techniques and engagement with fiscal markets. These activities are mutualist and are connected by ‘intermediate merchandises ‘ , taking the signifier of either cognition or stuff merchandises, and expertness. A cardinal intermediate merchandise in the internalization theory of FDI is knowledge. One ground is that cognition takes a considerable period of clip to bring forth, for illustration through development and research, but is extremely hazardous, so that hereafters markets do non be. Sellers of markets may be unwilling to unwrap information, which has unsure value to the purchaser, doing market fail. Further, Sellerss and purchasers of cognition can frequently keep a grade of market power, which leads to a ‘bilateral concentration of power ‘ ( Williamson, 1979 ) , and unsure results ( Dunning, 2008 # 3 ) . These jobs indicate the terrible troubles in licensing and undertaking where information is important.

In respects to internationalization, the public good belongings of cognition agencies it is easy transmitted within the house, irrespective of whether it is inside or across national boundaries. This creates internal markets across national boundaries, and as Buckley and Casson province, as houses search for and work cognition to their maximal potency they do so in legion locations, with this taking topographic point on an international graduated table, taking to a “ web of workss on a global footing ” ( Jones, 2006 # 1, p.45 ) . The internalization theories of FDI played an of import function in progressing and developing the theory of FDI in the 1970s and have remained popular since that clip ( Dunning, 2008 # 3 ) .

1.5 The Eclectic Paradigm

( Please refer to postpone 2.1 and 2.2 in reading this subdivision )

Reflecting upon the history of the theory of FDI, Dunning ( 1977 ) noted that it was really much couched in footings of either the structural market failure hypothesis of Hymer and Caves or the internalization attack of Buckley and Casson ( Dunning, 1996 # 5 ) . Tormenting provided an eclectic response to these by conveying the viing theories together to organize a individual theory, or paradigm as it is more frequently referred. The basic premiss of Dunning ‘s paradigm is that it links together Hymer ‘s ownership advantages with the internalization school, and at the same clip adds a locational dimension to the theory, which at the clip had non been to the full explored ( Jones, 2006 # 1 ) . Further, Dunning does pull off to present some new considerations, such as the impact that different state and industry features have on each of the ownership, locational and internalization advantages of FD ( Jones, 2006 # 1 ) .

The eclectic paradigm of FDI provinces that a house will straight put in a foreign state merely if it fulfils three conditions. First, the house must possess an ownership-specific plus, which gives it an advantage over other houses and which are sole to the house. Second, it must internalize these assets within the house instead than through catching or licensing. Third, there must be an advantage in setting-up production in a peculiar foreign state instead than trusting on exports ( Blomstrom, 2000 # 8 ) . Different types of ownership ( O ) , locational ( L ) and internalization ( I ) factors are given in Table 1 ( jointly known as OLI ) ( Jones, 2006 # 1 ) .

Internalization advantages are the ways that a house maximises the additions from their ownership advantages to avoid or get the better of market imperfectnesss ( Dunning, 1996 # 5 ) . Internalisation-specific advantages consequences in the procedure of production going internal to the house. Reasons for internalization include the turning away of dealing costs, the protection of the good, market and finance, turning away of duties and the ability to capture economic systems of graduated table from production ( Dunning, 2008 # 3 ) .

Furthermore, non all of the OLI conditions for FDI will be equally dispersed across states, and hence each status will be determined by the factors that are specific to single states ( Dunning, 1996 # 5 ) . Linkss between the OLI advantages and the country-specific features are summarised in Table 2. For illustration, the ownership-specific advantage of house size is likely to be influenced by market size in the house ‘s place state ( Dunning, 1996 # 5 ) . This is because the larger the market is, the more likely will a house be able to derive ownership-specific advantages in the signifier of economic systems of graduated table. In footings of location-specific factors, labor costs will change across developed and developing states, while conveyance costs are determined by the distance between the host and place states. Finally, country-specific factors are likely to impact the grade to which houses internalise their advantages.

1.6 Strategic Motivations of Foreign Direct Investment

Despite the progresss made by the eclectic attack to FDI, the theory has been criticised for disregarding another facet of FDI theory. Knickerbocker ( 1973 ) , and so advanced by Graham ( 1978, 1998 ) . The distinguished characteristic of the strategic attack to FDI is that is believes that an initial influx of FDI into a state will bring forth a reaction signifier the local manufacturers in that state, so that FDI is a dynamic procedure. The procedure from the domestic manufacturers can either be aggressive or defensive in nature. An aggressive response would be a monetary value war or entry into the foreign house ‘s place market while a defensive response would be an acquisition or amalgamation of other domestic manufacturers to reenforce market power ( Dunning, 1996 # 5 ) .

1.7 Investment Development Path Theory

John Dunning ‘s ‘investment development way ( IDP ) ‘ theory ( 1981 ) and its latest version ( Tormenting an Narula 1994 ) are implicitly built on the impression that the planetary economic system is needfully hierarchal in footings of the assorted phases of economic development in which its diverse component states are situated. The IDP basically traces out the net cross-border flows of industrial cognition, the flows that are internalised in foreign direct investing ( FDI ) and that restructure and upgrade the planetary economic system, although there is besides the non-equity type of cognition transportation such as licensing, turn-key operations, and the similar. In this manner, the IDP can therefore be position as a cross-border larning curve exhibited by a state that successfully move up the phases of development by geting industrial cognition from its more advanced ‘neighbours ‘ . A move from the ‘U-shaped ‘ ( i.e negative NOI ) part to the ‘wiggle ‘ subdivision of the IDP indicates an ‘equilibration in cognition airing ‘ ( Dunning, 1996 # 5, p.143 ) and that is, a narrowing of the industrial engineering spread between the advanced and the catching-up states. Therefore, IDP curve conceptualised by Dunning is an idealized form based on free-market exchanged of cognition among states ( Dunning, 1996 # 5 ) .

Japan Automotive Industry

2.1 Components-intensive assembly-based fabrication and FDI

( first, trade-conflict-skirting, but subsequently rationalizing type )

Cars and auto-parts had long been targeted by the Nipponese authorities as one of the most promising industries in which both higher technological advancement and productiveness were possible and whose merchandises were extremely income elastic. In add-on to cars, another components-intensive, assembly-based industry that successfully emerged in Japan in the 1970s was consumer electronics ( Dunning, 1996 # 5 ) . Both cars and consumer electronics came to capitalize really adroitly on Japan ‘s double industrial construction in which legion little and moderate-sized endeavor coexisted alongside a limited figure of large-scale houses ; the former specialised at the comparatively labor-intensive terminal, while the latter operated at the comparatively capital-intensive, scale-based terminal of vertically incorporate fabrication ( Dunning, 2008 # 3 ) .

Furthermore, it was besides in Japan ‘s car industry ( at Toyota Motor Co. , to be exact ) that a new fabrication paradigm, ‘lean ‘ or ‘flexible ‘ production, originated as a superior option to ‘Fordist ‘ mass production ( Womack, Jones and Roos, 1990 ) . This technological advancement came to be reflected in lifting engineering exports in the conveyance equipment ( largely, car ) industry. But the really success of constructing up the efficient, large-scale ( hence exploitative of scale/scope economic systems ) hierarchies of assembly operations in extremely differentiated cars and electronics goods, along with increased R & A ; D and technological accretion ( which is reflected in increasing engineering exports ) , resulted in Japan ‘s export thrust and spread outing trade excess. These state of affairss in bend rapidly led to merchandise issues and the crisp grasp of the hankering ( Dunning, 2008 # 3 ) .

To besiege protectionism, Nipponese manufacturers of cars and electronics goods began to replace their exports with local assembly operations in the Western markets, chiefly in North America and Europe. Meanwhile, they besides started to bring forth reasonably standardised ( Internet Explorer. Relatively low value added ) parts and constituents, or those that can be cost-effectively produced, locally, both in low-wage developing states, particularly in Asia, and in high-wage Western countries- in the latter, with the installing of labour-cost-reducing and labour-quality-augmenting mechanization equipment largely shipped from Japan. Therefore, a web of Nipponese abroad ventures began to ‘straddle ‘ the advanced host states and the developing host states at the same clip ( Dunning, 2008 # 3 ) .

Recently, these assembly-based FDIs are traveling beyond the trade-conflict-skirting stage to make a new stage of rationalised cross-border production and selling. More and more constituents are produced at supplied place to the abroad fabrication outstations. Besides, low-end merchandises ( theoretical accounts ) are assigned to production and selling in the developing host states, particularly in Asia ; some are imported back into Japan. Therefore, we can spot a more refined or more aggressively delineated and specialised signifier of trade within an industry ( i.e intra industry ) or more suitably within a house ( i.e intra- house trade ) and within a production procedure ( i.e inter-process trade ) , a new signifier of trade made possible by rationalisation-seeking type of FDI ( Dunning, 1996 # 5 ) .

2.2 Toyota

( Please refer to appendix 1 & A ; 2 in reading this subdivision )

The Nipponese market is the most amalgamate of all three markets. Toyota, is a multinational Nipponese international auto maker where headquartered in Aichi, Japan ( Dunning, 2008 # 3 ) . Harmonizing to appendix 1, in 2011, Toyota was the 5th biggest multinational companies with foreign sale as 60.8 per centum of entire. Besides, it has 38 % of its 326,000 workers abroad ( Economist, 2012 # 7 ) . In 2009, Toyota entirely has 36.88 per centum of the rider auto market, 18.29 per centum of the truck market and 79.72 per centum of the coach market ( M.Rugman, 2012 # 6 ) . Excluding Japan, Toyota is the market leader in two of the six largest states in Asia Pacific which are Malaysia and Thailand ( M.Rugman, 2012 # 6 ) . Furthermore, in 2009, two regional markets accounted for 78 per centum of Toyota ‘s gross Asia ( with Japan at 48.3 per centum of grosss ) and North America ( at 29.70 per centum of grosss ) ; Europe was merely at 14.1 per centum of grosss and remainder of the universe 7.9 per centum, and therefore, it is a bi-region-focused company. Harmonizing to appendix 2, In term of units sold, the geographic distribution is similar where Asia and Oceania history for 14 per centum, North America 32 per centum and Europe 14 per centum. Therefore, in footings of gross and units sold, Toyota is a bi-regional company ( Dunning, 1996 # 5 ) .

Over 10 old ages, Toyota ‘s intra-regional per centum of gross revenues has decreased from 57.1 per centum to 46.2 per centum. One major ground for this is the Nipponese market itself, where gross revenues decreased for 48.4 per centum of entire grosss in 1993 to 38.3 per centum in 2002. As comparing, North American, European, and non-triad gross revenues have steadily increased in importance. Toyota manufactures locally over two tierces of the auto sells in United States. Local reactivity is of import for Toyota. Toyota introduced its luxury theoretical accounts to suit the wealthier and aging North American babe boomers in the 1990s. Today, the company is presenting autos to aim the immature American client, the demographic reverberation of the babe boomers. Since 60 per centum of US auto purchasers remain loyal to the trade name of first auto, it is therefore imperative to serve this immature market ( M.Rugman, 2012 # 6 ) .

Furthermore, American consumers, have been antiphonal to the company ‘s repute for lower monetary value and quality at which Toyota ‘s autos are sold ( M.Rugman, 2012 # 6 ) . Besides, the resale value is besides higher for Toyota autos. One major advantage for Toyota is that is has some of the best fabrication installations in the universe, and it combined this with first-class relationships with its providers. Until late, Toyota was one of the most efficient companies at outsourcing production to providers with whom it enjoys amicable long-run, sometimes keiretsu-style, relationship ( Dunning, 2008 # 3 ) . If the car industry is to go more like the electronics industry, vehicle trade name proprietor ( VBOs ) , such as GM, and VW, will be the equivalent of original equipment makers ( OEMs ) in the electronics industry, such as Nokia, and will concentrate on designing, technology, and selling vehicles to be sold under their trade name while others take attention of fabrication ( Dunning, 1996 # 5 ) . Toyota is likely farther along this outsourcing path than other triad car shapers.

Overall, although Toyota has much intra-regional trade and FDI, this does non intend that trade or FDI between them has declined ( M.Rugman, 2012 # 6 ) . As discussed, all of them have invested big sums of money in each other. For illustration, in 2008, the EU state has $ 1,622.911 billion of FDI in the United States and $ 86.915 billion in Japan. The United States imports $ 377 billion from the EU and $ 143.4 billion from Japan. So they are closely linked in footings of both trade and FDI ( M.Rugman, 2012 # 6 ) .

3. Decisions

Overall, this study has reviewed the theoretical literature on foreign direct investing and Honda automotive in the FDI international markets. Since Hymer, there have been efforts to turn to a figure of issues, such as why FDI occurs and where it locates. This study has besides take on board developments in Dunning ‘s eclectic paradigm of FDI, which non merely encompasses ownership and internalization advantages of transnational endeavor, but the function that location dramas in a house ‘s determination to put abroad. Since the clip of the eclectic paradigm, other theories have emerged that have stressed the importance of the function of scheme in FDI in the face of ‘globalisation ‘ and a corresponding growing in competition between houses. In this, the function of the traditional barriers to entry across states, such as the differences in the legal, economic environments and lingual, have become less of import, and FDI is now be viewed as competition between a few houses on an international phase ( Dunning, 1996 # 5 ) . Tormenting ‘s IDP paradigm provides a challenging model to analyze the Nipponese industry experience, because the instance of Japan seems so ‘deviant ‘ from the ‘norm ‘ set Forth in the macro-IDP form. The Asiatic NIEs and the new NIEs ( ASEAN-4 ) and now ‘new ‘ new NIEs ( China, Vietnam and India ) have moulded their developmental schemes along the line of MNE- facilitated development in order to ‘swing up ‘ . Indeed, Japan automotive seems to hold been a function theoretical account for other East and South East Asiatic states to fit in their thrust to economic modernization.

In add-on, to the high degree of international concern conducted across the three, companies in the three are invariably looking for new thoughts from other parts that will do them more competitory. In the United States, for illustration, the caput of the Federal Reserve System has expressed the belief that US antimonopoly patterns are out of day of the month and that rivals should be allowed to get and unify with each other in order to protect themselves from universe competition ( Dunning, 2008 # 3 ) . This thought has long been popular in Japan where Keiretsus, or concern groups, which consist of a host of companies that are linked together through ownership and/or joint ventures, dominate the local environment and are able to utilize their combined connexions and wealth to rule universe markets.

( 2000 words )

Table 1

The Three Conditions of the Eclectic Theory

Ownership-specific advantages ( internal to endeavors of one nationality )

Size of house

Technology and trade Markss

Management and organizational systems

Entree to save capacity

Economies of joint supply

Greater entree to markets and cognition

International chances such as diversifying hazard

Location-specific advantage ( finding the location of production )

Distribution of inputs and markets

Cost of labor, conveyance and stuffs costs between states

Government intercession and policies

Commercial and legal substructure

Language, civilization and imposts ( ie psychic distance )

Internalisation-specific advantages ( get the better ofing market imperfectnesss )

Decrease in hunt, dialogue and monitoring costs

Avoidance of belongings right enforcement costs

Engage in monetary value favoritism

Protection of merchandise

Avoidance of duties

Beginning: Dunning ( 1981 )

Table 2

Features of Countries and OLI-specific Advantages

Owbnership-specific advantages

State features

Size of house

Large markets

Broad attitudes to amalgamations

Technology and trade Markss

Government support of invention

Skilled work force

Management and organizational systems

Supply of trained directors.

Educational installations

Merchandise distinction

High income states

Degrees of advertisement and selling

Location-specific advantages

State features

Costss of labor and stuffs

Developed or developing state

Conveyance costs between states

Distance between states

Government intercession and policies

Attitudes of authorities to FDI

Economies of graduated table

Size of markets

Psychic distance

Similarities of states ‘ linguistic communications and civilizations.

Internalisation-specific advantages

State features

Searching negociating monitoring costs.

Greater degrees of instruction and larger markets make cognition type ownership-specific advantages more likely to happen.

Avoid costs of implementing belongings rights.

Protection of merchandises.

Beginning: Dunning ( 1981 )

Appendix 1

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