Research on linguistic communication larning schemes began in the sixtiess. It was infl uenced by the development of cognitive psychological science. Until the debut of cognitive psychological science, anterior research on 2nd linguistic communication acquisition and instruction focused chiefly on methods of learning, alternatively of on scholar features and the procedure of geting a 2nd linguistic communication ( Wenden, 1987 ) .With the coming of cognitive theories research in 2nd linguistic communication instruction has bit by bit shifted toward the scholar or scholar centered attacks in an effort to heighten scholar ‘s liberty and independency. In this manner, “ independent scholars assume duty for finding the intent, content, beat and method of their acquisition, supervising its advancement and measuring its results ” ( Holec, 1981, p.3 ) . This has resulted in a turning involvement in research in linguistic communication acquisition schemes ( LLS ) which are believed to “ lend to the development of the linguistic communication system which the scholar concepts and impact larning straight ” ( Rubin, 1987, p. 22 ) . Research in this field has gained prominence since the mid-1970s by the seminal surveies of Rubin ( 1975 ) and Stern ( 1975 ) . They attempted to research the schemes employed by good linguistic communication scholars and how the instructors can use these schemes to assist the less successful scholars to better their public presentation. Since so, copiousness of surveies have been conducted in the country of LLSs to research the important function linguistic communication larning schemes play a in L2/FL acquisition ( Abraham & A ; Vann, 1987, O’Malley & A ; Chamot, 1990 ; Oxford et al. , 1989,1993, 1995 ; among others )
Definition of larning schemes
Learning schemes have been defined in a assortment of ways. Wenden and Rubin ( 1987 ) specify them as “ any sets of operations, stairss, programs, modus operandis used by the scholar to ease the obtaining, storage, retrieval, and usage of information ” ( p.19 ) . In their influential survey, O’Malley and Chamot ( 1990 ) defined LLS as “ the particular ideas or behaviors that persons use to assist them grok, larn, or retain new information ” ( p. 1 ) . Oxford ( 1992,1993 ) illustrates LLS as “ specific actions, behaviors, stairss, or techniques that pupils ( frequently deliberately ) usage to better their advancement in developing L2 accomplishments. These schemes can ease the internalisation, storage, retrieval, or usage of the new linguistic communication. Schemes are tools for the autonomous engagement necessary for developing communicative ability ” ( p. 18 ) . Finally, Cohen ( 1998 ) defined larning schemes as “ the stairss or actions consciously selected by scholars to better the acquisition of a 2nd linguistic communication, the usage of it, or both ” ( p. 5 ) .
Features of LLS
Among the assorted features emerged in the LLS literature, Oxford identifies twelve of import characteristics of strategies.According to Oxford acquisition schemes
contribute to the chief end, communicative competency
allow scholars to go self directed
spread out the function of instructors
are job oriented
are specific actions taken by the scholar
involve many actions taken by the scholar, non merely cognitive
support larning both straight and indirectly
are non ever discernible
are frequently witting
are influenced by a assortment of factors ( p.9 )
Lessard-Clouston ( 1997 ) besides summarizes basic characteristics of LLS.First LLS are generated by the scholar and s/he bit by bit takes these stairss in the procedure of linguistic communication acquisition. Second, linguistic communication acquisition is enhanced by the usage of LLS which help develop linguistic communication competency, as reflected in the scholar ‘s accomplishments in hearing, speech production, reading, or composing the L2 or FL. Third, LLS may be seeable ( behaviors, stairss, techniques, etc. ) or unobserved ( ideas, mental procedures ) . Fourth, LLS involve information and memory ( vocabulary cognition, grammar regulations, etc. ) .
Taxonomy of LLSs
As noted above, early categorizations of LLSs merely provided a list of schemes based on the good scholars ‘ public presentation ( Rubin, 1975 ; Stern, 1973 ) . However, more recent taxonomies categorize schemes either harmonizing to their direct/indirect part to linguistic communication acquisition ( Rubin, 1987 ) , or the degree and type of information processed by linguistic communication scholars when they apply such schemes ( O’Malley et al. , 1985a ; O’Malley and Chamot, 1990 ) .
Based on anterior survey consequences, Oxford ( 1990 ) devised a linguistic communication larning scheme system ( See Table 1 ) , known as Strategy Inventory for Language Learning ( SILL ) , in which she classifies LLS into two major groups of direct ( including memory, cognitive, compensation ) and indirect ( metacognitive, affectional, societal ) schemes. Direct schemes are defined as those that are involved in witting mental procedures, whereas indirect schemes are non consciously applied but are indispensable to linguistic communication learning.Each class is so divided into six subcategories, which harmonizing to Oxford, are interrelated and back up each other.
Table 1 Oxford ‘s Language Learning Strategy System ( Oxford, 1990, p. 17 )
1. Memory schemes
Aid scholars store and recover new information
A. Creating mental linkages
B. Applying images and sounds
C. Reviewing good
D. Employing action
2. Cognitive schemes
Applied by scholars to better understand and bring forth the mark linguistic communication
B. Receiving and directing messages
C. Analyzing and concluding
D. Creating construction for input and end product
3. Compensation schemes
Used for get the better ofing lacks in
cognition of the mark linguistic communication
A. Thinking intelligently
B. Overcoming restrictions in speech production
1. Metacognitive schemes
Allow scholars to command their ain knowledge
A. Centering your acquisition
B. Arranging and be aftering your acquisition
C. Evaluating your acquisition
2. Affectional schemes
Refer to the methods that help scholars to modulate emotions, motive, and attitudes
A. Lowering your anxiousness
B. Promoting yourself
C. Taking your emotional temperature
3. Social schemes
Include interaction with others through the mark linguistic communication
A. Asking inquiries
B. Collaborating with others
C. Empathizing with others
Oxford ‘s categorization of larning schemes has been the most comprehensive one to day of the month ( Ellis, 1994 ) . and has been used in a considerable figure of surveies in assorted states.
Research on LLSs
The research on LLSs has preponderantly been descriptive since the scholars are required to describe on the schemes they use. In this manner, the research workers are able to look into the effects of scholar features such as gender, age, proficiency degree, larning manners, and affectional factors, like motive, on scheme usage, ( Chamot, 2004 ) .
Research indicates that linguistic communication scholars at all degrees use schemes ( Chamot & A ; Kupper, 1989 ) , but that some or most scholars are non to the full cognizant of the schemes they use or the schemes that might be most good to use ( Oxford, 1989 ) .
It appears that good linguistic communication scholars orchestrate and combine their usage of peculiar types of schemes in more efficient ways ( Chamot & A ; Kupper, 1989 ; O’Malley and Chamot, 1990 ; Oxford, 1993 ) . Rossi-Le ( 1995 ) found that more adept EFL pupils used self-management schemes such as planning, rating and formal pattern significantly more frequently than less adept pupils. Khaldieh ( 2000 ) studies that higher degrees of linguistic communication proficiency have besides been associated with less anxiousness and more assurance, which denotes the significance of affectional factors act uponing the scholar ‘s public presentation on a undertaking. Surveies have revealed that consciousness of undertaking demands and metacognitive cognition sing scheme choice are major differentiations between successful and unsuccessful scholars ( Abraham & A ; Vann, 1987 ; Khaldieh, 2000 ; O’Malley & A ; Chamot, 1990 ) . Harmonizing to some research findings, cognitive and metacognitive schemes extremely correlate with high linguistic communication proficiency degrees ( Peacock and Ho, 2003 ) . In some of these surveies, nevertheless, the positive relationship between the figure of schemes used and linguistic communication proficiency is partly supported ( e.g. , Abraham & A ; Vann, 1987 ; Khaldieh, 2000 ) .
Other research workers even found that, both successful and unsuccessful scholars actively use a great assortment of schemes, but in different ways. These unsuccessful scholars, nevertheless, normally fail to choose the most appropriate schemes ( Chamot et al. , 1988 ; Chamot & A ; El-Dinary, 1999 ; Vandergrift, 1997 ; Vann & A ; Abraham, 1990 ) . A figure of research surveies interestingly suggest that the appropriate pick of schemes will help scholars to derive more proficiency. This, in bend, likely leads the proficient scholars to the pick of more active schemes ( MacIntre, 1994 ; Green and Oxford, 1995 ) .
LLSs and types of scholars ‘ proficiency
A great figure of research surveies have highlighted the relationship between larning schemes and scholars ‘ proficiency in which the consequences show that more adept linguistic communication scholars use a greater assortment larning schemes ( Rahimi et at. , 2008 ; Griffiths, 2003 ; Lee, 2003 ; Anderson, 2005 ; Bruen, 2001 ; Green and Oxford, 1995 ; O’Malley and Chamot, 1990 ; Ehrman, and Oxford, 1989 ) . Research workers have utilized a battalion of ways to find pupils ‘ proficiency in the foreign linguistic communication including standardised trials such as TOEFL ( Arroyo, 2005 ) , pupils ‘ GPAs in English classs ( Shmais, 2003 ; Radwan, 2011 ) , linguistic communication accomplishment trials ( O’Mara & A ; Lett, 1990 ) , linguistic communication class classs and arrangement scrutinies ( Mullin, 1992 ) , instructors ‘ judgements about their pupils ( Magogwe & A ; Oliver, 2007 ) , continuance of survey ( Khalil, 2005 ; Rahimi et Al. 2008 ; Radwan, 2011 ) , and self-ratings ( Oxford & A ; Nyikos, 1989 ) .
Due to the demand for more probe on all facets of scholar ‘s proficiency, the current survey enterprises to concentrate on the studtents ‘ GPA tonss, and continuance of English survey, as two steps of English proficiency, with the pupils ‘ study on their pick of LLSs. The findings would uncover the benefits and deficits of such steps and how good they could foretell the scholars ‘ usage of LLSs.
Purpose of the survey
This survey examines the usage of larning schemes reported by Persian English scholars and its relationship to the pupils ‘ academic success determined by their GPA tonss and the old ages of English survey they have completed.
1. What are the most frequent acquisition schemes used by the EFL scholars?
2. Be at that place any relationship between the usage of EFL linguistic communication larning schemes in general and the pupils ‘ academic success?
3. Is at that place any relationship between classs of schemes and pupils ‘ academic accomplishment?
4. Is there a important difference between first twelvemonth and 2nd twelvemonth pupils with respect to their perceived scheme usage?
Sample: The topics take parting in the survey comprise 107 male and female Iranian university pupils analyzing English in a two -year plan to acquire their Associate ‘s grade in Teaching English. They are either first -year or 2nd -year pupils whose age ranges between 19 to 31.
Instruments: In order to mensurate scheme usage, Oxford ‘s ( 1990 ) Strategy Inventory for Language Learning ( SILL ) designed for EFL/ESL scholars is used in this survey. The SILL uses a five-point Likert-type graduated table runing from 1 ( “ Never or about ne’er true of me ” ) to 5 ( “ Always or about ever true of me ” ) . It consists of 50 statements about the schemes used by linguistic communication scholars covering six wide classs of schemes, each represented by a figure of points.
1 ) Memory schemes ( 9items )
2 ) Cognitive schemes ( 14 points )
3 ) Compensation schemes ( 6 points )
4 ) Metacognitive schemes: ( 9 points )
5 ) Affective schemes ( 6 points )
6 ) Social schemes ( 6 points )
Dependability for the SILL ( Oxford, 1990 ) is high across many cultural groups with Cronbach ‘s alpha for internal consistence 0.93-0.98 ( Oxford & A ; Burry- Stock, 1995 ) .
In this survey, the SILL was presented in Iranian to the participants to
guarantee that possible failure to understand the instructions or inquiries
would non impact the responses. The research worker used Pishghadam ‘s ( 2008 )
Iranian version of SILL, which yielded a Cronbach alpha value of 0.96. Using the responses from the current participants, the dependability of SILL, as determined by Cronbach ‘s alpha, was 0.93.
The pupils ‘ academic success are judged based on their overall GPA mark on academic classs.
Data analysis process
The undermentioned processs were carried out on the informations: 1 ) ciphering descriptive statistics ( mean, frequence & A ; standard divergence ) for all classs of SILL 2 ) carry oning correlativity analysis to find the significance of the relationship between scheme usage, and academic success of the pupils, 3 ) Calculating mated sample T- Trial to see whether there is any important difference the between first twelvemonth and 2nd twelvemonth pupils in footings of their sensed scheme usage.
The findings of the survey
Overall scheme usage
To reply the first inquiry, descriptive statistics for the full SILL, the six subcategories of SILL, and the person SILL points were calculated. Harmonizing to Oxford ( 1990, p. 300 ) , average tonss that fall between 1.0 and 2.4 are defined as “ low ” scheme usage, 2.5 and 3.4 as “ medium ” scheme usage, and 3.5 and 5.0 as “ high ” scheme usage. The participants reported a medium frequence for the mean scheme usage on the full SILL ( M = 3.49, SD = 0.48 ) every bit good as the six classs of the SILL ( see Table1 ) . Among the six scheme classs, the participants reported utilizing metacognitive schemes most often and affectional and compensation schemes least often.
Table 1: Descriptive statistics for Six SILL Categories of all pupils
Analyzing the usage of the single scheme points for the full group, it was found that they often apply all the metacognitive schemes to form and measure their acquisition. The points like I think about my advancement in larning SL, I try to happen out how to be a better scholar of SL. , I pay attending when person is talking SL and I look for chances to read every bit much as possible in SL are the most often reported schemes severally. However, the least-used points were those that involved reading and composing in English such as, I write down my feelings in a linguistic communication larning dairy, and I read SL without looking up every new word.
Relationship between LLS and GPA
To examine for the additive relationship between pupils ‘ overall scheme usage and their GPA, a correlational analysis was performed. The obtained correlativity coefficient ( r = 025 ) demonstrated no important relationship between reported scheme usage and pupils ‘ GPA. Similar consequences were observed for the 3rd research inquiry. In other words, there was no important relationship between SILL classs and pupils ‘ GPA ( See table 2 ) .
Significance ( 2-tailed )
Table 2. Correlation coefficient obtained for all SILL classs
The mean mark for more successful pupils ( M= 3.45 ) and less successful pupils ( M=3.51 ) in footings of their obtained GPA in academic classs showed similar forms for their scheme usage with somewhat higher mean for less successful pupils.
Difference between old ages of survey and reported scheme usage
The analysis of informations for the sophomore pupils showed a somewhat lower mean mark ( M= 3.42 ) than the first- twelvemonth ( M= 3.51 ) pupils in footings of their sensed scheme usage.
As respects the 4th research inquiry, an independent t-test was run to examine any important difference between the old ages of survey completed by the pupils and their reported usage of schemes. The T observed value of.70 ( df.= 104, P= 0.5 ) denotes that there is a no important difference between the two groups. Therefore, the void hypothesis that there is no important difference between the two variables is verified ( Table 3 ) .
Table 3. T-test consequences for the first twelvemonth and 2nd twelvemonth pupils
( 2-tailed )
Std. Error Difference
Equal discrepancies assumed
Equal discrepancies non assumed
The findings of the present survey showed that Persian EFL scholars use larning schemes reasonably. They tend to utilize metacognitive schemes more often. This reflects the pupils ‘ efforts to go proficient in the mark linguistic communication. Among the top 10 schemes used by all participants, five belong to the metacognitive schemes. These schemes are necessary for successful linguistic communication acquisition, since they, as indicated by Oxford ( 1990 ) , aid scholars coordinate and heighten their ain acquisition procedure through monitoring and measuring linguistic communication usage, planning, concentrating, forming, and seeking chances to utilize the language.. A figure of other research surveies report the scholars ‘ penchant for metacognitive schemes ( Whorton. 2000 ; Goh & A ; Foong, 1997 ; Hong-Nam & A ; Leavell, 2006 ; Magogwe & A ; Oliver, 2007 ; Rahimi et Al. 2008 ; Pishghadam, 2008 among others ) . The Persian scholars ‘ frequent usage of metacognitive schemes may hold been influenced by the learning attack adopted in the Persian EFL schoolrooms ( Rahimi et al, 2008 ) .
The analysis of informations demonstrated that the more successful pupils in footings of their GPA were non better scheme users than less successful pupils. Shmais ( 2003 ) besides found no relationship between pupils ‘ GPA and their frequence of scheme usage. It seems that pupils ‘ GPA might be affected by some other factors and in some scenes lacks the explanatory power to foretell LLS usage. Similarly, some surveies ( Green, 1991 ; Phillips, 1991, as cited in Park, 1997 ) have reported a curvilinear relationship between the usage of schemes and the proficiency degrees of the participants ; the low degree proficiency scholars tend to utilize the schemes more often than those in a higher degree. The bulk of these surveies show that the pupils in the mid-proficiency group used the schemes more often than the highand low-proficiency groups.
The continuance of survey represented as freshman and sophomore pupils, in this survey, showed no important difference in LLS usage. Normally, it is assumed that an addition in the old ages of survey would ensue in higher proficiency degrees by scholars which would, in bend, lead to an addition in their scheme usage. However, in this context it was revealed that the continuance of survey does non needfully take to scholars ‘ more scheme usage. This determination is in line with some other research surveies ( Rahimi et al. 2008, Radwan, 2011 ) in which first-year pupils reported a higher degree of scheme usage. In other words, it does non follow a additive relationship between scheme usage and continuance of the survey.
This survey was an effort to look into the relationship between pupils ‘ perceptual experience of LLS usage and their overall proficiency, determined by the university GPA scores. The consequences showed that this relationship is non ever additive and straightforward. Strategy usage is a complex phenomenon that is influenced by other variables in assorted ways.
The context of the survey does hold a important consequence on the pupils ‘ usage of schemes, which may take to contradictory consequences. It has been revealed that Persian scholars employ metacognitive schemes more often than other schemes. The scholars may hold been influenced by the instruction attack practiced in the Persian EFL schoolrooms ( Rahimi et al, 2008 ) such as paying attending, consciously seeking for pattern chances, be aftering for linguistic communication undertakings, self-evaluating one ‘s advancement, and monitoring mistakes. Wharton ‘s ( 2000 ) observation in Singapore besides suggest that the scholars as alone persons and the context of larning play a function in the pick of scholars ‘ schemes.
The SILL might non ever be able to account for all the schemes employed by the scholar. On the other manus, there remains the possibility that scholars may describe on the schemes which they do n’t really utilize. Research methodological analysis could be enriched by using multiple informations aggregation processs such as interviews and schoolroom observation combined with the usage of SILL questionnaire, to give farther and possibly more trusty findings ( Chun-Lai, 2009 ) .
The fact that more successful and less successful pupils, in some manner, follow similar scheme forms denotes that they have non received any formal direction in using LLS. Most of these schemes have likely been learned habitually and unconsciously. Therefore, developing pupils in utilizing larning schemes and promoting them to be cognizant of their ain alone ways of larning would do them independent and efficient scholars.
The failing of this survey is the limited figure of variables which have been studied in relation to larning schemes. More research is needed to see other of import societal and affectional variables which could play a function in the pick of LLSs.