In this quickly developing universe, the chief menace that is being faced is on fossil fuel. As every twelvemonth base on balls by, the sum of fuels used are traveling up the grade of the old old ages. If this rate keeps increasing, the dodo fuels will be wholly depleted to a province that these fossil fuels will merely be known in names and due to the increased usage of these fuels have led to the all sorts of pollution. In the recent survey, it was proved that automotive Fieldss are one with the greater ingestion and fouling rate compared to other Fieldss utilizing fossil fuels. And, one of those pollution jeopardies is addition in C footmark, which is the entire sum nursery gases produced. In order to confront the approaching menace, a new construct has been developed which would cut down the ingestion of fossil fuels and pollution jeopardies. A construct of an electric auto with lower limit or zero emanation and eco friendly characteristics accommodating to the nature protection is to be developed.
To develop, a construct on a household hatch back vehicle with low C emanation which is powered by electricity and designed for an urban thrust rhythm with aid of quality map deployment ( QFD )
To make proficient research in order to go cognizant of current developments in the market ;
To fix a specification for a low C vehicle ;
To develop several constructs ;
To choose one construct utilizing QFD ;
To fix a Gantt chart for the construct development stage of the undertaking.
1.3 SPECIFICATIONS OF THE VEHICLE:
Table 1.3.1 is the Final specification of the LCV. Further study will explicate how these specifications were finalised.
Minimum land clearance
Max loaded weight
Lithium ion, 1000 rhythms
120 stat mis minimum under normal urban conditions
Human body frame
Aluminium honey comb
1.0 Conceptual Approach:
QFD for Electric Vehicle:
Table 1.1.1 is the QFD of the whole vehicle. The relation between Controllable parametric quantities and Customers & A ; Stake holders demands has be rated consequently, where 9-strongest, 3-moderate, 1-weak, and 0-no relation. This gives an thought on which governable parametric quantity we will hold to work more.
Table 1.1.1 QFD of the Electric vehicle
The parametric quantities Battery ( 342 ) , Energy Storage Capacity ( 268 ) , Drive Motor ( 231 ) , Wear Resistance ( 239 ) , Price ( 303 ) shows maximal absolute importance, hence, choice process will be carried on, while giving maximal precedence to these parametric quantities.
1.2 Fish Bone:
The Fish Bone diagram shows a mode in which over aims will be achieved.
Diagram 1.2.1 Fish Bone Diagram
Gantt chart of Concept Phase:
Practically talking, Concept stage may take 2 to 3 old ages to finish. Chart 1.2.1 is our basic Concept Phase Gantt Chart demoing how a construct of a undertaking is developed ; if we were suppose to make a existent paradigm.
1.4 Gantt chart of the Group Time Plan:
Chart 1.4.1 shows clip planning of the group to execute different undertakings by group members.
Chart 1.4.1 Group clip Plan Gantt Chart
Therefore, from the Gantt chart now we know that which undertakings are over lapping the other undertakings ( blue in coloring material ) , and which undertakings start at the terminal of peculiar undertakings ( ruddy in coloring material ) .
Batteries are one of the most of import things, when it comes to an electric vehicle, as they are merely beginning of energy. Hence, choice of proper batteries plays an of import function for the operation of all the systems in an electric vehicle. This subdivision will cover some thoughts, which were used for choice of our batteries.
2.1 Selection Procedure:
Basic thing to get down with was to look into the demands, harmonizing to the market needs. Table 2.1.1 shows demands of EV batteries depending on different features and parametric quantities, adopted by USABC ( United States Advanced Battery Consortium ) .
Battery Requirements as per USABC:
Table 2.1.1 ( Anderman, Fritz, & A ; MacArthur, 2000 )
In our instance we will be sing demands related to long term. Further choice process will be more or less based on these demands.
2.2 Available Electric Vehicle Batteries:
A. Nickel Metal Hydride:
Nickel Metal Hydride batteries passed assorted bench trials and were best among other campaigners for electric vehicle batteries. They were about capable of giving a calendar life of about 10 old ages. But disadvantages of utilizing Nickel Metal Hydride was that they are holding really low specific energy 60 to 80Wh/kg and therefore a lower scope for the vehicle to run in individual charge. For acquiring higher driving range the size of the batteries will hold to be increased and finally the weight besides increases.
B. Lithium ion:
And where the Nickel Metal Hydride batteries were neglecting Lithium ion passed, hence they were with every good belongingss of Nickel Metal Hydride and some more advantages. Lithium ion became more suited option to be used for electric vehicle batteries and as they have specific energy runing up to 450Wh/kg and better specific power. Most of the present and approaching electric vehicles are utilizing Lithium ion engineering.
C. Lithium Polymer:
Lithium polymer shows the potency of being cheaper than Lithium ion and Nickel Metal Hydrides batteries as cost of active stuffs is low in its instance. Besides holding higher specific energy about 650Wh/kg. But, still the procedure of fabricating these batteries is really complicated along with high cost electrolyte. Besides the working temperatures of these batteries restrict them from being a better option ( Delucchi & A ; Lipman, 2001 ) .
Hence, the most executable option is the Lithium ion ( Table 2.2.1 ) .
Nickel Metal Hydride
Specific Energy ( Wh/kg )
60 to 80
150 to 450
Up to 650
Specific Power ( W/kg )
150 to 200
150 to 800
Cycles ( 100 % DoD to 80 % of initial capacity )
600 to 1000
200 to 600
Nominal Capacity ( Ah )
100 to 180
50 to 120
Table 2.2.1 Characteristics Table ( Anderman, Fritz, & A ; MacArthur, 2000 )
2.3 Selected Lithium Ion:
QFD chart for batteries:
Chart 2.3.1 Battery QFD
Our battery Requirements and QFD chart gives a clear thought that Lithium ion battery is better than Nickel metal Hydride and Lithium polymer. Besides, from the QFD chart it is really much clear that, Battery Size ( 291 ) , Product Life ( 156 ) , Price ( 116 ) , Durability ( 115 ) , and Charging Speed ( 105 ) , have maximum absolute importance and comparative importance. Hence, for make up one’s minding the concluding specifications of the batteries these parametric quantities will be given more importance as compared to others.
2.4 Trade Offs Among Different Lithium Ion Battery Technologies:
Lithium ion itself has many different types of discrepancies or different battery engineerings in it, therefore, farther attack is working on more specific restraints of the batteries.
Table 2.4.1 ( Dinger & A ; Martin, 2010 )
Most of import factor for EV batteries is the safety. Chemical reactions taking topographic point inside the batteries, while they are working or because of soaking consequences in high temperatures, which may ensue in fire. Table 2.4.1 shows, Lithium Nickel Cobalt Aluminium ( NCA ) has least safety features, whereas Lithium Nickel Manganese Cobalt ( NMC ) and Lithium Manganese Spinel ( LMO ) have moderate safety features and, Lithium Titanate ( LTO ) and Lithium Iron Phosphate ( LFP ) have highest safety characters.
Life span can be considered in two ways one figure of times batteries being to the full charged and dispatch boulder clay it is degraded to 80 % of its to the full charged original capacity and 2nd figure of old ages battery can be used.
Performance in instance of battery is fundamentally how good the battery will execute in different climatic conditions.
Specific Energy is capacity for hive awaying energy per kg of weight. Gasoline has about 100 times more than that of the batteries. Hence, specific energy can besides be make up one’s minding factor for size and weight of the batteries. Higher specific energy can ensue in low weight and smaller size of the batteries.
Specific Power is the sum of power delivered per kg of mass. Specific is less of import as compared to specific energy in electric vehicles.
As for now, the Li ion battery packs has cost estimations is between ?700 to ?850 per KWh, but with addition in technological development and competition among different makers, the fabrication costs of the batteries may diminish. The mark shown by USABC is ?250 per KWh by 2020, but someway Nissan is already claiming of supplying battery battalions at same figures with Nissan Leaf. So cost factor is likely to toss off really shortly.
Which is better?
LTO and LFP do hold really less safety jobs, but when it comes to specific energy they fall behind. And NCA is cost effectual, with higher specific energy, specific power and life span, but lags really much behind in safety. LMO has all the factors average every bit compared to others and short life span. Therefore, sing the demands ( Table 2.1.1 ) , Characteristics Table ( Table 2.2.1 ) , QFD ( chart 2.3.1 ) and all the factors, NMC is the most suited Lithium ion battery engineering. They have moderate safety characteristics, but this can be overcome by utilizing proper battery shell, chilling system and temperature monitoring devices, in sensible cost scope ( Anderman, Fritz, & A ; MacArthur, 2000 ) ( Dinger & A ; Martin, 2010 ) ( Delucchi & A ; Lipman, 2001 ) .
2.5 Battery Manufacturers:
Before specifying our concluding battery specifications looking for Battery makers and battery constellations these makers have, is a good thought. Industries have their ain R & A ; D sectors, and they welcome the demands of the client. Below are some makers who can supply us with Lithium-ion batteries for our Electric Vehicle.
J & A ; A
Automotive Energy Supply Corporation
GS Yuasa Corporation
( Momentum Technologies LLC, 1995-2010 )
2.6 Battery Specifications:
Our choice process therefore, leads us to battery specifications which will carry through our demands. Table 2.6.1 shows our approximative battery specifications. This may alter in footings of size, weight and cost, or even chemical belongingss depending on the makers.
3 to 6 hours and 30 mins for rapid bear downing
90x67x220 ( millimeter )
?250 to ?300 per kWh / ?7500 to ?9000 per battery battalion
2.7 High Voltage Electrical Distribution System:
Electrical Loads in an car can split into two classs – propulsion and non-propulsion. Propulsion burden chiefly consists of motor and/or generator and Non-propulsion tonss include warmers, lamps, power Windowss etc. Maximal power is required for the propulsion loads which can be up to 100KW. Table 2.7.1 gives an approximative thought for power distribution in our instance.
Power Input ( kilowatt )
Table 2.7.1 ( Automotive Handbook, 2007 )
The electric vehicle has power coachs at different electromotive forces runing from lower to higher values and can be every bit high as 300 Vs. Hence, proper power direction and distribution system will be adopted in order to run into the demands of our vehicle constituents ( Fig 2.7.2 ) .
Generic Automotive Power/Energy Management and Distribution system ( Shen, Masrur, Garg, & A ; Monroe, 2003 )
3.0 MOTORS AND POWER ELECTRONICS
3.1 Working rule of motors ( Leitman & A ; Brant, 2009 ) :
When electric potency is applied, the twists generate the magnetic Fieldss which cause the armature to revolve and thereby, generate power. The efficiency of the electric motor ranges from 85 to 98 % .
3.2 Present twenty-four hours EV ‘s:
Type OF MOTOR
AC lasting magnet synchronal motor
AC lasting magnet synchronal motor
AC lasting magnet synchronal motor
3.3 Propulsion system design ( Larminie & A ; John, 2003 ) :
Maximal per centum class
Aerodynamic drag co-efficient
Rated speed on a given incline
3.4 Advantages of electric motors over IC engines:
Full torsion at low velocities
Instantaneous power evaluation is about 2 to 3 times the rated power of motor
Excellent acceleration with a nominally rated motor
3.5 Types of motors ( Larminie & A ; John, 2003 ) :
Motors are fundamentally categorized into DC motors and AC motors.
3.51 DC motors:
Extensively used boulder clay 1990 ‘s
Has 2 sets of windings- stator and rotor
The torsion is maintained by commutator coppices
Weaving in the rotor is called armature and twist in stator is called field twist
Ease of control due to one-dimensionality
Capability for independent torsion and flux control
Established fabrication engineering
Brush wear that leads to high care
Low upper limits velocity
EMI due to commutator action
Low power to burden ratio
3.52 AC motors:
Armature circuit is on stator which eliminates the demand for commutator and coppices
Synchronous – lasting magnet type, electromagnet type
Asynchronous – squirrel coop, lesion rotor.
3.53 Permanent magnet type AC motors ( Hussain, 2003 ) :
They use magnets to bring forth air-gap magnetic flux alternatively of field spirals.
Permanent magnet synchronal motors
Sinusoidal brushless DC motor
Trapezoidal or square moving ridge motor
Supply a loss-free excitement in a compact manner without complications of connexions to the external stationary electric circuits
High power to burden ratio
High torsion to inertia ratio
Excellent field weakening features
Sensitive to temperature and lade fluctuations
3.54 Switched reluctance motors:
Doubly salient, singly aroused reluctance motor with independent stage twists on the stator. Generally stator and rotor are magnetic steel laminations with rotor holding no magnets or twists.
Simple and low cost machine building
Wider changeless power part
Bidirectional currents are non necessary, therefore lesser figure of power switches
Most of the losingss appear in stator, which is easier to chill
High torsion to inertia ratio
Torque-speed features of the motor can be tailored as per demand
Maximum allowable rotor temperature is high
Torque rippling and accoustic noise observed
Particular convertor and higher terminal connexions required, therefore non economical.
Torsion to inertia ratio
Power to burden ratio
Monetary value and care cost
I? motor definition standard
PM Synchronous motors
I? Parameters importance
0 – Not Preferred
3 – Poor
6 – Good
9 – Excellent
Hence it is better to integrate PM synchronal motor or Switched reluctance motor in the electric auto. After mentioning the above chart, its apparent that PM synchronal AC motors are more suited for moderate power demands.
3.6 Power electronics in electric auto ( Hussain, 2003 ) :
Electric motor thrust converts stiff DC battery electromotive force to DC/ AC electromotive force with a RMS value and frequence that can be adjusted harmonizing to the control bid.
Electric motor thrust: Its typically is a combination of,
POWER ELECTRONIC CONVERTER + ASSOCIATED CONTROLLER
Power electronic accountant: It is made up of solid province devices and grips flow of bulk power from the beginning to motor input terminuss. It functions as ON/OFF switch to change over fixed supply electromotive force into variable electromotive force and variable frequence supply. They constitute of high-power and rapid response semiconducting material devices.
Drive accountant: It accepts bid and feedback signals, processes it and generates gate exchanging signals for the power devices of the convertor. It is made up of microprocessors and digital signal processors.
Figure: Block diagram of motor thrust ( Hussain, 2003 )
Figure: DC-DC and DC-AC convertors ( Hussain, 2003 )
3.61 Power electronic switches ( Hussain, 2003 ) :
BJT: Bi-polar junction transistors have better power evaluations and first-class conduction, but their thrust circuit is complicated as they are current-driven.
MOSFET: Metal oxide semiconducting material field consequence transistor has simpler drive circuits and higher shift frequence, but their upper limit available power evaluations are lesser than BJT.
IGBT: Insulated gate bipolar transistor incorporates the advantaged of both BJT and MOSFET and are extensively used in modern twenty-four hours electric autos.
SCR: Silicon controlled thyristor have higher power evaluations but requires a commuting circuit to exchange them Off.
GTO: Gate turn-off SCR is a type of jury-rigged SCR that can be switched off through a gate signal but their current ingestion is typically 4 to 5 times the current required to exchange them on.
MCT: MOS controlled thyristor combines the conductivity features of SCR and gating features of MOSFET.
Diodes: They are two-terminal semiconducting material devices and are used in concurrence with other accountant devices. Their map is to barricade the contrary electromotive force flow and supply current way for inductive circuits.
3.7 A typical PM synchronal motor thrust construction: ( Hussain, 2003 )
LIGHT WEIGHT STRUCTURES
4.1 INTRODUCTION TO STEELS
Sheet steel has remained the chief stuff used for the building of the organic structure of a motor vehicle of all time since mass production began earlier this century. Steel is comparatively is inexpensive and can be economically formed to do parts with complicated forms and has a high grade of rigidness, higher clang impact opposition and high elastic modulus. In the recent yearss, aluminum metals have been extensively used for car constituents. The metal has aluminium as base metal with hints of Cr, Cu, Fe, Mg, manganese, Si, Ti and Zn added to it. The proportions are differed harmonizing to the demand of the terminal merchandise and these metals are about replacing the steels in car sector. The indispensable factors behind this development have been the demands to cut down fuel ingestion by cut downing the weight of auto and increased rider safety ( C.Dasarathy, 2010 ) .
4.2 STEEL USED IN AUTOMOBILEAAA
As forged subdivisions
As wire merchandises
Hot rolled sheet t=1.5-7.00mm for organic structure panels, closings, biw parts, sumps, fuel armored combat vehicles, fumes parts.
Crank shafts, linking roads, axle parts, tie rods, valves.
For tyre support, springs, etc
For organic structure, under organic structure structural parts cold rolled -annealed -coated sheet=0.5-1.5mm
Aluminum is a metallic component, and its construction is similar to most other metals. It is ductile and malleable due to its polycrystalline construction. Aluminum is made of grains which interlock when the metal is cooled from molten. Each grain comprises of rows of atoms in ordered lattice agreement, giving each grain an isotropic construction. Although the different grains are slightly indiscriminately arranged with in grain boundaries organizing during the chilling procedure, the atoms within each crystal are usually aligned which makes the metal isotropic, like the single grains. ( Sam Davyson )
4.4 ALLOYING ADDITIONS FOR AUTOMOBILES
A little measure of other elements added to aluminium in order to modify its basic belongingss. They are chromium, Cu, Fe, Mg, manganese, Si, Ti and Zn. These elements can be grouped into those with high solid solubility and those with low solid solubility.
4.5 PROPERTIES SPECIAL STEEL & A ; ALUMINIUM ALLOYS
Weight & A ; denseness
Heavier in weight with denseness of 7.85gm/cu.cm
Lighter in weight with denseness approx 1/3rdof that of steel. The denseness is about 2.72gm/cu.cm
Elastic modulus & A ; flexing specific stiffness
Elastic modulus of 210 Gpa longitudinal i.e. immature ‘s modulus which 3times more than that of aluminum. But flexing stiffness is more than aluminum which provide more advantage for utilizing in constructions like forepart clang tracks, b-pillars etc.
Elastic modulus of 70 Gpa. It has got shock soaking up inclination so largely used in car bumpers. It is used as outer tegument surface in car it has greater specific bending stiffness for level merchandises.
Less thermic conductive than aluminum
3 times more thermic conductive than steel doing it a pick in heat exchange applications.
Fatigue public presentation of steel is more than twice that of aluminum. Steels such as DUAL PHASE 600 AND TRIP 600 have endurance bounds of 307 Mpa & A ; 336 Mpa severally.
Structural aluminum class of 5XXX series does non make an endurance bound and go on degrading at higher rhythms. Aluminium grade 5052-0 ranges 124 Mpa at 500 million rhythms.
High formable scope than aluminum doing it suited for vehicles titling and overall fabrication hardiness.
Formability is about 2/3rdof that of steel.
Nowhere near aluminium electrical music director in power transmittal.
High electrical conduction for usage as lines, transformers, coach bars etc.
Coefficient of reflection
Lesser reflective than aluminum.
Excellent reflector of radiant energy throughout full scope of wave lengths. Light reflecting capacity of over 80 % doing it suited for light fixtures. In roofing, it reflect high sum of Sun heat advancing cool inside ambiance in summer.
Steels in general are magnetic. Austenitic chromium steel steels are non magnetic with AISI 304LN, 316LN some steel classs possessing really low magnetic permeableness for usage in constructions near to sensitive electronic devices or medical equipment.
It is extremely nonmagnetic and therefore happening extended usage for electrical shielding such as coach saloon, magnetic compass lodgings, computing machine phonograph record fabrication, parabolic aerial etc.
High temperature opposition
Steels like T-11, T-22, martens tic chromium steel and austenitic chromium steel steel like AISI 310 are extremely creep resistant with ability to defy distortion at high temperatures. Steels incorporating 8 % aluminum.
Poor high temperature opposition
Low temperature stamina
Steels in general posses hapless low temperature stamina.
Shows first-class stamina at low temperatures happening usage in infrigidation.
Much higher than aluminum and its metals.
Tensile strength of pure aluminum is really much lower but, the belongings can be improved by add-ons of Mn, Si, Cu & A ; Mg and through annealing aluminum metal has a tensile strength of 295 Mpa.
Very much higher than aluminium metal
The mechanical belongingss are improved by add-ons of Mn, Si, Cu, & A ; Mg and through annealing.
Shows good machinability in high sulfur steels and lead bearing steels.
Show first-class machinability
Harder than aluminum denting inclination less than aluminum
Lower hardness than steel.
Ability to rarefy air bone noise due to its immense mass over aluminum.
Inability to rarefy air borne noise compared to steel
Strain rate sensitiveness
High strain rate sensitive exposing positive strain rate public presentation.
Not strain rate medium and has hapless clang worthiness.
Corrosion & A ; weather opposition
Austenitic chromium steel steel like AISI 304 & A ; 316 shows first-class corrosion opposition. Shows good gal vanic, cavity and inter-granular corrosion opposition
Good corrosion opposition and the rate of corrosion is 1/25thof high opposition steels. It is first-class conditions resistant.
Austenitic chromium steel steels 300 series are known for their non -toxic nature. Tin home base steels are used for continuing nutrient, comestible oils etc.
Highly non-toxic. Aluminium foil wrapping 500 foil of 0.007mm thickness is wholly impermeable.
Excellent for austenitic chromium steel steels with low care costs.
Attractive visual aspect with low care costs. Discoveries use in facing, hardware etc.
Table 4.4.1 ( B.V.R Raja )
There is batch of accomplishment and engineering behind the development and usage of honeycomb human body. The typical portion of aluminum tegument in honeycomb panel is good in certain countries. Honeycomb human body can take great important tonss on border. But this ca n’t take much burden in 90 grades to that great extent. The design panel is immune to all conditions conditions although they are non designed to expose to atmosphere. The bonding between the honeycomb and the aluminum tegument is really strong to H2O resistant but the bonding is non H2O cogent evidence. So when planing the human body we must take effectual stairss to forestall to maintain route H2O and salts out off the panels and articulations to avoid corrosion and harm to human body. More proficient accomplishment is required while repairing the panels. To the specific demands, you needed to attach the panels without impacting their physical belongings. We ca n’t concentrate or sleep together the panels together for perfect bonding. ( Cliffbeer, 2007 )
4.7 RACK AND PINION SYSTEM
In rack and pinion type, the cogwheel on the maneuvering column ‘s terminal is similar to the pinion cogwheel in the differential cut on an angle, and meshed with a steel saloon ( the rack ) toothed on one side.
The rack is mounted parallel to the forepart axle and as the maneuvering wheel bends, it operates straight on the tie rods without the usage of a pitman arm, loafer or intermediate ( or relay ) rod.
Adding a power aid to this type of guidance is rather simple. The power Piston is really portion of the rack, and the rack lodging Acts of the Apostless as the cylinder.
The control valve is located in the pinion lodging. Rotation of the guidance shaft and pinion turns the valve to direct hydraulic force per unit area to either terminal of the rack Piston.
4.8 MACPHERSON STRUT FRONT SUSPENSION
The most widely used forepart suspension system in autos of European beginning.The system comprises of a strut-type spring and daze absorber jazz band, which pivots on
a ball articulation on the individual, lower arm The prance itself is the supporting member in
this assembly, with the spring and daze absorber simply executing their responsibility as
oppose to really keeping the auto up.
4.9 MULTI-LINK REAR SUSPENSION
This is the latest embodiment of the dual wishing bone system. The basic rule of it is the same, but alternatively of solid upper and lower wishing bones, each ‘arm ‘ of the wishing bone is a separate point. These are joined at the top and underside of the spindle therefore organizing the wishing bone form. The super-weird thing about this is that as the spindle turns for maneuvering, it alters the geometry of the suspension by torquing all four suspension weaponries. ( Chris Longhurst, 1994-2004 )
Aeromechanicss encompass all the air flows that base on balls over, around, and through a vehicle they can be subdivided in those impacting performance/ fuel ingestion, comfort, chilling, vehicle kineticss, directional stableness and perceptibility safety. ( Automotive Handbook, 2007 )
4.11 PRODUCT SPECIFICATION
Exterior panels, Bumpers
Plastic ( ABS, PVC )
5.0 Energy Recovery and System
In a Low Carbon Vehicle, the energy lost or used, if recovered, could do the system more efficient. In order to retrieve the energy, two types of system are applied.
Solar Energy Panels
Regenerative Braking System
5.1 Solar Energy Panels ( Darrell D. Ebbing, 2007 ) ( SPI, 2005-2010 ) ( Inventables, 2007 )
Solar energy is the largely available energy in the universe. Taking this into cognition, we introduce solar panels which convert solar energy into electric energy and are stored in the battery. There are two sort of solar panels used: –
Transparent and flexible solar panels
Plate type solar panels
The Semi transparent and flexible solar panels will be placed on each Windowss of the vehicle. So that the both the side of solar panel can be utilised consequently and with the aid of the green house consequence, it helps in bear downing the battery from both the sides.
The Plate type solar panels will be placed on the roof of the vehicle and for the use of maximal solar energy
All the charges obtained from the solar panel will be stored in the battery utilizing a control unit.
20W ( Plate type solar panels )
10-14W ( Semi transparent and flexible solar panels )
6-8 hour ( 45 % – 60 % )
12v ( approx. )
Maximal Power Voltage
17.5v ( approx. )
Maximal Power Current
1.1A ( approx. )
Open Circuit Voltage
21.0v ( approx. )
Short Circuit Current
1.3A ( approx. )
?400 ( approx. )
Table 5.1.1 Specification of the solar panels used. ( navitron, 2004 )
5.2 Regenerative Braking System ( Boxwell, 2010 ) ( Brain, 1998 )
Regenerative braking system is an alternate manner used to bring forth electrical energy from kinetic energy produced through braking. This energy is produced by the rearward rotary motion of the motor used in the vehicle. As vehicle go down the hill or into halting point by braking, the electronic circuit or accountant would do the motor rotate backward with the aid of the tyres and in this instance, the motor which rotates the wheel would move as a generator to bring forth the electricity. This charge produced will be stored in the battery utilizing a control unit. By this system, the energy lost would be recovered and stored, therefore increasing the efficiency of the vehicle
( Automotive constituents and parts, 2008 )
6.0 Parasitic Losses ( Vehicle Technologies Program, 2009 )
Parasitic loss is chiefly known as the loss of the energy in the system. For electric autos, the parasitic loss is chiefly due to the air current opposition and retarding force, braking and turn overing opposition. It even includes the clash and wears in the vehicle, thermal ( heat ) loads, operation of subsidiary tonss ( air conditioning, warmers, infrigidation, etc. ) . ( Inventables, 2007 ) This parasitic loss can vastly impact the efficiency of the vehicle.
Power end product
Average power end product
Side marker lamps
Low beam ( lordotic beam )
License – home base lamp, tail lamps
Indicator lamp, instruments
Heated rear window
Interior warming, fan
Electrical radiator ventilator
Turn signal lamps
Rear fog warning lamp
Installed electrical burden demands
Average electrical burden demands
Table 6.1 demoing the ingestion of constituents of an Electric vehicle
( Automotive Handbook, 2007 )
Therefore the parasitic losingss occurred in the electrical constituents =
Hence there is an approximative parasitic loss of 5kW and more in this system.
7.0 HVAC ( Heating, Ventilating and Air Conditioning )
HVAC ( Heating, Ventilating and Air Conditioning ) is a engineering that deals with the indoor or automotive environment control with the rules of Thermodynamics, Fluid Mechanics and Heat transportation. Heating, Ventilating and Air Conditioning are closely interrelated in order to supply a thermic comfort in the indoors. Since it is used to command the quality of air it is besides referred to as Climate control. HVAC is non merely of import in the design of medium to big industrial and office edifices and in marine environments but besides in cars such as autos and trucks where safe andA healthyA conditions are regulated with temperature and humidness. Since, HVAC systems account for so much electric energy usage, the efficiency of the system has to be improved through proper design, installing and scheduled care.
HAVAC Systems perform conditioning the air in the undermentioned ways
Removing and adding heat.
Adding and taking wet.
Volume of air flow.
Speed of air flow.
Removing Impurities in air.
Fig 7.1 Ventilation System. ( National Research Council Canada )
Supplying an acceptable degree of tenancy comfort
Care of good air quality
Minimum energy demands
Proper air flow, heating and chilling.
7.1 HVAC TYPES
The move to battery powered electric autos poses several challenges when it comes to climate control inside the vehicle. The enormously inefficient internal burning engine ‘s coolant system can easy be tapped for cabin warming are now gone while powering a 3 – 5 kilowatts air conditioning compressor in an EV consumes merely 200 wh/mile atA main road velocities. There are different types of HVACs used in Electric Vehicles.
THERMOELECTRIC DEVICES FOR AIR CONDITIONING
The thermoelectric HVAC will be optimised to supply the occupant comfort while cut downing fuel ingestion and nursery gas emanations. To maximise energy efficiency, the thermoelectric HVAC system will utilize a distributed warming or chilling design that targets single residents and reduces temperature conditioning to unoccupied rider seating.
Tetrafluoroethane ( R-134a ) refrigerant gas is the most common working fluid in vehicular air conditioners since 1995.
R-134a has 1300 times greater nursery gas impact than CO2.
Car air conditioners leak 10 to 70 g/year.
Thermoelectric HVAC systems significantly cut down adult male ‘s part to greenhouse gases while bettering fuel economic system.
7-8 billion gallons/year of fuel usage for automotive A/C.
Approximately 6 % of our national responsibility fuel usage ( ELECTRIC VEHICLE NEWS, 2009 ) .
Climate CONTROLLED SEATS ( CCS )
This HVAC engineering heats and cools environing constructions such as the star, Windowss, flooring, and place dorsums. These systems consume between 3.5-5 KW. To cut down this burden, heating or chilling can be plumbed straight into the seats. These seats are called Climate Controlled Seats ( CCS ) .
Since the place has direct contact with the resident it has much higher thermic conduction compared to air which is a hapless music director. With direct contact chilling or heating burden per individual could be reduced to less than 700 Watts compared to 5,000 W to heat/cool the full cabin ( Fairbanks, THERMOELECTRIC DEVELOPMENTS FOR VEHICULAR APPLICATION, 2006 ) .
Fig. 7.1.1 Climate Control Seats. ( Fairbanks, 2006 )
Fig 7.1.2 HVAC System in Electric Car. ( Electric VEHICLE NEWS, 2009 )
This program presents scenarios for increased usage of alternate fuels and vehicle engineering efficiency betterments in order to cut down power ingestion and nursery gas emanations. This system will show a lower limit of 33 % betterment in the energy consumed by a vehicle air conditioning system.
ZT ( figure of virtue ) ~ 1 ; COP ~ 0.9-1.0 ; Distributed HVAC System ; P ~ 2 kilowatt ; Power Off Alternator
Decreases ~ 0.8 mpg/vehicle ( 0.8/27.5 ~ 0.029 ) low Alternator Efficiency
ZT ~ 2 ; COP ~ 2 ; Distributed HVAC System ; P ~ 1 KW ; Power Off Alternator
Additions ~ 1.1 mpg/vehicle ( 1.1/27.5 ~ 0.04 )
Either ZT Case ; Power From Thermoelectric Generator Converting Engine Exhaust Heat to Electricity
Additions ~ 3 mpg/vehicle ( 3/27.5 ~ 0.11 ) ( Fairbanks, THERMOELECTRIC DEVELOPMENTS FOR VEHICULAR APPLICATION, 2006 )
PELTIER EFFECT THERMOELECTRIC
Peltier faculties can be used to bring forth electricity, to supply air conditioning or they can be used to supply warming. In fact, Peltier faculties make it possible to construct various warming and chilling devices for applications that require an energy efficiency solution.
Peltier faculties are thermoelectric ( TE ) devices that can be used to supply chilling or to bring forth electricity, depending on the application. The faculties work harmonizing to the Peltier/Seebeck consequence, which provides chilling by go throughing a current across two dissimilar stuffs, that ‘s on opposite sides of the device. The current flow causes one side of the device to go hot and the other to go really cold.
A Peltier air conditioning solution can be built by configuring the Peltier faculties to accept a current, which will chill one side of the faculty and heat the other. In this constellation, Peltier faculties are frequently referred to as TEC or thermoelectric ice chests. The hot side of the Peltier faculty will necessitate a heat sink and a chilling fan to forestall overheating. The cool side of the Peltier faculty can so supply chilling by doing the Ac fan to blow air across them. The same faculties can besides supply warming by altering the way of the current flow. This will do the hot side to go cold and the cold side to go hot, which makes Peltier faculties an all unit of ammunition warming and air conditioning solution ( Fairbanks, CAR and Vehicle Technologies Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy US Department of Energy Washington, D.C ) .
7.2 AUXILIARY POWER UNIT
An Auxiliary Power Unit ( APU ) is used in the motor and electric vehicles in-order to supply energy for the vehicle other than get downing up of engines. It is used for runing the power Windowss and Cabin light even before get downing up of engine. The traditional APU is powered by fuel, which is less efficient and causes more pollution than the emerging battery powered APU ‘s. Fuel cell APU is a typical type which uses fuel cell as a beginning of energy but involves no burning and so is clean and efficient.
AUXILIARY POWER UNIT IN ELECTRIC VEHICLES
A battery electric vehicle has a comparatively little fuel cell subsidiary power unit ( APU ) to reload the battery battalion during driving. The attractive force of this constellation is the usage of a comparatively little battery battalion ( to let 65 – 110 kilometer of ZEV scope ) while increasing vehicle scope and functionality to be tantamount to conventional vehicles ( 400 – 650km ) . Another cardinal attractive force is that a bulk of kilometer could be expeditiously refueled from the grid leting low or zero CO2 power bring forthing engineering to be deployed in private transit without the tremendous cost and inefficiency of the H2 substructure ( Zizelman, 2000 ) .
FUNCTIONS OF APU
APU in a auto is responsible for and provides power to the
Air conditioning compressor
SOLID OXIDE FUEL CELL APU
The combination of Solid Oxide Fuel Cell ( SOFC ) APU and advanced Lithium Ion battery systems appears to do the fuel cell scope extender EV an attractive system in footings of efficiency, weight and cost. The add-on of the APU on the vehicle enhances the value of the vehicle to the electric grid by leting the vehicle to run as a back-up generator for the edifice next to which it is parked.
Delphi has been making R & A ; D on fuel reforming and fuel cells since 1990. The SOFC plan began in 1999 with a customer-linked plan to develop a 3-5 kilowatt APU merchandise for luxury rider autos running on gasolene. The SOFC APU is a practical first measure for debut of fuel cells in transit. But its linkage to luxury maps ( like electric air conditioning ) alternatively of propulsion and its usage of conventional fuels, alternatively of direct H2, may do it look like a cautious first measure. However a assortment of future integrating schemes for combined rhythm SOFC/ICE, SOFC intercrossed vehicles and the SOFC/Li-Ion scope extender EV offer a broad spectrum of future “ green ” applications. In add-on, SOFC is capable of firing H2 or other renewable fuels really expeditiously. The SOFC system will inherently hold highly low emanations. No NOx will be formed in the reforming procedure and the post-combustor will run at temperatures where no NOx and hydrocarbons are formed. But, the SOFC was assumed to accomplish a 40 % efficiency degree for the coevals of electricity ( ( Delphi ) , 2002 ) .
8.0 Final Selection & A ; Remarks
Table 8.1.1 DFMEA
Design Failure Mode Effect Analysis is a systematic analysis of possible failure manners aimed at forestalling those failures. It is an intended preventative action procedure carried out before implementing new or alterations in merchandises or procedures. Table 8.1.1 shows Design Failure Mode Effect Analysis of our construct.
8.2 Risk Appraisal:
Who is at hazard?
Existing control steps
Battery detonation during clang and acerb spillage
Passengers and people in the locality
Fire asphyxiator in auto, insularity
Remote dismay, acerb spillage solidifier
Light weight construction. Aluminium metal organic structure
Fibre reinforced parts, impact bars, propinquity detectors
HVAC working fluid spillage
Fluid flow & A ; circuit ledgeman
Less noise during gesture
Pedestrians and bicyclers
Electric dazes due to short circuits
Electric insularity, daze preventer faculties
8.3 Work Packages:
Batteries, High Voltage Electrical Distribution Systems
Drive Motors, Power Electronics
Manjunath T. R
Lightweight Structures, Vehicle Dynamics
Auxiliary Power Units, HVAC and System Cooling, Aerodynamic Performance
Energy Recovery and Storage, Parasitic Losses
Table 8.3 demoing the distribution of work among the group
8.4 Undertaking Plan Cost Report:
Overview of the undertaking program Cost study is shown in Table 8.41
Baseline Cost ( ? )
( ? )
Cost Variance ( ? )
Chassis & A ; Body
Energy Recovery System
HVAC and Auxiliary Power Unit
Testing of Components
Manufacturing & A ; Assembly
Table 8.41 Cost Report ( Hamster Internet, Inc. , 2011 ) ( Resciniti, Peshkess, & A ; Leonard, 2003 ) ( Cost Variance Stoplights, 2010 )
Chart 8.4.2 Pie Chart of Baseline Cost
Deliverables are the study, informations or even merchandises which are to be delivered. This is divided in two parts Internal Deliverable and External Deliverables. Internal Deliverables are things which are to be delivered within the people working on the undertaking and external deliverables are those which the people working in the undertaking deliver to the higher governments or users i.e. outside of the undertaking working environment. Table 8.5.1 and Table 8.5.2 show Internal and External deliverables related to our undertaking.
Undertaking and Development Planning Detailss
This includes Individual Section Time program, Group Time Plan, QFD of the Undertaking.
Status of the undertaking
This includes describe how a peculiar constituent was selected and/or implemented
Required Specifications of the vehicle
This includes the concluding specifications
Whole Project Report
Report on in what manner the undertaking will be carried out.
Cost Report of the undertaking
Undertaking Requirement Details
Requirements inside informations includes Machinery and/or Labour, Space required
Final Concept and/or Prototypes
Working paradigm or Final construct
( Neville Turbit, 2011 )
8.6 SWOT Analysis:
Better public presentation and lesser emanations
Futuristic design with lesser cabin noise and quivers
High criterions of safety
High specific power and specific energy batteries incorporated
Solar energy panels
Robust and eco-friendly
Passing and replacing are costlier
Charging points are unequal at the minute
Use of paramagnets
Better selling schemes
Cost of stuffs and constituents
Relaxation of Torahs
Higher subsidies and price reductions
Rapid alteration in consumer outlooks
Carbon footmark criterions
Table 8.6.1 Swot
Complete Study of the Project tells about the feasibleness of the undertaking, which are strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities and Threats. Table 8.6.1 gives usage inside informations on feasibleness of our construct.
Use of choice tools like Quality Function Deployment ( QFD ) helped in the construct development, and be aftering stage, including Fish Bone diagram, Concept Phase Gantt chart, and Gantt chart of Group Time Plan helped us in acquiring the concluding specifications of the construct vehicle. And therefore, the construct of the vehicle is developed with C decrease engineerings such as lithium ion batteries, and energy recovery methods which use of solar energy and regenerative braking system. SWOT analysis shows the strength, failing, chances and menaces of the construct and hence, doing the range of research and development much broader. Therefore, we have a ne’er stoping concatenation of construct development and planning, to develop more economic and eco-friendly vehicles.