Intercultural Relationships And Communication In School Education Essay

Globalization has made states and civilizations interrelated and interconnected with each other. This applies possibly in every facet of human life- from regional and governmental pacts, internationalisation of concern and trade and even instruction at single degrees. The universe has gone virtually smaller and we now experience a sense of planetary small town. With the promotions in information and communicating engineering and transit industry, geographical barriers can no longer impede communicating.

This leads to the dramatic addition in intercultural communicating chances. Whether through computing machine mediated communicating or face to confront communicating, we can now interchange information and novice communicating with people of other nationalities and civilization. In the field of instruction, diverseness has besides been observed to increase over the old ages. However, along with these increased chances, are jobs caused by clangs of cultural differences.

These struggles are brought about by barriers to effectual intercultural communicating. Hence, to get the better of these barriers and maximise the acquisition chances from intercultural communicating, we need to get intercultural communicating accomplishments which were derived from the common interpersonal communicating with accent on the particular features of interpersonal communicating.

The range of this survey shall include these intercultural communicating jobs and intercultural communicating accomplishments will be observed in the visible radiation of instruction as an establishment that fosters cultural diverseness and provides chances for intercultural communicating.

Statement of the Problem

The immediate response of pedagogues in the emerging diverseness in the schoolroom is inclusion. However, inclusion is argued to hold been a failure in turn toing diversenesss other than disablements, gender and faith. In the coming of globalisation, diverseness in the schoolroom may besides be attributed to cultural differences. It can be assumed that intercultural relationships have besides been bing within the schoolroom scene.

With this, it can be argued that intercultural communicating will be a more effectual scheme to turn to cultural diverseness within the schoolroom. Hence, this survey aims to turn to this research inquiry: How can intercultural relationships and communicating be described in the schoolroom scene?

The specific inquiries that this survey will prosecute are the undermentioned:

What are present conditions of intercultural relationships and communications? ;

What are the bing intercultural communicating jobs Rodriguez High School pupils? ;

What are cultural barriers and factors taking to these jobs? ;

What are the deductions or consequences of these jobs? ;

How skilled are participants in intercultural communicating? ; and

What effectual communicating scheme could be recommended for usage?

Aims of the Study

Still within the range of globalisation, internationalisation of instruction is besides an emerging tendency. This leads to observation of cultural diverseness within schoolroom scenes. Oftentimes, cultural differences lead to jobs such as intimidation, pigeonholing and sometimes, instances of school force. Although inclusion schemes are applied in the recent old ages, it has non truly solved the jobs within the pupil degrees.

Therefore, to avoid these jobs, this survey aims to research intercultural relationships and the intercultural communicating within a schoolroom puting with the usage of instance survey analysis. To accomplish this purpose, this survey proposes to purse the undermentioned aims:

depict the present status of intercultural relationships and communications ;

place intercultural communicating jobs among selected high school pupils of Rodriguez High School pupils ;

find the cultural barriers and factors taking to these jobs ;

happen out the deductions or consequences of these jobs ;

step the intercultural communicating accomplishments of the participants ;

urge effectual communicating scheme.

Postulates of the Study

This survey is anchored in the premise that intercultural relationships and communicating can be observed within the schoolroom puting with the usage of instance survey. The specific posits for this survey are the undermentioned:

intercultural relationships and communicating exist in the schoolroom scene ;

there are jobs in the efficaciousness of the communicating ;

there are cultural barriers that hinder efficaciousness of intercultural communicating ;

these jobs and barriers lead to more serious deductions ;

intercultural communicating accomplishments are factors for more effectual communicating ; and

intercultural communicating schemes can assist in turn toing cultural diverseness in a schoolroom scene.


This subdivision provides a brief literature reappraisal of the constructs related to this survey including cultural diverseness, intercultural relationships, and intercultural communicating.

Diversity and Cultural Differences

Corsini ( 1984 ) described cultural differences as a merchandise of ways its people work, value of ownerships and manner of thought which are influenced by civilization ‘s instructions or cultural symbols. The civilization ‘s instructions and ownerships are so passed over coevalss to coevalss. Apart from this corporate observation, cultural differences are besides observed at the single degree which pertains to personality versus the societal systems of features ( Hall, 2006 ) .

Cultural differences in instruction are observed in three types: universal, primary and secondary. Universal cultural differences occur universally as every kid needs to set to new civilization in the schoolroom that is frequently really different from that of the civilization at place. Primary cultural differences, on the other manus, go on when people of different and dominant civilization teach their civilization to people who already have their ain civilization. This leads to secondary cultural differences wherein the voluntary minorities are willing to accept the dominant civilization while the nonvoluntary minorities resist it ( Hall, 2006 ) .

More frequently than non, cultural differences lead to assorted types of jobs and unfavourable conditions. While there is now a thin line dividing voluntary and nonvoluntary minorities, struggles within an establishment or organisation are frequently attributed to clangs between two different civilizations. With the coming of globalisation and the universe going virtually smaller, cultural differences become more and more seeable. Intercultural relationship presents is going more and more inevitable.

Intercultural Relationships and Problems

One factor that peculiarly emphasized intercultural relationship is globalisation. Although there are different perceptual experiences and definitions of globalisation, the common subject among economical, political and anthropological points of position is connectedness. Peoples of different civilizations can no longer populate to be reciprocally sole to that of other civilizations ( Samover, Porter and McDaniel, 2007 ) . This connectedness brings about intercultural relationships in all facets of human life. Hence, there is a demand to extinguish jobs related to cultural differences and to set up good intercultural relationships.

Some job that hinders good intercultural relationship are pigeonholing and individuality freeze. When a individual is viewed to be a member of his ain cultural group, he is forced into the predefined class and his alone features and capablenesss are frequently neglected. This threatens the single whether the stereotyping is positive or negative ( Gudykunst, 2005 ) .

However, Adler and Gunderson ( 2008 ) argued that favourable intercultural relationship is best achieved by doing cultural diverseness and differences more seeable. Although acknowledgment of cultural differences may be viewed to be simplistic, crude, racialist, male chauvinist, or pigeonholing it should be kept in head that acknowledgment is different from judging. Recognition goes with regard of the differences and similarities every bit good. Judging, on the other manus, include bias that limits the perceptual experience of one ‘s full potency. Diverseness can be favourable to intercultural relationship when cultural differences are recognized without bias.

One of the best ways to accomplish cultural synergism and good intercultural relationship is by adhering to rules of effectual communicating and intercultural communicating.

Intercultural Communication

In this paper, we adopt the definition of communicating as an exchange of thoughts between two entities- the basic constituent of interpersonal communicating. Communication so, is a bipartisan procedure of spring and take. While the first theories of communicating analyzed to be one manner as holding an beginning ( beginning ) and finish ( receiving system ) , it has been now widely accepted that beginning and receiving system is replaced as participants of the interacting flow of thoughts.

Intercultural communicating is a type of communicating happening between people with different civilizations. This communicating oftentimes makes participants dying and tense because they may happen it difficult to understand each other ‘s manner of believing. They may besides be utilizing different verbal and non-verbal codifications within the class of the communicating. Hence, the consequence of this type of communicating is less predictable so significances of such codifications should be negotiated carefully ( Fielding, 2006 ) .

Communication is intercultural when differences in cultural positions hinder the formation of a individual and shared civilization. Absence of shared civilization may take to contradictions and struggles on significances of shared symbols ( Baraldi, 2006 ) . Some researches argue that the globalisation tendency increases the chance for intercultural communicating ( Samovar et al. , 2000 ) . On the other manus, some provinces that it is the intercultural relationships and communicating that paved the manner for globalisation and its increasing tendency ( Baraldi, 2006 ) .

Either manner, what is more of import is to place agencies on how to accomplish better intercultural relationship and to place and forestall cultural barriers that hinder effectual intercultural communicating.

Cultural Barriers to Effective Communication

Fielding ( 2009 ) enumerated the undermentioned cultural barriers that hinder efficaciousness of intercultural communicating: stereotyping, ethnocentrism, defensiveness or involuntariness to accept other people ‘s thoughts, linguistic communication barriers, differences in construing non-verbal codification, differences in beliefs and values, bias and premises, differences in universe position, and unequal power. Hence, these should be avoided in order to accomplish good intercultural relationship and effectual intercultural communicating. Respect in malice of differences is of outermost importance.

However, Baraldi ( 2006 ) argued that intercultural communicating ‘s modernist position have evolved from respectful conversation to creative activity of a new civilization. He called this phenomenon as taint being brought about by cultural hybridisation and intercultural communicating. The new civilization is composed of the old participating civilizations and the freshly shared cultural symbolic signifier.

Intercultural Communication Skills

Intercultural communicating accomplishments are indispensable towards effectual communicating. These accomplishments may be different from the usual interpersonal communicating that we use with others within the same civilization. Based on assorted researches, Williams ( 2005 ) summarized four general classs of intercultural communicating accomplishments: 1 ) flexibleness and unfastened mindedness, 2 ) cultural empathy and non-judgmental, 3 ) personal liberty composed of personal strength and stableness, and 4 ) ability to cover with stressors in the class of the intercultural communicating. These accomplishments can besides be grouped based on the undermentioned dimensions: cognitive ( the head ) , affectional ( the emotions ) and behavioural ( the psychomotor ) dimensions. In general, effectual intercultural communicating can be achieved by willingness to get the better of the barriers and obtain these accomplishments.

Theories of Intercultural Communication

To better understand the construct of intercultural communicating, theories and theoretical accounts of the procedure are besides devised. While intercultural communicating may non be wholly different from the usual communicating procedures, it is imperative to include the particular features of intercultural communicating in its several theoretical accounts.

The convergence theoretical account of communicating of Kincaid ( 1981 ) , communicating is defined as a procedure wherein two participants exchange information to make a degree of common apprehension. Cultural convergence theory is based on the convergence theoretical account of communicating devised by Kincaid ( 1981 ) . This was used to invent a mathematical theory of the effects brought approximately by communicating within cultural differences. In the Torahs of thermodynamics, it can be predicted that all participants ‘ communicating in a closed system may meet over clip. Cultural divergency theory predicts the convergence of two corporate cognitive provinces if the members of the two civilizations converge ( Gudykunst, 2005 ) .

Another relevant intercultural communicating theory is the individuality direction theory of Cupach and Imahori ( 1993 ) . This is based on the interpersonal communicating competency theory. Interpersonal competency is one ‘s ability to negociate reciprocally the acceptable individualities of interaction ( Gudykunst, 2005 ) . This can be extended to intercultural communicating accomplishments summarized from Williams ( 2005 ) mentioned in the old subdivision.

In this survey, these theories will be used. With the cultural convergence theory, it can be predicted that there will be convergence and accomplishment of common apprehension within a closed system or the schoolroom over clip. Furthermore, the intercultural communicating accomplishments can be utilised towards the accomplishment of common apprehension.


This chapter introduces the theoretical and conceptual models of the survey. Furthermore, the operational definitions of footings used in the survey are outlined. This survey shall research the cross-cultural jobs among high school pupils in Rodriguez High School.

Theoretical Model

The theoretical model of this survey is centered on two theories explicating the procedure of intercultural communicating: the cultural convergence theory and the individuality direction theory.

With the cultural convergence theory, it is predicted that common apprehension can be achieved through exchange or sharing of information over clip within a closed system. Common apprehension is assumed to be favourable in any relationships including intercultural relationship for that affair. Identity direction theory, on the other manus, emphasizes intercultural capablenesss or competence of the participants to find the barriers towards effectual intercultural communicating and to be able to stamp down these barriers.

Conceptual Model

Based on these theories, the research worker intends to incorporate and custom-make the theories into the scene of instruction as an establishment that fosters cultural diverseness. In the cultural divergency theory, the exchange of information can be observed within the closed system of the schoolroom through clip. We can presume that within the schoolroom puting wherein there is a high incidence of cultural diverseness, intercultural relationships and communicating exist. The individuality direction theory, on the other manus, can be translated to the intercultural communicating accomplishments of the students/participants so that they can cover with cultural diverseness in their schoolroom, and achieve common understanding- an drift for a harmonious acquisition environment.

Operational Definition of Footings

Intercultural communication- a type of communicating happening between people with

different civilizations. This communicating oftentimes makes participants dying and tense because they may happen it difficult to understand each other ‘s manner of thought ( Fielding, 2006 ) .

Intercultural relationship- occurs when two persons with different civilization exchanged/

Shared thoughts with each other within a period of clip ( Samovar et al. , 2009 ) .

Globalization- interrelation or interconnection of the states regardless of

geographical barriers.

Inclusion- technique used in the instruction as a response to cultural diverseness

Cultural diversity- differences in civilization or the ways and agencies of life and thought.

Common understanding- the convergence of the civilization based on the cultural convergence

theory. This may besides be called cultural synergism.

Intercultural communicating skills- accomplishments are indispensable towards effectual communicating.

These accomplishments may be different from the usual interpersonal communicating that we

usage with others within the same civilization. Based on assorted researches,

Cultural convergence theory- predicts the convergence of two corporate cognitive

provinces if the members of the two civilizations converge ( Gudykunst, 2005 ) .

Identity direction theory- Interpersonal competency is one ‘s ability to negociate

reciprocally the acceptable individualities of interaction ( Gudykunst, 2005 ) .


This subdivision inside informations the research program along with research methodological analysis, informations assemblage processs, and informations analysis techniques.

Research Design

This survey proposes to research with the usage of instance survey, the intercultural relationships and communicating in a schoolroom scene. This includes the intercultural communicating jobs, cultural barriers towards effectual intercultural communicating, and the intercultural communicating accomplishments of the selected pupils in Rodriguez High School in Fairfield, California. This school is noted to hold a really high pupil diverseness rate. This is an effort to turn to cultural diverseness in the schoolroom puting that may take to struggles, intimidation, cultural stereotyping and other signifiers of school force. Effective intercultural communicating, if decently inculcated among the pupils may decrease the happening of the mentioned jobs. This will be a qualitative history depicting the intercultural relationship and communicating in a high school schoolroom which Fosters high cultural diverseness. However, due to clip restraints, merely the discernible traits of the intercultural relationships may be observed profoundly. Demographical features of the participants may merely be used as back uping informations.

With this, the tradition of Inquiry this research is intended to use is descriptive anthropology. One of the most normally used enquiries to measure intercultural communicating competency is ethnography ( Asante et al. , 2008 ) . In this survey, ethnography shall include description of the intercultural relationships and communicating, designation of job, barriers and their deductions, and the intercultural communicating accomplishments of the participants. Hence, the research worker should besides move as an active participant in the behavior of the research ( Scollon and Scollon, 2001 ) .

Data Generation Method

The trying method that will be used to choose the participants of this survey is purposive sampling. The research worker shall ask with the disposal of Rodriguez High School about which category has the highest incidence of cultural diverseness. However, the age degree of the pupils under this category should be identified to be mature plenty to understand the construct of cultural diverseness and intercultural relationships and communicating, for that affair. However, the take parting category should be noted with a high incidence of cultural diverseness.

Since the scene of the survey is a schoolroom scene, the participants for the survey will include all of the pupils and the home room instructor. In the instance that the category is excessively large for a focussed group treatment, random sampling will be applied and merely statistically important figure of participants will be included.

Focused group treatment will be informations garnering method for the students/participants. The subject shall be cultural diverseness in a schoolroom scene. The flow of the treatment should be deductive in nature. First, the perceptual experiences of the pupils about cultural diverseness will be identified. Later on, intercultural communicating will be the chief focal point of the treatment. Again, the construct should be identified in a general point of position and can later on be applied to their ain schoolroom scene. This will come up their intercultural communicating accomplishments, and the bing intercultural communicating relationships among the students/participants. The research worker should be an perceiver and participant. The locust of control should be centered on the research worker to restrict the range of the treatment within the range of the survey merely. The home room instructor can besides move as the 3rd person/observer in the instance survey.

For the in deepness interview, the home room instructor will be the participant. He/she will be the cardinal source sing the jobs, barriers, and intercultural communicating scheme within the schoolroom scene. The interview may besides be used to corroborate information gathered from the focal point group treatment with the pupils. Extra activity such as squad edifice may besides conducted with the instructor so as to detect the efficaciousness of the intercultural communicating scheme that will be recommend.

The instruments that will be used for this survey include: self-administered questionnaire for the demographic features of the students/participants ; observation usher and if possible, audio or video recording equipment for more accurate certification of the focus-group treatment ; and interview agenda for the in deepness interview with the home room instructor. Extra stuffs may besides be needed to document the squad edifice activity with the instructor and the pupils.

The information analysis and presentation for the demographical features of the participants will be frequency counts and per centums. This will be used to depict the heterogeneousness of the participants. On the focal point group treatment, informations analysis and presentation will be complete numbering of the intercultural relationships bing and intercultural communicating accomplishments that students/participants possess. Video clips or images may besides be shown. Last, for the in deepness interview qualitative analysis and complete numbering of the jobs and cultural barriers that he/she will place. For the squad edifice activity, narrative presentation, images, and video cartridge holders may be used to show and stress the observations. All information generated from these activities should be summarized and carefully analyzed to come up with an extended and comprehensive descriptive anthropology study.