Major Characteristics Of Qualitative Research Education Essay

Chapter 3

RESEARCH METHODOLOGY

3.0 Introduction

In this chapter, research worker will explicate in item on how the research will be conducted. This includes the research design chosen by the research worker, the research processs, sample choice, methods of garnering informations, and methods of informations analysis used. In explicating the methods and processs employed, the research worker besides explains the principle for taking the peculiar methods and processs conducted in this research.

3.1 Research Design

Patton ( 1990 ) in Fraenkel and Wallen ( 2006 ) described one of the major features of qualitative research is design flexibleness where they suggested that a qualitative research should avoid from stick on a stiff designs or state of affairs so that the state of affairs can be understood in-depth. They besides recommended a qualitative research should prosecute new waies of find that suits with the research worker involvement. From his ain reading and sentiment, the research worker would wish to specify qualitative research as a type of scientific research. It is because ; by and large scientific research consists of a proper probe that seeks for replies to a inquiry consistently by uses a predefined set of processs. In order to reply the inquiries, research worker collects grounds and produces findings that were non determined in progress and that are applicable beyond the immediate boundaries of the survey.

Therefore to transport out his research qualitatively, the research worker would wish to utilize instance survey as the method for the research worker to carry on this research. Case survey is one of methods to carry on qualitative research where Robert Stake ( 1997 ) defines a instance as a delimited system as it tells a narrative about a delimited system. A system refers to a set of interconnected elements that are wholesome while bounded outlines the boundary of the system ( Holmes et al, 2008 ) . However the research worker himself need to find the instance foremost and subsequently the research worker will uses assorted informations aggregation techniques such as interviews, observation through literature, and relevant documental analysis to transport out a holistic survey of the entity. By utilizing instance survey, the research worker will really try to look into the constituents or parts that make up the system to see how they operate. By refer to this research ; the research worker will look into the scientific discipline course of study of Steiner Waldorf instruction as he will compare the course of study with Malayan scientific discipline course of study.

At one manus, the research worker will look at the of import constituents of course of study of both Malaysian and Steiner Waldorf instruction. On the other manus the research worker will compare both course of studies in order to look at the strength and the failings in Malayan scientific discipline course of study as compared to Steiner Waldorf ‘s. Hence, the research worker believes that the research worker will see the personal contact and penetration every bit good as holistic positions on both course of studies by utilizing instance survey and comparative analysis.

3.2 Research Methods

Harmonizing to Fraenkel and Wallen ( 2006 ) qualitative research employed three chief techniques to roll up and analyse informations which are detecting people and schoolroom, questioning the topic every bit good as analysing paperss or other signifiers of communicating. Therefore for the informations aggregation the research worker employed the three different methods viz. observations, interviews, and papers analyses. By using more than one methods, the research worker believe it will assist to triangulate the informations, to supply multiple beginnings of grounds every bit good as to increase the cogency and dependability of the findings of this research. Below here are the accounts on each method:

3.2.1 Observations

Observation fundamentally conducted in order to look into something that the research worker unfamiliar with. Because of that, certain sorts of research inquiries can best be answered by observation ( Fraenkel & A ; Wallen, 2006 ) . Harmonizing to Holmes et Al ( 2008 ) observation can be classified harmonizing to the function that the research worker plays. Fraenkel and Wallen ( 2006 ) suggested the same and as follow ;

Participant Observation, the research workers really take part in the state of affairs or puting they are detecting and when the research worker takes on the function of a complete participant his individuality is non known to the other members of the group or another function that could be play by the research worker is every bit participant as perceiver. This is where the research worker participates wholly in the activities of the group being studied and on the same clip stating the group clearly that he is making research.

Non-participant Observation, “ sit on the out of boundss ” where the research worker does non take part in the activity being observed or really he is indirectly involved with the state of affairs being observed. There two functions that the research worker could play. First every bit observer as participant where the research worker instantly identifies himself as research worker and do non hold to feign as a member of the peculiar group being studied. Second one ; the research worker could be complete perceiver which is wholly contradicted with complete participant. The presence of the research worker may or may non, recognize by the group because the research worker is really observes the activities without any purpose to take part.

For this research, the observations carried out by the research worker were really used both types of observation. In one state of affairs the research worker plays his function every bit ‘participant as perceiver ‘ and in yet, another state of affairs, the function changed to observer as participant. The research worker adapted with the alteration of state of affairs where it involved clip and intent of the observation. For illustration when the research worker participated in the plans organized by the Steiner Waldorf section in Plymouth the research worker besides transporting out his observation and informed the member of the group that he was carried out observation for his research. However during his visit to the Steiner school in Plymouth, he was no longer participant as observer ; alternatively, he was observer as participant where he observed the instruction and acquisition procedure, status and environment of the school every bit good as the activities that the school had along that twenty-four hours.

It was same with the observation carried out by the research worker in Malaysia. The research worker plays his function wholly every bit ‘observer as participant ‘ with the groups of pupils and instructors involved in this research. However when it involved with his personal experience as in-service instructor, he was really a complete participant, where he observed the phenomenon occurred in the group that he studied without stating them the existent state of affairs. But it was a really minor portion from the observations that the research worker carried out.

3.2.2 Interview

Interview is a common tool normally used in qualitative research. It is used by research worker to cognize and understand people ‘s experiences and their interior perceptual experiences, attitudes, and feelings of world ( Zhang.Y, 2006 ) . By mentioning to its construction, interview can be divided into three classs: structured interview, semi-structured interview, and unstructured interview ( Fontana & A ; Frey, 2005 ) and as in Frankael and Wallen ( 2006 ) the unstructured interview term is used as informal interview.

Structured interview is the interview that has a set of predefined inquiries and the inquiries asked to the respondent in the same mode. Structured interview is similar to study and questionnaire except that it is conducted verbally instead than in authorship.

Semi-structured interview can outdo be described in footings of the flexibleness in the interview procedure. Just like structured interview, this type of interview consists of a series of inquiries which designed to arouse specific reply from respondent. However it normally more open-ended than inquiries in a structured interview but in the class of interview, interviewers has a flexibleness to set the sequence of the inquiries to be asked and add inquiries based on the context of the conversations.

Informal interview as the term implies shows that the interview conducted is less formal as compared to structured or semi structured interview. It is besides similar to a insouciant conversation and fundamentally carried out to prosecute the involvements of both the research worker and the respondent in bend. This type of method is normally used in qualitative research.

For this research, the research worker carried out the three types of interview. Informal interviews were used by the research worker at the initial portion of this research. The interviews were conducted on few instructors, talks and pupils in the efforts to happen out the job of Malayan scientific discipline course of study. During his visit to Plymouth, the method changed to semi structured interview as the research worker hoped to garner every bit much information as possible to derive some penetration about the Steiner instruction.

The inquiries designed fundamentally to assist the research worker to acquire the intended reply from the respondents. Time is ever being the restriction of any research. Therefore when the research worker traveled back to Malaysia, the research worker still hopes that he could acquire more information about scientific discipline course of study from the Steiner instruction. Therefore he conducted email interview with few Steiner instructors, lectors and its ex-students. In the electronic mail the research worker explained briefly about research that he carry oning every bit good as direction how the respondent should reply the inquiries. The research worker classified the electronic mail interview method as structured interview in the sense that inquiries asked were fixed ( in term of figure ) and no farther probing were carried out. Email interviews conducted by the research worker as portion of ‘member cheque ‘ which is a term of method that usage in qualitative research to verify what the research worker had understood based on the old interviews, observations and papers that he analyzed or as mean of formalizing via triangulation.

3.2.3 Document/Content Analysis

It is a technique that allow the research worker to analyze human behaviour in an indirect manner such as through an analysis of human communicating, written content of communicating, text edition, essays, newspaper, diaries, magazines, articles and others ( Frankael & A ; Wallen, 2006 ) . Contented analysis besides has been defined as a research method for the subjective reading of the content of text informations through the systematic categorization procedure ( Hsieh & A ; Shannon, 2005 ) and besides as an attack of empirical, methodological controlled analysis of texts within their context of communicating ( Mayring, 2000 ) .

Therefore in this research “ papers ” refers to written beginnings that the research worker have obtained from the online beginnings ( articles, studies and diaries ) and other written beginnings such as books that explain about Steiner and Malaysian scientific discipline course of study. The paperss gathered include official publications which discuss the purposes and aims of scientific discipline instruction and other facets of course of study such as execution, appraisal and the public presentation. These different paperss were analyzed and discussed in relation to the findings gathered through observations and interviews carried out by the research worker antecedently.

3.3 Research Procedures

Since this is a comparative survey between 2 different course of studies, there are processs that need to be carried out by the research worker in two different states which is Malaysia and Britain. Therefore, the research worker will explicate the processs in figure of different phases as elaborate below ;

Phase 1

To place the job about the Malayan scientific discipline course of study, the research worker had informal interviews with few senior instructors and talks with scientific discipline instruction background. Besides that the research worker besides conducted few informal interviews with pupils in mainstream scientific discipline category. The thought to compare the Malayan and Steiner scientific discipline course of study really came from co-workers who had general thought about the Steiner Waldorf instruction.

Phase 2 ( Initial Study )

The research worker gathered information about Steiner instruction including the history, attacks and its course of study every bit good as read about the research conducted on Steiner instruction. At the same clip, the research worker besides contacted the Head of the Steiner Waldorf instruction in University of Plymouth and liaises with the Senior Tutor of the Industrial linkages of that university via electronic mail to set up resonance before the visit to Britain. Meantime, the Head of the Steiner Waldorf section helped the research worker to form Steiner and scientific discipline related plans for the research worker to go to during the visit and one of which is a visit to a Steiner school in Plymouth.

Phase 3

Prior to carry oning this research in the UK, the research worker needed to obtain permissions from the undermentioned parties:

The Dean of Faculty of Education of University Teknologi Mara ( UiTM ) to obtain permission to subject the proposal to the UiTM International Linkages Centre ( UiLC ) ;

The Head of UiLC for the blessing of the fund needed by the research worker to carry on this survey in Britain ;

The Vice Chancellor of UiTM to obtain the blessing for the research worker to carry on this survey in Britain ; and

The Head of Steiner Waldorf Department in University of Plymouth for permission and to be involved in this research.

Phase 4

When in the UK, information was gathered or obtained through changing beginnings and methods as highlighted aid earlier, viz. subsequent

Joined a hebdomad plan organized by Steiner Waldorf Department in University of Plymouth. The plan besides involved a category of first twelvemonth pupils who making their Bachelor in Steiner Education ;

Group interview with the few talks and pupils from the Steiner Waldorf Department ;

Interview with the Head of Steiner Waldorf Department in University of Plymouth ;

Educational visit to one Steiner school in Plymouth where interviews were carried out with a few instructors from different backgrounds ;

Observation of one scientific discipline lesson ; and one practical or experiment session ; and

Exchange of electronic mails with the few scientific discipline instructors, lectors and pupils who graduated from Steiner schools.

Phase 5

Once the intended informations were obtained from the UK, this phase will more concentrating on informations analysis and to happen more grounds to farther support the earlier findings.

Conducted email interview with few Steiner scientific discipline instructors, talks and ex-students.

Making analysis on paperss about Steiner course of study specifically on scientific discipline.

Conducted a group interview with pupils from 2 different schools in Petaling territory.

Analyzed information gathered.

3.4 Sampling Scheme

A sample in a research survey is the single or group on which information is obtained ( Fraenkel & A ; Wallen, 2006 ) . Another sentiment, a sample consists of a group of persons drawn from the population where the sample is really a fraction from the whole population ( Holmes et al, 2008 ) . A group of sample can be really little or possibly rather big depending on the figure of population as the sample drawn is really supposed to stand for the full population. There are two major types of trying which is chance trying and non-probability sampling.

For this research, the research worker chose purposive sampling and convenience sampling when behavior this research. A convenience sample is group of persons who ( handily ) are available for survey while purposive sample is chose based on the research worker judgement where the sample is believed could give utile information for the research ( Fraenkel & A ; Wallen, 2006 ) . On the other positions, Holmes et Al ( 2008 ) in his book stated that purposive sampling is a manner where the research worker, in taking sample, considers the topics that belong to a specific group. Basically this method is appropriate for a subject that has non been studied much before while convenience sampling is a means perusal of whomever or whatever is available.

In effort to analyze on Malayan and Steiner Waldorf ‘s scientific discipline course of study, the research worker was really blended the method in trying. Even though the sample might affect personal networking of the research worker, there were few facets that the research worker gave due consideration and judgement. That is why the research worker chose to utilize purposive and convenience sampling. In order to understand a phenomenon from position of participants, the research worker chose sample who gave more utile information. In add-on, the research worker besides look at the engagement, willingness and cooperation of the sample to involves with the research so that it will do much easier for the research worker.

3.5 Sample

3.5.1 Sample for Malayan Science Curriculum

The samples that the research worker chose to garner utile information sing Malayan scientific discipline course of study can be divided into three classs, viz. as ; expert ( lector with scientific discipline instruction background ) , practician ( instructor ) and pupils.

3.5.2 Sample for Steiner Waldorf scientific discipline course of study

The samples that the research worker chose to understand about Steiner Waldorf instruction and its scientific discipline course of study besides can be divided into three classs, viz. as ; expert ( lectors with Steiner instruction background and Steiner scientific discipline instruction background ) , practician ( instructor ) and pupils.

3.6 Data Analysis

Data analysis is one of the of import parts in any research. It requires systematic processs to pull off the information gathered and the ability to analysis the informations critically and exhaustively. However, to transport out the analysis, research worker will utilize the research inquiries and research aims that constructed earlier as the usher. He believes that, it will assist the research worker to demo the right way of the geographic expedition of the informations.

As the research worker employed observations, interviews and papers analysis as the methods to garner the informations, each method will undergo different degrees of analysis at one point and subsequently will be combined as a rich information that will be able to reply the research inquiries. Any notes that made by the research worker during his observations, informal interviews, transcript of email interviews, pictures recorded, diaries, and any publications related were organized consequently into its ain class.

Next, the informations were analyzed in order for the research worker to look at any bing forms or subjects and assist the research worker to place basic characteristics of the information. This will assist the research worker to develop and document a database construction and on the same clip to depict about the informations extensively by utilizing qualitative package. The package will let the research worker to code, recover and analyse informations which could do the rich information become more organized and utile.

3.7 Drumhead

The model of this research took topographic point within qualitative processs since the purpose of this research is compare the Malayan and Steiner Waldorf scientific discipline course of study. Interviews conducted with the instructors, talks and pupils from both systems every bit good as the observation that the research worker carried out in Malaysia and Britain were the chief research tools. The information gathered was supported by the analysis of paperss such as diaries, articles, official publications and several ministry paperss related to science instruction. The informations transcribed with the assistance of qualitative informations analysis package helped the research worker to come out with the findings of the research.