Problems Of The Ie Policy Formulation Education Essay

The hypothesis of this survey is stressing the jobs of the IE policy preparation and execution. It can be seen as a major root cause of hapless educational accomplishment among the PWDs is reasonably supported harmonizing to the research findings. However, the research worker discovered that there are more critical issues than the IE policy that affect the educational success of the handicapped kids in Myanmar. This chapter summarizes the research findings from the field work by measuring the hypothesis and aims of the research which determine whether the IE policy has been good implemented. It besides includes a decision of of several issues that hinder the educational chances for the PWDs and their degree of engagement in the policy preparation.

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In order to sit the interviewee with some respondents from DPOs, the challenges of accessing IE services the deficiency of sufficient instructors, the deficiency of committedness, and the deficiency of hope by agencies of instruction, poorness. Besides, human rights misdemeanors, the deficiency of public services, hapless execution of instruction policy, and the deficiency of relevant course of studies, and the deficiency of school liberty are major factors that influence the instruction development of CWDs. The first portion of this chapter summarizes the cardinal findings of the fieldwork on how the IE policy meets the challenges of better educational chances for the PWDs in Myanmar and what factors undermine the instruction development chance for the PWDs in primary and lower secondary degrees. The 2nd portion of the chapter covers a decision and recommendations related to the IE policy.


Based on the research findings, it can be concluded that a demand for better educational substructure in Myanmar should be addressed every bit desperately as possible in order to make development chance for the PWDs. The construct of IE means welcoming all CWDs without favoritism in formal schools. Indeed, the focal point are on capacities, developmental demands, and potencies of all kids including the CWDs. IE ‘s efforts to suit the CWDs into the normal scenes can besides be a really ascendant factor over the public presentation ability and the rational accomplishments of the pupils with disablements. This research proved that the auxiliary supports for their disablements are needed for advancing the CWDs ‘ overall development in an optimum scene. These supports include a consideration of overall organisation, course of study and schoolroom pattern, support for larning and staff development. The survey calls for regard of difference and diverseness of single features and demands.

Sing school related environmental issue, socio-cultural and poverty issue and other policy related factors, self-respect, equality and disablement rights are really of import because they provide a opportunity for the PWDs to relocate their involvement in larning. Sum uping the findings of this survey, current IE policy execution procedures might non be the most serious issue that direly undermines the learning ability of CWDs, but it does impact the attitudinal alterations and the guaranting educational chances for CWDs to acquire the societal interaction in the society.

However, it would be well hard to make a genuinely inclusive educational environment for some handicapped kids depending on their disablements. This does non intend that the CWDs should be segregated in particular schools and isolated from all life in that environment. Even though Myanmar authorities signed Education for All, the practical execution is far from desired. Therefore, the research worker strongly argues that there should be an appropriate environment for PWDs that it would non be good to anyone if including it in the same puting every bit as other non-disabled people in both instruction and societal sectors. In fact, this is besides the rights of PWDs clearly determined by the international norms such as Declaration of Human Rights in which Myanmar already ratified and Bali Declaration on Inclusive Development for People with Disabilities and United Nation Convention on Right for People with Disabilities which were signed in 2011.

In add-on, this survey has highlighted the challenges of the PWDs to make the end of EFA through IE policy in Myanmar. The existent challenge of the inclusive instruction is to run into the particular demands of all CWDs but now the authorities ‘s execution program has been hindered by both the nature of the policy itself and the insufficient support support. To work out these challenges, the authorities needs to get the better of all types of barriers mainly instruction policy reforming procedure, the altering procedure of social-cultural beliefs, poorness issues, and school related patterns and manners of acquisition of the CWDs.

Furthermore, budget restriction is another of import factor impacting the execution of the IE policy. This survey found that the authorities ‘s budget allotment for instruction for the PWDs is less than wellness and rehabilitation services. Therefore, educational substructure is extremely required to be provided for the CWDs in order to accomplish their societal and educational development. In add-on, schools and sufficient instructors in all countries should be provided by the authorities and acquisition should be free for all non merely in theory but a stronger execution must be in topographic point to assure an equal acquisition chance. Limited apprehensions of the construct of disablement, negative attitudes toward the CWDs and a hard-boiled opposition to alter are the major barriers hindering inclusive instruction. Of peculiar concern is the fact that the attitudes of parents and instructors are seen as the decisive factors for successful inclusion.

Since the research findings showed that IE instruction without proper version to the local context is still weak for the CWDs in prosecuting quality instruction, schools should hold specially trained instructors in disablement intervention, enabling them to give supports in learning in order to advance the pupil ‘s competence and larning ability in instruction. With regard to this, bing theories of inclusive instruction have been proven to be successful in other states. However, Myanmar IE policy alteration is non the lone issue to be addressed in advancing the educational criterion of the PWDs, but the perceptual experience of the parents in the public toward their kids sustainable development should besides be taken into consideration. In fact, based on the findings, the research worker strongly argues that there is besides a demand for legal protection of human rights misdemeanors against the CWDs since the research clearly identified that the equality and the just undermine acquisition chances for the CWDs which subsequently greatly affect on their single development.

In add-on, the research worker strongly believes that there should be a better execution in instruction and larning procedure in which the CWDs are extremely motivated to larn through particular instruction. The current instruction and larning procedure does non turn to the single acquisition demands and the course of study lack the needed flexibleness to provide to the demands of the CWDs. There is small range for kids ‘s engagement in originative activities or critical thought and instructors lack preparation and experience in instruction and managing the CWDs. Furthermore, the high cost of disablement related stuffs was another discouraging factor of the CWDs to entree inclusive instruction services.

With the strong committedness to the long term basic instruction development program and EFA-NAP, MOE tries at its best to raise the quality of basic instruction for all school-aged kids in both formal and non-formal instruction. The state ‘s educational resources for the PWDs should be strengthened and brought in line with the CRPD. In add-on, a house foundation for future growing of IE for all CWDs across the state should be put in topographic point now. In-depth research on IE for CWDs is a cardinal constituent to develop internal expertness and supply quality recommendations to the authorities and will press the authorities to go through the revised Universal Primary Education which provides the legal foundation for IE for CWDs.

To sum up, the of import consequences of these findings are that inclusive instruction plan recognizes the demand for seting the larning plan to alter conditions in the society. The instruction system caters for all kids non merely in formal schools who because of the necessity of schooling in-migration for the particular schools and community acquisition centres. Thereby wholly neglected those in the rural countries where a great step of resources for development resides. Most underdeveloped states are in make bolding demand to develop national consciousness among the citizens. This has been one of the major obstructions to national development and integrating. Therefore, the research worker strongly argues that the major impact on educational accomplishment of the CWDs is the happier larning environment for them but it would besides make with a sense of regard, and self-respect among the community.


From the policy analyzing, single interviews, and concentrate group treatment, the following are recommendations that are proposed by the research worker in order to inform all stakeholders who work in the inclusive instruction, irrespective of formal and particular instruction. At the same clip, this research is hoped that the information on disablement related issues will be of involvement and utile to me/LNGOs, DPOs, and other establishments to develop the disablement and instruction plans and community development plans.

Datas on disablement

Accurate informations is of import demands for advancing the handiness of the wider understanding about the current state of affairs and for making an analysis on the impacts of the current instruction policy toward the development of the PWDs. The current informations on disablement merely is based upon the First Myanmar National Disability Survey, so the research worker would extremely urge that farther study or research be done in order to propose a possible reform in instruction in the hereafter.

School related factors

The major recommendation is an constitution of a particular instruction plan in all authorities schools that would offer particular instruction categories in each mainstream school. All categories incorporating CWDs should hold a sensible ratio of instructors and pupils, and the instructors should be particularly trained to hold a disablement consciousness, particularly those instructors who taught kids with ocular damages, hearing damages and rational disablements. There needs to be a useable infinite for the varied demands of direction in the schools. The age of entry into and go forthing from the particular categories should be flexible. Besides, the schools should be equipped with appropriate instruction stuffs.

Originating extra-curricular activities in and out of school

Particular attempts should be made to affect the CWDs in particular athleticss and games. These activities help them bask school more and review their head, and construct their organic structures. In add-on, these extra-curricular activities for all CWDs are really indispensable. From the survey of best patterns, it is clear that the induction of inclusive patterns has been a consequence of concerted community consciousness. This is an of import parametric quantity non merely for advancing inclusion outside the schoolroom among kids, but besides for blossoming diverse potencies and endowments of both kids with and without disablements.

Socio -cultural factors

The engagement of parents, instructors and health professionals is really indispensable. Earlier surveies showed that for desirable partnership to predominate among instructors, parents and health professionals, a common sharing of cognition, accomplishments, experiences and decision-making is required ( Semakula, 1999 ) . Long-run and short-run developments of the educational plans are based non merely on the CWDs involvements and abilities, but besides their households ‘ supports and precedences. Obviously, the positive parental attitude toward schooling will supply a sound foundation for bettering the kids ‘s acquisition. Therefore, uninterrupted awareness-raising activities should non merely be for parents or health professionals, but besides for other community members.

Policy factors

The authorities should set in topographic point statute law that makes all CWDs as the donee of mandatory instruction so that there should besides be statute law to guarantee uninterrupted proviso of disablement friendly learning stuffs and the physical school substructures. Furthermore, the authorities should develop more adept instructors of particular demands instruction, and give them some particular motive about community mobilisation. The ultimate educational end for CWDs should be focused on either mainstreaming or particular schools and community based resource centres for a go oning long term shooting. Last, the authorities should supply more fiscal support and political protection to guarantee that the particular tools and equipment necessary for the acquisition of CWDs become cheaper and more accessible.

At the execution degree, it can be seen that the kid centre attack can make full the spread to the failure of the formal instruction system in linkage between instructors and the CWDs. The attack can be applied in many extents such as course of study reforms, active instruction manners, and significantly a infinite to use what they want to larn from their existent life patterns. At the national degree, along with the arguments, treatment, and the authorities ‘s strong will to take reform, reforming the whole dismantled instruction system will take the certain figure of old ages, using the lessons learned from current inclusive instruction plans. Apart from this, it should be really of import to make a policy and infinite where the cooperation among IE pilot undertakings, I/LNGOs, DPOs and the authorities.