Reflection on a business education course

Contemplation harmonizing to Walker E. S ( 2006 ) P 216 has been defined as “ a procedure sing believing about and researching an issue of concern, which is triggered by an experience ” . This merely means that for there to be a contemplation, there has to be an experience, irrespective of it being positive or negative. Leaver- Dunn et Al were besides noted in Walker E. S ( 2006 ) p 216 that contemplation has the ability to separate between the expert practicians and their equals.

To get down with and looking manner back to the beginning of this peculiar class it is interesting to observe that being an international pupil from Nigeria and analyzing Marketing Communications in the University of Bedfordshire was an experience ne’er to be forgotten, Is have been through assorted signifiers of transmutation, since the session started in September 21st,2009.

Transformation theory, that was ab initio developed by Jack Mezirow, “ identifies a procedure of alteration that begins with an experience one can non integrate into the mental matrix built from anterior life experience, and which normally includes the undermentioned constituents: a disorientating quandary, self scrutiny, a critical appraisal of premises, the acknowledgment that others have gone through similar procedures, the geographic expedition of options for organizing new functions, relationships or actions, the preparation of a program of action and reintegration into the experience with new, transformed positions ” . Fuguan Tan ( 2009 )

Talking about transmutation, i personally come from a state that the educational system is wholly different from that of Europe, peculiarly the United Kingdom. I was able to come to footings with the fact that at that place existed a school calendar that will be purely followed and one saw myself in an organized scene. At first I had jobs coming to footings with being the lone Nigerian miss in my category until subsequently when I was joined by another chap from my place state, this gave me a spot of assurance as to confronting the ambitious class.

In the words of Aileen C. and Elaine E, ( 2004 ) they wrote that exhaustively reflecting on pattern is really a cardinal characteristic of effectual acquisition, they went on to specify contemplation as concentrating on the immediate, thereby showing the inside informations of a job or undertaking. As an person I agree with the demand to reflect or instead concentrate on the immediate, this will decidedly assist to do corrections for the hereafter and non do the same errors already made if at all there was any.

Further in the words of Horton-Deutsch. S and Sherwood Gwen ( 2008, p 947 ) contemplation involves “ believing about experience, which leads scholars to a Fuller apprehension of what they know and increases their possible for leading ” . Besides true in my position is the statement of Horton-Deutsch, who wrote that it is of import to reflect or believe back on the experience, which will in bend improve the person ‘s cognition about a peculiar state of affairs or increase the possible for greater highs.

In most instances it is believed that the experience for analyzing abroad has great potency for transforming international pupil. I must state one went through some phases of transmutation such as meeting alteration, prosecuting in contemplation, reconfiguring perceptual experiences and re-acclimating to the state of affairs. Fuguan Tan ( 2009 ) Worthy of note is the point that throughout my survey in my place state, there has ne’er been an chance for me to reflect, this made it instead impossible for me to hold a re-think on my errors, and there was besides no chance to do corrections.


Cunliffe, ( 2004, p. 414 ) defines contemplation “ as the agencies or procedure through which an experience in the signifier of idea, feeling, or action, is examined to analyse its significance while it is go oning or later ” . Kember et al. , ( 2000 ) , wrote that contemplation does stand for a point on a acquisition continuum which is so characterised by wont at one terminal and critical contemplation at the other. To Schon ( 1983 ) contemplation is referred to as the ability to rethink one ‘s anterior ideas and action in context, both to come up premises every bit good as to do significance.

Contemplation, as written in Klenowski V and Lunt I ( 2008 ) is largely specifying with respects to conceptual constituents and theoretical positions. Horton-Deutsch S and Sherwood Gwen ( 2008 ) explained that “ Reflection is about larning from experience, a critical facet of cognition development and a skill indispensable to leading development ” . They both went on to reason on the footing that contemplation goes far beyond ordinary empirical knowing, but it besides combines personal and ethical ways of cognizing. Korthagen F and Vasalos A ( 2005 ) wrote that the indispensable importance of contemplation is to larn from experiences.

Woerkom M ( 2010 ) referred to reflection in Deweyan ‘s position as instrumental acquisition ; he went farther to observe that it is the appraisal of premises implicit in beliefs about how to work out jobs. In this peculiar definition, contemplation therefore besides includes an component of unfavorable judgment but refers more to instrumental thought, which is concerned with how to work out a job. In contrast, Mezirow defines critical contemplation as turn toing the inquiry of the justification for the really premises on which jobs are posed or defined in the first topographic point and scrutiny of their beginnings and effects.

Critical contemplation can non go an built-in component in the immediate action procedure but requires a suspension in which to reevaluate one ‘s significance positions and, if necessary, to transform them. Critical self-reflection refers to the most of import acquisition experience. It means reevaluating the manner we have posed jobs, our ain significance positions, every bit good as reevaluating our ain orientation to perceiving, cognizing, believing, feeling, and moving.

Some of the bookmans perceived contemplation, as critical contemplation or critical thought. It is hence frequently non clear what the difference is, or even if there exist a difference, between these footings. Dewey, who is perceived as the laminitis of the construct of contemplation, sometimes uses the footings “ brooding thought ” and “ critical thought ” interchangeably. Scott. G.S ( 2010 )


The theoretical model for contemplation harmonizing to Korthagen F and Vasalos A ( 2005, p48 ) is referred to as ALACT theoretical account. This theoretical account is said to trust on the premise that “ by nature people reflect on their experiences ” . The theoretical account besides describes a structured brooding procedure, but on the other manus, the theoretical account did non take note about the content of contemplation. On the other manus Scott. G S ( 2010 ) p 434 argued that the benefit of contemplation has got extended theoretical support in literature, though Scott ‘s definition of contemplation is non without its ain statement.

He went on to compose that the critical theoreticians ‘ contemplation is considered to “ necessitate the surfacing of premises relative to state of affairss and surrounded steadfastly power dealingss, control and the transmutation of belief and values ” . Reflection was interchangeably used by direction theoreticians as “ personal, psychological alteration instead than societal alteration ” Scott. G.S ( 2010 ) P 434

The function of pupil contemplation is an incorporate acquisition procedure, and contemplation has three phases: a reappraisal of experience, analysis, and re-evaluation ( Peltier, & A ; Drago, 2004 ; Peltier et al. , 2005 ) . The initial phase of this procedure is the reappraisal of experience and presupposes consciousness. That is, it presupposes that the experience in inquiry has been brought into consciousness. The term ‘reflection ‘ is often used really slackly and this can easy befog the disciplined and ambitious nature of such acquisition.

Reynolds ( 1999 ) distinguishes between critical contemplation an attack in which both experience and its societal and political contexts are examined, contemplation which focuses on the person and gives small attending to societal or political procedures, and critical thought, a term which he argues is ‘usually used to mean a disciplined attack to job work outing ‘ ( Reynolds, 1999, p. 173 ) . He went on to claim that in the direction literature “ critical contemplation ” is being used in the weaker sense to depict thoughtful analysis or job work outing ‘ ( Reynolds, 1999, p. 177 ) .

With respect to contemplation and acquisition, Argyris and Schon distinguish between

individual cringle and dual cringle acquisition. For the exercising of individual cringle larning it is possible ‘by observing and reflecting on our ain actions, to do a description of the silent knowing implicit in them ‘ ( Schon, 1987, p. 25 ) .This enables us to analyze and measure such cognition. However, dual cringle larning involves non merely reflecting on one ‘s actions, but besides researching the premises and ‘theories-in usage ‘ which are embedded in those actions. Walsh ( 2009 )


The uncomfortableness that was felt at the beginning of the thesis was overpowering. It all started the first twenty-four hours that we were told to fix for the first thesis presentation, as I faced the fright I still was able to garner cognition. I wondered in the beginning if I could get by with the work in front of me, but with the encouragement of wise mans i was able to confront it and transport on.

Brooding thought is to be used to heighten determination accomplishments, cultural sensitiveness, and teamwork, non merely express feelings or record in a diary what occurred, McInnis-Bowers et Al. ( 2010 ) In the words of Scott S G ( 2010 ) contemplation, is referred to as “ the procedure of rethinking one ‘s anterior ideas and actions in context to come up premises and do significance. Contemplation represents one point on a acquisition continuum that is characterized by wont at one pole and critical contemplation at the other ” . During the class of my survey peculiarly during the period I was composing up my thesis, the experience I had has thought me to believe in myself and halt thought I can non make it. It has thought me to ever confront my undertakings with whatever challenges that come with it. From this experience I have realised that there is no two ways about wining except through difficult work and there is a stating that goes therefore Proper, Preparation, Prevents, Poor, Performance 5P ‘s.

The first feedback I had with my group members for the advancement in the Trident run which marked the boot off for the concluding thesis. It did non look a good start to me, because my group had a batch of things to work on and it was obvious non every group member was willing to work. Although the feeling did non function as a drawback it merely meant Is had to work harder. On that twenty-four hours we were advised on the three critical facets of the thesis which included the run program and study, literature reappraisal and eventually the contemplation.

Before we attended the 2nd feedback, myself and the other three group members met on three occasions where we delegated work to each member on the undertaking in front, most of the clip it was two of the four members that was active, and on several cases i personally encouraged them to set in more attempt so we all can accomplish success at the terminal of the piece of work. The 2nd feedback which was on the ten percent of March, was attended by two supervisors and once more I was non happy with myself as no thorough research was done, my input was non good plenty and when we were asked what our run scheme meant, none of my group members could react, this became a spot cheerless.

Looking frontward to a 60 unit faculty I felt truly down, but so it became a challenge. The job that was posed was the inability to set literature together to endorse our statements up but at the latter phase things got better.

Again in the beginning it looked like we had trouble construing the brief, as we came up with several propositions, aims and scheme which seemed non to do sense, for this ground the undertaking became more competitory as the other two groups had the same subject and it seemed my group was non doing a head manner.


Within my group I happened to be the lone female amongst three cats and i thought this ground will do them more active than one am but the contrary was the instance, this was the ground why in the beginning I had assorted feelings about working within a group, as it seemed everyone had a degree of understanding and this means it takes a superb one to be able to accomplish success. I had no pick at that point as we had a small group of 12 in the full selling communications, Masterss ‘ grade category, which made it truly obvious to be able to separate between the brilliant and dull pupils. Several times i was non happy with the groups i fall into, but with finding to stand out I normally face it, and i ne’er regretted my determinations as I ne’er failed a group work.

Harmonizing to Moon ( 2004, p. 136 ) “ when sing the university position on experiential acquisition and contemplation, it becomes evident, that the fact ‘that all instruction comes about through experience does non intend that all experiences are truly or every bit educative ‘ he besides argued that a differentiation needs to be made between what she footings ‘informal contemplation ‘ and ‘academic contemplation ‘ the latter being a formal procedure ” . Walsh ( 2009 )

At a point during the group meetings i became so unhappy and one told other group members i was no longer interested in the work though this was non a true statement from my bosom, I was likely excessively disquieted, but with clip I was able to quiet myself down and get by even though things did non work out as planned

On several occasions at that place existed misinterpretation and I personally found out that there was demand for these misinterpretation as it helps in traveling frontward most of the clip. Again many at times a member within the group was used to stating he works better under force per unit area and this did non travel good with me as Is do non work good under force per unit area, alternatively i do the opposite significance I program my clip and i appreciate clip direction and non fire brigade attack in transporting out my undertaking. Many times after a misinterpretation at that place exist duologue and apologies will be made by the necessary group members and so the undertaking continues, interestingly we tend to accomplish more at this clip.

Another point worthy to observe at this clip is that working within a group gives a cognition about the office environment, where one will be working with other members of staff and if a undertaking is to be carried out, there will be no chance to take who to and who non to work with. Each clip one think of this I am encouraged to get by within any group I find myself and seek to corporate and have a good squad spirit.

Contemplation so, in the words of Scott G S ( 2010 ) P 432 is the procedure or agencies by which an experience, in the signifier of idea, feeling, or action, is examined to condense its significance while it is go oning or later. Contemplation is fodder for self-regulation in an environment where what we define as utile and effectual behavior alterations continuously. With mention to the words of Scott ( 2010 ) I had different reactions to every state of affairs that I was faced with, ever believing back that I had a grade in a different educational scene and now a Masterss in Europe.

At that point it was obvious something was non right as the first and 2nd feedback did non give a positive consequence, but something one held on to was the words given by the supervisors, which i pondered on, one went on to direct my piece of work to the coachs over the cyberspace, once more small betterment was made, it all became distressing but one ne’er give up.

What happened following? I suggested we needed to run into a coach and get down afresh, interesting, we approached him and he was happy to take us aright, every group member attended this meeting and things began to alter. From the proposition, mark audience, scheme and really many utile advices was given. Most significantly we were told to include some theories of acquisition and contemplation to buttress some points, this period was a good precious one as it marked the beginning of a bend around.

My function within the group was a really critical one as the other members do reach me to cognize what the following measure was, I was ever be called upon to split the undertaking and explicate what we did so far including the hereafter program. I enjoyed making this as I have ever seen myself as a magnetic leader, of class a leader by illustration.


When one negotiations of success narrative, that does non literarily intend the consequences for the thesis is out already but the fulfillment and the joy that comes to mind cognizing fundamentally that the group work and the single portion was done and submitted in due clip is worthy of note. Soon after the summer vacation started two of the four group members did go to their place state go forthing merely two people to cover with the work. Sincerely things went slow but at each clip a meeting was arranged and there was advancement at every meeting coupled with misinterpretations.

On the eighth of June, we had a concluding group presentation with feedback, which marked the concluding twenty-four hours of the class, to our greatest surprise the proposition we have changed clip and clip once more, mark audience cleavage and the tag line began to pass on, it became obvious that the group was on path even though the existent presentation got lost in a missing flash thrust. The group was advised to make more research and understand the mark audience and what needs to be done to pass on the trade name ( Trident masticating gum ) is the scheme and execution. Throughout this same month and July communicating continued on-line as it became a spot hard to run into in the university since the library closed earlier than usual. Each portion of the run was dealt with strictly and the power point slides were put together so the study followed afterwards.

Scott G. S ( 2010 ) p 433 was before quoted in the study where he noted that John Dewey is considered a cardinal conceiver of believing about contemplation. Dewey argued in his ain words that reflective persons have certain features, which includes open-mindedness, which illustrates the will power within an person to accept rational duty for one ‘s ain positions, heartiness this merely means, a willingness to face frights and uncertainnesss, and eventually enthusiasm.

Contemplation is concerned with patterns and actions, particularly professional pattern in Fieldss such as school instruction ( Allen, 1992 ; Beyer, 1989 ; Collier, 1999 ) , nursing ( Burns & A ; Bulman, 2000 ) , societal work ( Fook, 1996 ) , and direction “ communities of pattern ” ( Welsh & A ; Dehler, 2004 ) . Reflection besides generates enquiry and a hunt for significance ; it provides the possible to see things in a manner they have non been understood earlier. More merely, brooding pattern contributes to larning.

What I have learnt that will be everlastingly utile to me is the ability to dialogue, this a really of import instrument peculiarly in a group work scenario. Again it is good to listen to the leader as two wrongs can ne’er do a right, it is wholly unjust when squad members refuse to listen to the leader, and evidently things will non travel good. I have besides learnt that in the hereafter I understand clearly the footing of my undertaking before one kick off with work on it, as this delayed my group from traveling frontward during the presentation, as though we were traveling about within the same circle, before we got our precedences right.

“ The agencies of contemplation is most frequently dialogue through which subjective and nonsubjective experience is processed, questioned, and significance is made of it. Reflection through duologue demonstrates pupils ‘ larning through their ability to gestate what they have learned, the significance it has for their present and future, and the acknowledgment that they are neither the same individual as they were a few old ages antecedently nor should they anticipate to be a few old ages therefore. Baker, Jensen, and Kolb ( 2002 ) labelled this attack to larning “ the wrong-side-out attack. ” Scott G. S ( 2010 ) P 433

5.7 Decision

In reasoning this contemplation study it is interesting to observe that “ acquisition can be considered as a procedure of debate in which thought, reflecting, sing and action are different facets of the same procedure ” . It is besides a practical debate with oneself and in coaction with others that really forms the footing of larning. ( Pavlica et al. 1998: 145 ) in Corley A and Eades E ( 2004, P 138 )

During the reappraisal of literature it was noted harmonizing to Jeffrey D et Al. ( 2000 ) that contemplation is non an wholly new procedure and some authors trace it to the work of Socrates, they went on to depict contemplation “ as a procedure of withdrawing from or stepping back from an experience and taking clip to intentionally and carefully reexamine it, believe about it and build significance from it, nevertheless contemplation is said to hold a past, present and future component.

In this study the author has been able to reflect by and large about the past experience, looking through the beginning of the selling communications maestro ‘s grade foremost feeling, through to the present clip which has to make with the experience while composing up the thesis, it is besides interesting to observe that the author besides discussed briefly of future outlooks and larning from the past experience that can positively impact the hereafter work.

Having reflected on my experience from first twenty-four hours of university up until the yearss of my concluding thesis, I will state Is have really enjoyed the full procedure. Meeting friends from other parts of the universe was a good thing to retrieve, with no exclusions of my coachs who were ever at that place, and willing to assist with whatever need we might hold during the class of survey. However one quit e agree with the thought of personal contemplations as it gives the chance to believe back and do damagess as required. This in bend will hold a positive consequence on an person.


Miriam Catterall, Pauline Maclaran, and Lorna Stevens ( 2010 ) Critical Reflection in the Marketing Curriculum Journal of Marketing Education, Vol. 24 No. 3, December 2002 184-192

Scott. G Susanne ( 2010 ) Enhancing Reflection Skills through Learning Portfolios:

An Empirical Test. Journal of Management Education 34 ( 3 ) 430-457. The Author ( s ) , hypertext transfer protocol: //www.

Fuguan Tan ( 2009 ) Tri-fold Transformation: An International Adult Student ‘s Contemplations on Online Learning.

Walker E. S ( 2006 ) . Journal Writing as a Teaching Technique to Promote Reflection Journal of Athletic Training Vol. 41, No 2 p216-221

Klenowski Val and Lunt Ingrid ( 2008 ) Enhancing larning at doctorial degree through the usage of contemplation. Taylor & A ; Francis

Walsh Anita ( 2009 ) Modes of Reflection: Is it possible to utilize both single and corporate contemplation to accommodate the ‘three-party cognition involvements ‘ in workplace acquisition? European Journal of Education, Vol. 44, No. 3, 2009, Part I _1389 385

Aileen Corley and Elaine Eades ( 2004 ) ‘Becoming ‘ critically brooding practicians: faculty members ‘ and pupils ‘ contemplations on the issues involved. Pp. 137-144. Human Resource Development International, Taylor and Francis Limited

Horton-Deutsch Sarah and Sherwood Gwen ( 2008 ) Contemplation: an educational scheme to develop emotionally- competent nurse leaders. Journal of Nursing Management, 16, 946-954

Doyle, Wendy ; Young, Jeffrey D ( 2000 ) .Managing Development: Making the most Experience and Reflection. Fall2000, Vol. 25 Issue 3, p18

Marianne new wave Woerkom, ( 2010 ) Advances in Developing Human Resouces. The Concept of Critical Reflection and Its Deductions for Human Resource Development Advances in Developing Human Resources Vol. 6, No. 2 p 178-192