Reducing Aggregate Technical and Commercial Losses in the Power Sector


1.1 Introduction

Power Sector is considered to be really of import and precedence sector as it leads to overall development of state. The cost of installing of new bring forthing units is lifting ; hence generated electrical energy has to be utilized carefully and expeditiously. One unit of electrical energy saved is tantamount to two unit ‘s electric energy generated.Ministry of Power, Govt. of India, has launched the Restructured Accelerated Power Development and Reforms Programme ( R-APDRP ) in the XI Five twelvemonth Plan. Power Finance Corporation Limited ( PFCL ) has been designated by GoIas the Nodal Agency for the programme.The programme spans from informations acquisition at distribution degree till monitoring of consequences of stairss taken to supply an IT anchor and strengthening of the Electricity Distribution system across the Country under the coder. The aim of the coder is decrease of AT & A ; C losingss to 15 % in undertaking countries. The plan is divided into two ( 2 ) parts Part-A and Part-B. Part-A will include undertakings for constitution of baseline informations and IT applications like Meter Data Acquisition, Meter Reading, Billing, Collections, GIS, MIS, Energy Audit, New Connection, Disconnection, Customer Care Services, Web self service, etc. to acquire verified baseline AT & A ; C losingss every bit good as SCADA/DMS Implementation. Part-B will include distribution beef uping undertakings.

The aim of cut downing Aggregate Technical and Commercial ( AT & A ; C ) losingss in the undertaking country can be achieved by stop uping pilferage points, supply of quality power, faster designation of mistakes & A ; early Restoration of power, pro per metering, strategic arrangement of capacitance Bankss & A ; switches, proper planning and design of distribution web. The existent clip monitoring & A ; control of the distribution system through state-of-the art SCADA/DMS system embracing all distribution Sub-stations & A ; 11 KV web would assist in accomplishing this aim of R-APDRP. For deducing maximal benefits it is indispensable that necessary up-gradation of distribution S/S & A ; 11KV web shall be carried out to run into the SCADA/DMS demands. The augmentation /up-gradation of the distribution web for existent clip supervising & A ; control chiefly requires suited compatibility of circuit ledgeman & A ; switches, arrangement of RMUs and FPIs etc for effectual monitoring & A ; command.This augmentation/up step shall be considered under Part B of R-APDRP strategy. However, sing the growing & A ; related web up-gradation, the full fledged SCADA/DMS shall be capable to run into the present every bit good as future demands of the eligible towns for SCADA/DMS system under Part A of R-APDRP. The SCADA/DMS System will supply Real clip monitoring & A ; control, loss minimization/load reconciliation and considerable betterment in voltage/VAR profiles. It would besides ease proper handling of tonss while burden casting & A ; Restoration, efficient planning of web for future growing by utilizing proved power system planning tools. All package applications & A ; RTUs/FRTUs including system size demands for the same shall be considered in the SCADA/DMS system being procured under.

Part – A of R-APDRP. As per present R-APDRP guidelines, SCADA/DMS system will include urban countries towns and metropoliss with population of more than 4, 00,000 & A ; 350MUs one-year input energy or based on any other standards as informed by Nodal Agency from clip to clip. The figure of such possible towns is presently 70 ( 70 ) about.

In order to guarantee quality in execution procedure, SCADA/DMS Implementation Agencies ( SIA ) & A ; SCADA/DMS Consultants ( SDC ) have been empanelled by PFC/MOP. PFCL have prepared a theoretical account Request For Proposal ( RFP ) including this volume incorporating theoretical account proficient specification ( MTS ) for SCADA/DMS system. Utility/ State shall utilize this theoretical account proficient specification MTS /RFP to custom-make in line with public-service corporation demands. The customization shall non amount to any divergence, alteration of purpose w.r.t MTS/RFP. However, Utility /state shall inform about the deviations/ alterations made by them w.r.t the MTS/RFP with justification to PFCL/MOP & A ; obtain blessing before ask foring empanelled SIAs to offer.

The size of the programme is to the melody of Rs. 500 billion. The programme consists of Part-A ( to the melody of around Rs. 10,000 crore ) covering Information Technology application every bit good as SCADA/DMS Implementation, in the electricity distribution system and Part B ( to the melody of around Rs. 40,000 crore ) covering the System strengthening, Improvement and augmentation of distribution system capacity. Both parts entail planning of steps to be taken under the programme, execution of such steps to be taken and monitoring/evaluation of results/impact of the programme as a whole and of itsvarious constituents across the Country. The focal point of the programme shall be on existent, incontrovertible public presentation in footings of loss decrease. Constitution of dependable and machine-controlled systems for existent clip monitoring & A ; control of urban power distribution web implying 33 kilovolt to 11kV web. Under R-APDRP plan, SCADA/DMS system will cover urban countries – towns and metropoliss with population of more than 4, 00,000 & A ; 350MUs one-year input energy as per the present R-APDRP Guidelines of GoI. Towns/areas for which undertakings have been sanctioned in X Plan APDRP shall be considered for the XI Plan merely after either completion or short closing of the earlier canonic undertakings. Undertakings under the strategy shall be taken up in Two Partss. Part-A shall include the undertakings for constitution of baseline informations and IT applications for energy accounting/auditing & A ; IT based consumer service centres and SCADA /DMS Implementation. Part-B shall include regular distribution beef uping undertakings. The activities to be covered under each portion are as follows:

Part – A: Preparation of Base-line Data System for the undertaking country covering Consumer Indexing, GIS Mapping, Automatic Metering ( AMR ) on Distribution Transformers and Feeders, and Automatic Data Logging for all Distribution Transformers & A ; Feeders and SCADA / DMS system for large metropoliss merely. It would include Asset Mapping of the full distribution web at and below the 11kVtransformers and include the Distribution Transformers and Feeders, Low Tension lines, poles and other distribution web equipment. It will besides include acceptance of IT applications for metre reading, measure aggregation energy accounting & A ; scrutinizing ; MIS ; redressal of consumer grudges and constitution of IT enabled consumer service Centre etc.

Part– B: Renovation, modernisation and strengthening of 11 kilovolts flat Substations, Transformers/Transformer Centre, Re-conductoring of lines at11kV degree and below, Load Bifurcation, Feeder segregation, Load Balancing, Aerial Bunched Conductoring in thickly populated countries, HVDS, installing of capacitance Bankss and nomadic service Centre etc. In exceeding instances, where sub-transmission system is weak, beef uping at 33 kilovolt or 66 kilovolt degrees may besides be considered.

1.2Existing System

Utility shall include compose up about their existing geographical inside informations ( dad ( 2001 nose count ) , one-year energy in MUs, sqkm, administration apparatus, hierarchy, no. of substations, DT, RMU, electrical web etc of the undertaking country. Utility shall supply inside informations electrical system considered /committed under portion B of R-APDRP strategy for enabling SCADA/DMS execution. Utility shall besides name all bing substructure / bequest systems viz SCADA/DMS, RTU, FRTU, MFTs, IT system under R-APDRP viz. charge, client attention, GIS etc that are required to be integrated with this system. Utility shall supply inside informations of Existing Legacy systems SCADA/DMS, RTU/FRTU, IT system under R-APDRP for integrating including protocol execution profiles, interface inside informations etc. Utility shall give constellation diagram & A ; proficient write up of IT data Centre, client attention Centre DR Centre, bomber div, other offices under R-APDRP. Utility shall supply inside informations electrical system considered

committed under portion B of R-APDRP strategy for enabling SCADA/DMS execution. Utility shall advert inside informations of bing communicating, power supply, edifice substructure for SCADA/DMS system Utility shall guarantee the informations mentioned above is true & A ; harmonizing to approved DPR for the undertaking country.

Fig-1 Architecture of SCADA Control centre

1.3 Generic system architecture

The purpose of this specification is to set up ( I ) SCADA/DMS System along with RTUs/FRTUs ( I ) Associated Auxiliary Power Supply System ( three ) Communication System ( four ) integrating with IT system under R-APDRP or any bequest system. The functional inside informations are given in several chapters of the specification.


SCADA has been developing a concern instance before the effort of Automation of the Distribution system are discussed here. An effort is made to demo how incremental and alterations in the system could convey in big betterments in footings of response clip of the Network Studies for Primary and Secondary distribution Network at 33/11 KV COMPLEX Sub-staion, near the Network Shakti bhavan Jabalpur, under the Poorv Kshetra Vidyut Vitran Company ( MPPKVVCL ) and I was associated with this survey

Following stairss are covered in the instance survey ;

  • Monitoring the power system.
  • Making accommodations and keeping the system so that it can be used faithfully, expeditiously, and safely
  • Repairing the system every bit rapidly as possible in response to incidents such as equipment mistakes
  • Tracking and keeping system dependability informations System planning and enlargement to function new clients.

Decision summarises the result of this survey.

Fig 2

Sub-Station Automation in SCADA


Existing After Part-B execution

33/11 kv sub-station


33 kilovolts feeder


33/11KV Power Transformer


11 Kv feeder


11 kilovolt shunt Capacitor


11 kilovolt Bus coupling


Tabel -1.1Sub-Station Automation in SCADA

Chapter 2

LITERATURE REVIEW __________________________________________________________________

2.1 Review 1

Research paper on — Communication Protocols in Substation Automation and SCADA Art Review, -by Arash Shoarinejad, ( System Engineer GE Energy Network Reliability Products and Services-Canada. ) This paper presents an overview of T Protocols as a important portion of the system are explored in deepness. In add-on, normally used protocols and criterions are mentioned briefly IEC 61850 and UCA have assuring advantages over other protocols and will greatly alter SCADA systems today The protocols determine the effectivity of a SCADA system. Therefore, many protocols have been produced over the old ages to suit this demand. IEC 61850 with its self-description and security sweetenings has the most promising mentality in the protocol hereafter. It is a work-in-progress which should finally rule the electrical industry.

2.2 Review 2

Compartmentalization of Protocols in SCADA Communication: by- Dong-joo Kang and Rosslin John.Hongik University, Korea Department of Multimedia Engineering, Hannam University Ojeong-dong, Daeduk-gu, Daejeon, KoreaInternational Journal of Advanced Science and Technology Volume 8, July, 2009 mentioned In communicating, protocols are needed to be implemented to avoid some jobs. In the current province of SCADA communicating, two protocols are widely used, the T101 or IEC 60870-5-101 ( IEC101 ) and the DNP3 ( Distributed Network Protocol ) . In this paper, we present each protocol and discourse the specifications of T101 and DNP3. This can assist SCADA operators to choose which protocol is suited for the operations of their SCADA systems. IEC 60870-5-101/104 and DNP3 have fundamentally the same functionality, As discussed, DNP3 is popular in America. Since DNP3 and T101 are unfastened Standards, SCADA operators should supervise the development, and do parts when appropriate, to T101 and DNP3. They should besides prosecute the developers to include security characteristics on the protocols. SCADA communicating. In the hereafter we are be aftering to analyze and include other SCADA protocols.

2.3 Review 3

Review of Remote Terminal Unit ( RTU ) and Gateways for Digital Oilfield delpoyments

( By:Ayobami Ogunrinde SPDC Nigeria)

Writer has described Francis Enejo Idachaba Department of Electrical and Information Engineering Covenant University Ota. Ogun province Nigeria ( SPDC Nigeria( IJACSA ) International Journal of Advanced Computer Science and Applications, Vol. 3, No. 8, 2012The increasing diminution in easy oil has led to an increasing demand for the optimisation of oil and gas procedures. Digital oilfields utilize distant operations to accomplish these optimisation ends and the distant telemetry unit and gateways are really critical in the realisation of this aim. This paper presents a reappraisal of the RTUs and gateways utilized in digital oilfield architectures. It presents a reappraisal of the architecture, their functionality and choice standards. It besides provides a comparing of the specifications of some popular RTUs.

2.4 Review 4

Project Management Phases of a SCADA System for Automation of Electrical Distribution Networks ( By- Mohamed Najeh Lakhoua and Mohamed Kamel Jbira ) Laboratory of Analysis and Command of Systems ( LACS ) , National Engineering School of BP 37, Le Belvedere 1002, Tunisia ( IJCSI International Journal of Computer Science Issues, Vol. 9, Issue 2, No 2, March 2012 ) Writer has described SCADA ( Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition ) systems, to show the undertaking direction stages of SCADA for existent clip execution. Most control actions are performed automatically by RTUs. Host control maps are normally restricted to basic overruling or supervisory degree intercession A proposed computing machine based power distribution mechanization system is so discussed. Finally, some undertakings SCADA system execution in electrical companies over the universe is briefly presentedusing computing machine based system for sustainable development in the mechanization of the power distribution web to better the customers’ service and the dependability of the web.

2.5 Review 5

Design and Implementation of SCADA System Based Power Distribution for Primary Substation ( Control System ) ( By- Khin Thu Zar Win 1, Hla Myo TunDepartment of Electronic Engineering, Mandalay Technological University Mandalay, MyanmarInternational Journal of Electronics and Computer Science EngineeringThey are automated control system, interfacing units, monitoring system and networking system. The automated control system is emphasised

in this research. This system can be accomplished by utilizing PLC ladder diagram. This automated distribution system is analyzed to develop a secure, reliabe and convenient direction tool which can utilize distant terminal units ( RTUs ) . This system is efficient and dependable for conventional electrical distribution system in Myanmar by utilizing SCADA based engineering. proposed a theoretical account that illuminates the classs of informations, functionality, and inter dependences present in a SCADA system. The theoretical account serves as a foundation for farther research on how to outdo apply proficient security controls to SCADA systems in a manner that is consistent with the operation and mission of that system. SCADA system is one of the most of import bequest systems of the smart grid systems. PLC based control system to implement the SCADA system for Power Distribution system has been developed.

3.6:: Review-6

Working stages of SCADA system for power distribustion webs

By-Shalini, Sunil Kumar J, Birtukan Teshome, Samrawit Bitewlgn Muluneh, Bitseat Tadesse Aragaw Assistant professor, Dept. of Chemical Engineering, Adi para sakthi College of Engineering, Tamilnadu, India International Journal of Advanced Research in Electrical, Electronics and Instrumentation EngineeringVol. 2, Issue 5, May 2013Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition ) systems, to show the undertaking direction stages of SCADA for existent clip execution, and so to demo the demand of the mechanization for Power Distribution Companies ( PDC ) on their distribution webs and the importance of utilizing computing machine based system towards sustainable development of their services. Most control actions are performed automatically by RTUs. Host control maps are normally restricted to basic coveriding or supervisory degree intercession A proposed computing machine based power distribution mechanization system is so discussed we proved the importance on utilizing computing machine based system for sustainable development in the mechanization of the power distribution web to better the clients ‘ service and the dependability of the web. Besides the paper outlines the general constructs and needed equipments for the mechanization of such power webs. Some undertakings of SCADA system execution in electrical companies over the universe have been presented.