Piston Engine Performance Diagram Engineering Essay

The purpose of this chapter is to happen an aircraft with a constellation that best suits the type of operation of our client. The Piston engine has different flight features from a jet engine. To happen the most suited type of engine the public presentations of the different sort of engines have to be examined ( 3.1 ) . There are many Piston engine aircraft available ( including turbo- and supercharged aircraft ) . To separate the most suited Piston engine aircraft at that place will be looked at a broad choice of aircraft where the public presentations, fuel ingestion, scope, figure of riders and the planetary costs are compared. The undermentioned criterion demands are set: the aircraft must be able to wing over a certain tallness of conditions formations, the maximal height is hence distinct to be more than 15.000 pess. Because the aircraft must be suited as concern aircraft and must be able to make more than 15.000 pess, it is necessary to hold a pressurized cabin. Otherwise the concern squad have to set their O masks on which counteract comfort. A conditions radio detection and ranging must be installed to be able to avoid unsafe state of affairss every bit good as de-icing equipment to maximise safety and comfort. The velocity of the aircraft is besides of import because the squad does non desire to be off from place for long periods. The largest distance and therefore the longest flight clip is 482.2 NM, to be able to cover this distance in a lower limit of 3 hours the velocity of the aircraft must be about 160 karats. Finally the seating capacity of the aircraft must be plenty for the concern squad to go in comfort, the seating capacity must be at least 4 seats including the pilot & A ; acirc ; ˆ™s place. Now one individual engine and one multi engine Piston aircraft will be chosen ( 3.2 ) . The same comparing will be made to happen the most suited individual jet and multi jet aircraft ( 3.3 ) . Another type of jet aircraft is a turbo-prop, the most suited individual turbo-prop and multi turbo-prop aircraft will be chosen ( 3.4 ) . At last in chapter 3 there will be concluded what the top six aircraft are and why this pick has been made ( 3.5 ) .

3.1 Engine public presentation

Aircraft engines generates power to force air rearward ensuing a tenseness drawing the aircraft forwards which is called push. The Piston engine, jet engine and propjet engine prescribed in chapter 2 are all plausible power workss to be equipped on the client his aircraft. Engine public presentation of those three engines differ. Piston engines execute comparatively low power causation aircraft equipped with Piston engine winging slow and on low heights ( 3.1.1 ) . Aircraft intended to wing faster and higher are likely equipped with jet engines or turbo prop engines. Jet engines has a comparatively high compaction ratio which consequences in a more expeditiously fuel burn ( 3.1.2 ) . Jet engines faces more external influences which could impact engine public presentation, compared with Piston engines. Turboprop engines about don`t differ from jet engines, because turbo prop engines does be of an integrated jet engine. The lone factor which has a negative influence on engine public presentation is the propellor efficiency ( 3.1.3 )

3.1.1 Performance Piston engines

A Piston engine generates shaft power by firing fuel in reciprocating Pistons, to drive a propellor mounted on the engine. The power produced by the engine itself is defined as shaft brake power ( Pbr ) . Pbr is non the entire power, which is available to impel the aircraft. A portion of the Pbr dissipates due inefficiencies or aerodynamic losingss of the propellor. The propellor efficiency ( & A ; deg ; A?A? & A ; deg ; ) multiplied with the Pbr consequences in the power available ( Pa ) . Pa is besides equal to the true airspeed ( TAS ) multiplied with the push ( T ) . Paragraph 2.1.1 at page $ $ $ explained that propellor efficiency varies with the TAS, and the propellor pitch additions when TAS increases and frailty versa to keep the optimal propellor efficiency, if a variable velocity propellor is integrated. Power required ( Pr ) Is the power needed to keep TAS in an un-accelerated degree flight. Pr is equal with the TAS multiplied with the retarding force ( D ) . Figure 3.1 indicates a public presentation diagram of a Piston engine.

1 = Stall velocity

2 = Max endurance

3 = Max scope

4 = Max velocity

Figure 3.1 Piston engine public presentation diagram

This public presentation diagram shows two lines, which circumscribe the Pa, and the Pr. Pa varies depending on trust scenes. This diagram shows the highest possible push scenes, be cognizant that the Pa line is able to traverse the Pr line at any numbered point aligned in the diagram. The aircraft accelerates if the Pa is more compared with the Pr, and height is maintained. The diagram shows four exceeding points with respect to an un-accelerated degree flight. The stall velocity ( 1 ) is the lowest possible Tantalum in a horizontal flight. The lift coefficient CL is maximal at point one. The maximal endurance ( 2 ) is the velocity, which requires the lowest needed push. Piston engine push scenes are straight relative with the fuel flow per clip unit. That means that per unit of fuel, the longest clip can be flown. The maximal scope ( 3 ) aligns the minimal ratio between Pr and TAS. Keeping the maximal scope velocity means that per unit of fuel, the longest distance can be flown. It besides means that the CL/CD ratio is maximum. The maximal velocity ( 4 ) aligns the point where Pr is equal to Pa. There is no power available left to speed up, or ascent keeping the same TAS.

The public presentation diagram demoing in figure 3.1 shows a general overview of Piston engine public presentation. The aligned operational velocities could change due to certain conditions. Conditionss that affect piston engine public presentation are:

Aircraft weight

Altitude

ad 1 aircraft weight

Appendix 3.1.1 shows the same four exceeding points as in figure 3.1. Due to the influence of weight, the Pa remains the same because the engine public presentation is non depending on aircraft weight. As figure 3.2 shows, the stall velocity ( 1 ) additions when aircraft weight additions. Stall velocity additions with a factor. When aircraft weight doubles, the stall velocity additions by 41 % . The soap endurance ( 2 ) lessenings because the entire retarding force and fuel flow per unit clip increases as aircraft weight additions. Remarkable is that the soap endurance velocity additions while aircraft weight additions. The soap scope ( 3 ) lessenings while aircraft weight additions. Max scope is inversely relative with aircraft weight. The soap scope velocity additions as aircraft weight additions. The soap velocity ( 4 ) lessenings when aircraft weight additions.

ad 2 height

Appendix 3.1.2 shows the influence of height on Piston engine public presentations. Piston engines public presentation depends on air denseness. Pa varies with height since air denseness decreases if height additions. There are besides four exceeding points in the diagram as in figure 3.1 and appendix 3.1.1. The stall velocity ( TAS ) ( 1 ) additions if altitude additions. The Indicated airspeed ( IAS ) remains the same because entire air force per unit area, which is measured and expressed in IAS, remains the same. The soap endurance ( 2 ) lessenings because Pr additions due to a lessening in air denseness. The soap scope ( 3 ) does non depend on height. The soap scope velocity additions if altitude additions. This means that fuel ingestion per maritime stat mi remains the same while the TAS additions. So a distance can be flown faster without salvaging fuel. The soap velocity ( TAS ) ( 4 ) additions if altitude additions.

3.1.2 Performance Jet Engine Aircraft

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1

1

2

4

3

The available push of jet engines is in direct proportion to the fuel flow of the engine ; by increasing the fuel flow the engine generates more thrust. By uniting the retarding force and lift of an aircraft as a map of the air velocity, a public presentation diagram can be made for jet engines ( figure 3.X ) . This diagram shows of import velocities, which are straight related to the lift and retarding force of the aircraft. The first of import velocity in the diagram is the 1g-stall velocity ( 1 ) . This is the minimal horizontal velocity of the aircraft, besides called the 1g-stall velocity. At this velocity the aircraft is winging with an angle of onslaught, which has the greatest lift coefficient ( CL-max ) . The 2nd of import velocity is the maximal endurance velocity ( 2 ) . This is the velocity at which the aircraft has the lowest retarding force. The lowest retarding force consequences in the lowest fuel flow so that the aircraft can digest the longest clip with this velocity ; hence the maximal endurance velocity. Not merely is the maximal endurance velocity of import to cognize, but besides the maximal scope velocity of the aircraft ( 3 ) . At this velocity the relation between velocity and retarding force is at its lower limit, which makes the fuel flow per winging distance minimal. This consequences in the velocity at which the aircraft can wing the furthest. Finally the maximal horizontal velocity of the aircraft is besides shown on the diagram ( 4 ) . This is the velocity at which the upper limit available push is equal to the retarding force of the aircraft.

Figure 3.X Performance diagram jet engine

1 = 1g-stall velocity

2 = soap. endurance velocity

3 = soap. scope velocity

4 = soap. horizontal velocity

All these different operating velocities vary due to certain conditions. The conditions that affect the public presentation of an aircraft with jet engines are:

The height

The ambient temperature

The air velocity

The weight of the aircraft

ad 1 The height

As we know, the ambient air force per unit area decreases as the height additions. With a diminishing air force per unit area the denseness besides decreases which consequences in less mass air flow into the engine and therefore less thrust. The retarding force of the aircraft is, nevertheless, independent of the height. With an increasing height, the retarding force remains the same while the true air velocity ( TAS ) increases because of a diminishing air denseness. This has every bit consequence that the stall velocity additions in TAS. The endurance of jet engines is changeless with the height and the maximal scope additions with an increasing height ( appendix 3.1 ) .

ad 2 The ambient temperature

Jet engines are limited by the RPM and the turbine gas temperature ( TGT ) of the engine. When the ambient temperature is high, the engine will make its maximal TGT Oklahoman than when the ambient temperature is lower. When the ambient temperature is comparatively low, the engine can run at higher Revolutions per minute before the TGT is reached, ensuing in more thrust. At high ambient temperatures the push of the engine varies with the temperature, but at comparatively low temperatures ( below ISA+15 ) the generated push is changeless with the RPM. At these temperatures the engine is called level rated.

ad 3 The air velocity

As the airspeed additions, the produced push of the jet engine will cut down due to an addition of the recess impulse retarding force. Air come ining the recess of the engine is slowed down and loses impulse due to compaction, before it is accelerated once more. This loss of impulse is called recess impulse retarding force and consequences in a decreasing push with an increasing air velocity. The addition of air velocity, nevertheless, besides consequences in more air mass per unit volume through the engine, which leads to an addition of push. These opposing effects consequence in an overall push, which varies depending on the engine & A ; acirc ; ˆ™s design ( appendix 3.2 ) .

ad 4 The weight of the aircraft

The weight of the aircraft besides has a important influence on the public presentation of an aircraft with jet engines. It does non impact the public presentation of the engine itself, but the whole aircraft. More weight of an aircraft consequences in more retarding force. To get the better of this retarding force and to maintain winging horizontal, the aircraft should increase its angle of onslaught or increase its air velocity. The public presentation diagram shows that an increasing weight of an aircraft has a negative consequence on the public presentation of the aircraft ( appendix 3.3 ) . The stall velocity additions with an increasing weight and the endurance and maximal scope will both lessening with an increasing aircraft weight.

3.1.3 Performance Turbo-prop Engine

The public presentation of a turbo-prop aircraft is about similar to the jet aircraft. The turbo-prop engine is driven by a jet engine. In a turbo-jet engine the speed and force per unit area of the exhaust gases create the push but in the turbo-prop engine merely a little sum of the push comes from the fumes gases. This is due to the fact that most of the energy has been absorbed by the turbine for driving the propellor. When ciphering turbo-prop public presentations the public presentation of a jet engine can be taken, merely thing where must be thought of is the propellor efficiency.

3.2 Most suited Piston aircraft

From all the little Piston aircraft ( including turbo- and supercharged aircraft ) , there will be looked at the public presentation, fuel ingestion, scope, figure of riders, and the planetary costs to find the best scorch engine and the best multi engine Piston aircraft. Global costs are several variable costs such as fuel ingestion, set downing fees and an estimation of care. First a comparing will be made of single-engine Piston aircraft ( 3.2.1 ) and thenceforth a comparing of multi-engine Piston aircraft ( 3.2.2 ) . A concluding recommendation will demo the most suited aircraft of its type for the intents set in this chapter.

3.2.1 Single engine

In this paragraph the most suited aircraft with a individual Piston engine is determent. A pre-selection is made with initial demands. Those demands are range, take-off distance, and monetary value. The following tabular array ( table & A ; acirc ; ˆ¦.aircraft comparing ) show which aircraft meets the demands set earlier.

& A ; Acirc ;

Range ( nanometer )

Takeoff Distance ( foot ) MTOW

Landing Distance ( foot ) MLW

soap sail elevation ( foot )

Cruising velocity ( karat )

monetary value ( dollar )

Cessna P210N Turbo centurion II

900

600

500

27.000

193

438.000

Cessna Skyhawk SP

640

1.630

1.335

14.000

124

307.500

Cessna Turno Skylane

971

1.385

1.350

20.000

165

398.100

Cessna Turbo Stationair

703

1740

1395

27.000

164

557.500

Cessna Corvalis TTx

1.250

1.900

2.640

25.000

235

733.950

Beechcraft Bonanza G36

908

1.913

1.450

18.500

176

691.390

Piper Matrix

1.343

1.087

1.028

25.000

213

757.000

Piper Arrow

880

1.000

620

16.200

137

323.850

Piper Archer LX

522

1.135

920

14.100

128

319.200

Cirrus SR20

785

1478

853

17.500

155

276.690

Cirrus SR22

1.170

1594

1141

17.500

185

380.000

Cirrus SR22T

947

822

1.141

25.000

214

475.000

Average

918

1357

1198

20567

174

471515

Table & A ; acirc ; ˆ¦.aircraft comparing

With the current demands the aircraft are able to acquire to their finishs and land safely within the budget. With the extra demands determent before in this chapter the most suited aircraft is explained.

After those extra demands the Cessna P210N Turbo centurion II is left as the most suited aircraft. The Cessna P210N has a pressurized cabin, a maximal sail height of 27.000 foot, a conditions radio detection and ranging option and de-icing equipment. The Cessna is capable of easing siting for five riders and has a high plenty cruising velocity of 193 karats.

In Annex & A ; acirc ; ˆ¦ . ( Annual sum-up ) a comparing is made of the selected aircraft and the costs over 10 old ages. In this comparing the Cessna P210N is one of the more expansive aircraft but the lone aircraft that fits the demands needed for this type of concern trips. The initial costs of the Cessna P210N are approximative 343.600 euro and the variable costs with 300 flight hours yearly are 75.794 euro. Variable costs include fuel, airframe care, labour and parts, engine Restoration and assorted costs. In ten old ages the sum costs will be about 1.101.607 euro.

3.2.2 Multi engine Piston aircraft

Multi engine Piston aircraft have better belongingss than individual engine Piston aircraft. There are many legislated multi engine Piston aircraft normally used in the European general air power. However, some of these aircraft do non run into the managers demands stated in paragraph 3.2.1. The staying aircraft besides needed to hold a pressurisation system and de/anti ice equipment ( table 3.x )

& A ; Acirc ;

Range ( nanometer )

Takeoff Distance ( foot ) MTOW

Landing Distance ( foot ) MLW

soap sail elevation ( foot )

Cruising velocity ( karat )

monetary value ( dollar )

Beechcraft 58P Baron

1356

2200

2000

20000

200

325.000

Beechcraft G58 Baron

1200

2500

2300

20688

192

829.000

Beechcraft 60 Duke

1020

2200

2000

30000

214

193.000

Beechcraft B60 Duke

1120

2200

2000

30000

214

250.000

Cessna 340A

1405

2400

2200

29800

170

299.000

Cessna 411

1130

2700

2500

26000

202

135.000

Cessna 414A

1327

2600

2400

30800

183

189.000

Cessna 421A

1488

2400

2200

27000

197

75.000

Cessna 421C

1712

2400

2200

30200

205

249.000

Piper PA31 Navajo

1160

2200

2000

29000

165

169.000

Average

1292

2380

2180

27348

194

271.300

Table 3.x Aircraft comparing

These aircraft are besides compared on estimated variable costs ( appendix… .Multi engine Piston aircraft ) . The most expensive aircraft to buy, turns out to be the cheapest aircraft in a period of 10 old ages ; the Beechcraft G58 Baron. This aircraft will hold an estimated variable cost of 278 euro per flight hr. When runing 300 flight hours annually, the estimated sum costs of the Beechcraft G58 Baron are 1.479.660 euro in a period of 10 old ages.

3.3 Jet aircraft

The most suited single- and multi-piston engine aircraft are found. The following aircraft type looked at is the jet engine. The jet engine has an recess, which sucks in the air ; the air is so quickly compressed and fuelled to light. After ignition the air has a enormous increased velocity, which propels the aircraft. There is a figure of jet aircraft presently used. Some of the aircraft have merely one engine others could hold six. In the hunt of our aircraft we look at the individual engine jets and the jet aircraft, which have two engines. The jet aircraft with one jet is called a Single Jet engine aircraft ( 3.3.1 ) . The aircraft with two or more engines is called a multi-engine Jet aircraft ( 3.3.2 ) . For either type of aircraft the best aircraft is chosen in order to happen the best aircraft for our CEO.

3.3.1 Single engine

A individual engine jet aircraft is exceeding in its sort. The aircraft uses one jet engine, which propels the aircraft. This sort of aircraft is more luxury than their similar sized propellor aircraft. For illustration the aircraft has the option to hold a lavatory inside the aircraft. The downside of this sort of aircraft is that the initial cost of the aircraft is much higher than the propellor driven aircraft. The initial monetary value

& A ; Acirc ;

Range ( nanometer )

Takeoff Distance ( foot ) MTOW

Landing Distance ( foot ) MLW

soap sail elevation ( foot )

Cruising velocity ( karat )

monetary value ( dollar )

Diamond D-Jet

1350

2500

1900

25.000

240

1.380.000

Excel-Jet SportJet

1000

1800

1800

25.000

& A ; Acirc ;

1.000.000

Piper Jet Altaire

1300

2.300

2.000

35.000

320

2.199.000

Eclipse 400

1250

2.045

2.100

41.000

& A ; Acirc ;

1.350.000

Cirrus Vision SF50

1200

1.600

1.245

28.000

210

1.000.000

of these sorts of aircraft is about one million dollars and the monetary value per flight hr varies from 500 dollars to 700 dollars. Table 3.X shows the monetary values and specifications of five different individual jet aircraft.

Three of the five aircraft are more expensive seen the initial monetary value and monetary value per hr. The monetary values of the Diamond D-Jet and the Piper Jet Altaire are significantly higher than the other three ; this will except both of them. The Excel-Jet Sportjet is still a truly futuristic aircraft, the aircraft is meant to be a make it yourself aircraft so this will except the aircraft. The initial monetary value and monetary value per 3000 hours is comparable to the last two, but there is no known information about De-icing.

Three of the five aircraft are now excluded from our picks, this will ensue in the determination between the Eclipse 400 and the Cirrus Vision SF50. Both aircraft have alone expressions ; they both have a V-tail and one jet engine located between the V-tail. Both aircraft have luxury seats and the cockpit is futuristic for the pilot. The specifications are all tantrum for the undertaking it has to follow with. The scopes of the aircraft are adequate to wing to every location and back without the demand of refuelling the aircraft. Both aircraft can wing the needed velocity to keep a maximal flight clip of two hours to any of the locations. Besides both aircraft have de-icing equipment ; the Cirrus Vision has metal boots and the Eclipse 400 has rubber boots.

The difference between the two aircraft ballad in the initial cost and the cost per hr. The Eclipse 400 has an initial cost of 1.35 million dollars and the Cirrus Vision costs one million dollars. But the & A ; acirc ; ˆ?per hr & A ; acirc ; ˆA? monetary value of the Eclipse 400 is 80 dollars less than the Cirrus Vision. The first 3000 flight hours the Eclipse 400 is still more expensive. But the Eclipse is less expensive than the Cirrus Vision after 4375 flight hours. A decision can be made on these findings, the initial monetary value of the Eclipse 400 is 350.000 dollars more but the Eclipse will be less expensive after 4375 hours. If the CEO is winging the aircraft for a period of more than 5000 hours the difference in monetary value will be 50.000 dollars. The Numberss given are achieved doing usage of simple math equations, which include initial monetary value plus cost per hr apparatus against the clip flown with the aircraft. All the monetary values for the cost including 3000 flight hours and the differences are given in dollars. In euros the entire monetary value for the Eclipse 400 will be 25.000 over two million and the entire monetary value for the Cirrus Vision will be 60.000 euros under two million. This is the initial cost of the aircraft plus the 3000 flight hours.

However the initial specifications asked by the CEO are set on 3000 flight hours. After 3000 flight hours the Cirrus Vision is still less expensive than the Eclipse 400. So the Cirrus Vision is the chosen individual Jet aircraft.

Table 3.X

3.3.2 Multi engine jet aircraft

Multi engine jet aircraft has plausible the best public presentation in airspeed and height compared with propjet and Piston engine aircraft. The advantage of runing a twin engine aircraft is the dependability to do a safe attack after an engine failure. The disadvantage is that keeping two jet engines is more expensive alternatively of 1 jet engine. The purchase costs of an aircraft in the class & A ; acirc ; ˆ?very visible radiation jet & A ; acirc ; ˆA? starts from an approximate & A ; acirc ; ‚¬700.000. Tabel ten shows the most suited purchase options in the class multi engine jet aircraft.

& A ; Acirc ;

Range ( nanometer )

Takeoff Distance ( foot ) MTOW

Landing Distance ( foot ) MLW

soap sail elevation ( foot )

Cruising velocity ( karat )

monetary value ( & A ; acirc ; ‚¬ )

Maverick smartjet

1250

1320

1447

25.000

277

697.500

Embrear bequest 500

3000

4600

2100

45.000

608

1.416.800

Embrear bequest 450

2300

4000

2000

45.000

593

1.170.400

Tabel ten

In add-on to the clients demand there is no suited aircraft in this class. The Maverick smart jet agrees the budget but is non equipped with a de-icing installing. Both Embrear Legacy aircraft agree the clients demands, and would run absolutely on the determined paths. The lone advantages are the cabin size which is designed to transport up to eight people, and both aircraft require aviation of 2 pilots.

3.4 Most suited turbo-prop

From all the little turbo-prop aircraft, there will be looked at the public presentation, fuel ingestion, scope, figure of riders, and the planetary costs to find the best scorch engine ( 3.4.1 ) and the best multi engine turbo-prop ( 3.4.2 ) aircraft. Global costs are several variable costs such as fuel ingestion, set downing fees and an estimation of care. Finding a suited aircraft that fulfils the operating demands within the budget is hard, because turbo-prop engines are expansive.

3.4.1 Single engine

In this paragraph the most suited aircraft with a individual propjet engine is determent. Again a preselecting is made with the initial demands. The two functional aircraft are seen in tabular array… .. ( Aircraft comparing ) .

& A ; Acirc ;

Range ( nanometer )

Takeoff Distance ( foot ) MTOW

Landing Distance ( foot ) MLW

soap sail elevation ( foot )

Cruising velocity ( karat )

MTOW ( pound )

Pressurized cabin

Seating

monetary value ( dollar )

Pilatus PC-6

870

1.444

1.033

25.000

125

6.173

& A ; Acirc ; No

10

1.000.000

Cessna Caravan

1.295

1.160

715

25.000

186

8.000

& A ; Acirc ; No

11

1.600.000

Table & A ; acirc ; ˆ¦.Aircraft comparing

Both aircraft are by all agencies able to transport adequate people. The Pilatus PC-6 does non suit the velocity bound and is hence non possible as concern aircraft for this operation. The Cessna Caravan does carry through the velocity bound but is a small overpriced. The initial costs can be raised, if the aircraft turns out to be the best. The Cessna has de-icing equipment and conditions radio detection and ranging. The variable costs of the Cessna will be about 500 Euro per runing hr. Variable costs include fuel, airframe care, labor and parts, engine Restoration and assorted costs. The variable costs in ten old ages based on 300 flight hours a twelvemonth will be 1.500.000 euro. The operating costs of the Cessna Caravan in ten old ages will be about 2.753.721 Euro.

The Cessna Caravan is the most suited individual engine propjet aircraft but does non suit the concern operation because there is no pressurized cabin available. Reasoning it can be said that in this monetary value class and the type of engine there is no suited aircraft for the company & A ; acirc ; ˆ™s demands.

3.4.2 Most Suitable Multi-Engine Propjet Aircraft

Four different aircraft are found for the most suited Multi-Engine Propjet aircraft. The job is that the aircraft all deficiency of the de-icing equipment needed for the most suited aircraft. There is an option on every aircraft to attach boots on the wings and the stabilizers. But the anti-ice equipment needed on the propellor blades is non included in any of the aircraft. In short the multi-engine propjet aircraft are excluded for the most suited aircraft, which would be recommended to the CEO. If we deny the fact that the de-icing equipment is non valuable plenty the aircraft are still excessively expensive to suit the budget. The budget is 1.5 million dollars and the cheapest multi propjet ( Hawker Beechcraft King Air C90GTx ) aircraft costs 3.6 million dollars. Besides the monetary values per flight hr start from 500 dollars per hr boulder clay 690 dollars per hr. So the estimated monetary value for the undermentioned 3000 flight hours is non interesting for the CEO.

A decision can be made harmonizing to the findings for the most suited multi-engine propjet aircraft. None of the found aircraft fit the parametric quantities, which are set up for the most suited aircraft.

& A ; Acirc ;

Range ( nanometer )

Max sail elevation ( ft. )

Max velocity ( karat )

Cruising velocity ( karat )

Cost pH

( $ )

Pressurized cabin

Price ( $ )

Cost 3000FH

( $ )

De-Icing

King Air 250

1610

35.000

310

& A ; Acirc ;

630

Yes

5.800.000

7.690.000

No

Piaggio P180 Avanti II

1470

41.000

402

690

Yes

5.700.000

7.770.000

No

Piaggio P166

915

24.000

220

220

540

No

5.000.000

6.620.000

No

King Air C90GTx

1311

30.000

270

208

500

Yes

3.600.000

5.100.000

No

Table 3.X

3.5 Decision

There were six classs out of which the best aircraft is chosen. As there was no multi jet engine aircraft which fits in the managers demands, five aircraft where selected ( table 3.x ) .

Range ( nanometer )

Take Off Distance ( foot ) MTOW

Landing Distance ( foot ) MLW

Max Cruise Alt. ( foot )

Cruise Speed ( karat )

MTOW ( pound )

Seatings

Price ( euro )

Costss per FH ( euro )

Cessna P210 Turbo Centurion II

900

600

500

27.000

193

4.000

5

341.640

251,16

Beechcraft G58 Baron

1.200

2.500

2.300

20.688

202

5.500

6

646.620

277,68

Cirrus Vision SF50

1.200

1.600

1.245

28.000

210

6.000

7

1.528.000

390

Cessna Caravan

1.295

1.160

715

25.000

186

8.000

11

1.248.000

390

Beechcraft King Air C90GTx

1.311

2.552

2.363

30.000

208

10.485

8

2.808.000

390

Average

1.181

1.682

14.24

26.138

200

6.797

7

1.314.452

339,77

Table 3.x Selected aircraft

The best three aircraft demand to be chosen out of these five aircraft. The Beechcraft King Air C90GTx is the first aircraft, which drops off because of the high purchase monetary value. The 2nd aircraft, which drops off, is the Cessna Caravan ; the purchase monetary value does non suit in with the public presentations. This means that the top three aircraft are the Cessna P210 Turbo Centurion II, the Beechcraft G58 Baron and the Cirrus Vision SF50. The Cessna P210 Turbo Centurion II is the cheapest aircraft in a period of 10 old ages, it is nevertheless the smallest and the slowest aircraft. The Beechcraft G58 Baron is more expensive than the Cessna, it is nevertheless more epicurean and has a higher sail velocity. The Cirrus Vision is the most expensive aircraft of the three. It provides nevertheless many services which can non be found at the other three aircraft. The seven seats arrangement can be easy adapted in a four seats agreement, which consequences in tonss of infinite and comfort. The cabin has an optional toilet and there is a orbiter phone connexion available. A worldwide conditions system is integrated in the Garmin GFC700 pilotage show. The Garmin GFC700 pilotage system besides supports RNAV, which is utile when voyaging with DME and NDB beacons is over. The Cirrus Vision fills the spread between high public presentation Pistons, traditional propjet twins and visible radiation concern jets.