Public policy refers to the action or inactivity of the authorities on an issue ( s ) ( Thomas 2001 cited in Buse et al 2005 ) . It sets hierarchy by transporting out the picks of those with the bid of authorization in the populace. This makes public policy alteration really complex as assorted persons, administrations and even the province have conflicting involvement and capacities. There is therefore the demand for coherency of interest/capacities in an effort to consequence a alteration ( Colebatch 2002 ) .
Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to explicate the schemes that would be used to consequence a alteration in public policy on route safety in Nigeria.
Health Issue and Public Health Importance:
Road Traffic Collision ( RTC ) is a major public wellness issue globally. It is defined as personal hurt ensuing from hit of a vehicle with another vehicle ( s ) or a prosaic, happening on the public main road or footways ( Worcestershire County Council 2010 ) .
The Situation Globally:
RTC histories for over 1.2 million deceases with approximately 20 to 50 million non fatal hurts ( a major cause of disablement ) happening yearly. It is the 9th prima cause of decease globally and is estimated to lift to be the 5th prima cause of decease by twelvemonth 2030 ( with approximately 2.4 million human deaths per twelvemonth ) out ranking public wellness issues like TB, HIV/AIDS ( soon the 5th prima cause of decease ) and diarrhoea diseases ( WHO 2008 ) . This means that by the twelvemonth 2030, RTC will be perceived every bit lifelessly as HIV/AIDS is today, if pressing action is non taken.
The planetary losingss due to route traffic hurts are estimated to be about 518 billion USD, bing the authorities between 1 – 3 % of its gross national merchandise ( WHO 2009a ) .
Figure: Map of Nigeria demoing major accident zones.
Beginning: Savan demographic map
Nigeria is Africa ‘s most thickly settled state, with an estimated population size of about 151,319,500 ( World Bank 2010 ) . It is one of the 10 states with the highest Road traffic decease rates in the universe ( WHO 2009a ) . RTA is the commonest cause of decease from unwilled injuries/ public force in the state ( Nigeria Watch 2007 ) .
Usoro ( 2010 ) stated that there are about 30,000 accidents with about 35,000 casualties happening annually. About 90 individuals are killed or injured day-to-day and about 4 individual ‘s dies or acquire injured every hr from RTA. He argues that the figures are underestimated because of hapless coverage and hapless recording of route accidents in the state. Low socio economic groups have been found to be at higher hazard of route traffic hurts ( Thomas et al 2004 ) and they are less likely to hold the capacity to bear the direct or indirect cost related to RTA. They are faced with more poorness load as they lose their staff of life victor ; lose net incomes while caring for the injured or handicapped, the cost for funeral and drawn-out wellness attention ( DFID 2003 ) .
RTC has its greatest impact among the immature and is the 3rd prima cause of decease between ages 5 – 45years ( WHO 2009 ) with a decrease in the Country ‘s productive force, farther declining the economic state of affairs, therefore impacting the state accomplishing its MDGS 1 AND 4.
The major causes of RTC in Nigeria are ; high velocity, intoxicant, bad roads, hapless vehicle conditions etc ( Usoro 2010 ) . Although there is limited literature to demo the different per centums of the causes of RTC in Nigeria, high velocity is most concerned in low income states ( WHO 2009 ) .
Surveies have shown that a 5 % addition in mean velocity can ensue in about 20 % addition in fatal clangs ( Transport Research Centre 2006 ) and with a 1mph decrease in mean velocity there is a decrease in accident hurts by 5 % ( Finch et al 1994 ) . The debut of velocity cameras in the Isle of Wight, UK resulted in an 83 % decrease of velocity on the island ( Environment and Transport select Committee 2004 ) . Reducing velocity has besides been shown to hold positive effects on wellness results e.g. cut downing respiratory jobs associated with wellness results ( Transport Research Centre 2006 ) .
There is hence pressing demand for action to forestall this future pandemic.
PROPOSED CHANGE ( POLICY CONTENT ) :
Introduction of velocity cameras and enforcement of velocity bounds on Nigerian roads.
To cut down high velocity behavior of drivers and better Conformities to rush bounds
To educate the populace on the benefits of obeying route safety steps
Outcome aims: To cut down the morbidity and mortality from RTC by 30 % and to cut down the possible life old ages lost from RTC by 50 % by 2020.
To cut down the mortality and disablement associated with RTC from vehicle velocity in Nigeria.
Enforcement of velocity bounds via Mobile cameras has been shown to be the individual most effectual scheme for cut downing human death from RTC ( Chisom and Naci 2008 ) . It is therefore most rational among other rational schemes but has to puddle its manner through the policy procedure. Hence the nature of alteration follows the assorted scanning theoretical account.
For better apprehension of the complex many-sided nature of policy devising, the proposed policy alteration is seen as go throughing through a procedure taking topographic point in a peculiar context influenced by the participants/actors ( the policy analysis trigon ) ( Buse et al 2005 ) .
Actors: Persons, administrations and groups
Figure 2: Policy analysis trigon
Beginning: Walt and Gilson 1994.
THE POLICY Procedure:
Policy rating and feedback
The policy procedure can be broken down into series of phases called the ‘stages heuristic ‘ ( Sabatier and Jenkins-smith cited in Buse et Al. 2005 ) .It provides a theoretical model for understanding the times and topographic points where tactical attacks can be applied to influence policy alteration ( Buse et al 2005 ) .
Figure 3: Policy procedure
Before traveling on with the policy procedure, it will be worthwhile understanding the state ‘s policy context as this will help in determining the procedure.
THE NIGERIAN POLICY CONTEXT:
The proposed wellness policy alteration can be affected by the undermentioned contextual factors ( Leichter 1979 ) :
This includes the increasing broad spread public consciousness and load caused by RTA in the state as stated above.
There are about 250 cultural groups ( Hausa, Igbo, Yoruba been the major cultural groups ) in Nigeria. The major faiths are Christianity, Islamism, traditional beliefs. These major religious and cultural groups are the most politically influential and most thickly settled in the state ( CIA 2009 ) . Most people believe that route accident is religious and is caused by evil liquors ( Sarma 2007 ) . Hence the spiritual leaders, traditional/ethnic group leaders will play an of import function in converting their followings and bettering ownership for community support and policy execution success.
Road safety issues have increased in impulse on the planetary docket ( termed the decennary of action ) with an ambitious mark to cut down route human deaths by twelvemonth 2020. It is supported by international organic structures such as WHO, WB, DFID, FIA foundation and other UN administration ( Commission for planetary route safety 2009 ) . These organic structures will therefore hold an impact on the preparation of policies, support, duologue, planning, and protagonism guidelines for any state shiping on a route safety policy enterprise.
( a ) Political system: Nigeria is a democratic federation with degrees of authorization expressed at the federal, province and local authorities countries.
There are 36 provinces and the federal capital district, 774 LGAs farther divided into 9555 wards ( the lowest political unit in the state ) .
There are 3 weaponries of authorities, the Executive arm, Judiciary and the Legislature at the federal and province degrees.
The legislative arm comprises of the upper house ( the senate ) and the lower house ( the House of Representatives ) elected from the province senatorial territories and the constituencies severally.
Each province has an elected governor, the house of assembly, an executive council with powers to do Torahs.
Each local authorities country has an elected executive president and an elective legislative council of members from electoral wards.
The province authorities has significant liberty and control over the allotment and use of their resources ( WHO 2009b ) .
The Federal Road Safety Commission:
This is the lead bureau that regulates, enforces and coordinates all route safety direction activities at both the national, province and LGA level through their particular United States Marshals Services ( Volunteer arm ) and regular United States Marshals Services ( Uniformed ) . They play a major function in finding and implementing velocity bounds for assorted types of roads and vehicles ( FRSC 2010 ) . They receive aid from the constabulary, civil defense mechanism corps, NGO ‘S etc.
( B ) Civil societies, NGOs signifier e.g. RAPSON, APRI, SAVAN, and involvement groups are cardinal histrions in public policy devising and can take part at the commission phases of how a measure becomes a jurisprudence.
( degree Celsius ) Socio economic state of affairs: Nigeria is classified as a low income group state with a gross national income per capital of $ 930 ( WHO 2009a ) .This can impact acquiring the route safety policy on the docket among many other viing wellness issues.
To the easiness the policy issue from the docket puting to execution and rating, a stakeholder analysis is really of import.
It helps to identify Actors ; measure their involvement, power, confederation, place and importance in relation to the policy. It will assist to place and move to forestall misinterpretation and resistance to the policy ( Schmeer 2000 ) .
Name of stakeholder ( administration,
Group or person at the federal, province or local degree )
Stakeholder description ( primary intent, association, support )
Potential function in the procedure ( vested involvement in the activity )
Potential degree of committedness ( support or oppose, to what extent and why ) and how to acquire their support
Available resources ( staff, voluntaries, )
Commanding officer in head of the armed forces, initiate authorities policies/bills
Assenting to and sign language of measures, mentioning a measure back to the national assembly or to the constitutional tribunal on the measures constitutionality
Moderate support, demand for dialogue and lobbying
News conferences, high degree committedness ; statements and declarations at cardinal policy events, Speech
The senate and house of representatives
The province Governor and province house of assembly
Approves the proposed policy to go a jurisprudence, guarantee appropriate support
Novices and approves Government policies at the province degree severally
Sponsors/ Champions policy alteration,
Has significant liberty and control over the allotment and use of their resources at province degree
Some may back up and other may non. Necessitate to place title-holders, bargaining and lobbying for support
Same as above
News conferences, statements at cardinal policy events, Reports on commission meetings
Same as above
Ministry of wellness
Implement policies, programmes and take actions to beef up the wellness system
Draft measure in concurrence with the federal route safety committee, give advice to the authorities on the impact of route accidents
Strongly back up the enforcement of the route safety jurisprudence proposed
Political determination shapers, organizational construction of the freshly introduced nomadic injury squad
Federal route safety committee, Nigerian constabulary and the civil defense mechanism service corps
Lead bureau on disposal of route safety in Nigeria
Pilot trial, Assist the ministry of wellness with information for measure bill of exchange,
Strongly back up the enforcement of the route safety jurisprudence proposed
Organizational construction of the constabulary, civil defense mechanism, FRSC corps of United States Marshals Services three tier system
Ministry of finance
Provides public financess, facilitates development and reappraisals budget,
Prioritises reappraisal and blessing of budget for the proposed alteration
Variable if the cost for execution is significantly increased
Fundss to back up the purchase of velocity cameras
Ministry of transit
Oversing transit safety
Formulate and implement authorities policies on transit safety
May or may non back up because of other undertakings like the new rail manner system development in the state
Staffs available at assorted degrees
Ministry of Education
Oversing instruction related actives
Aid in execution of educational policies
May non back up because of other pressing demands like salary increase for instructors
Staffs available at assorted degrees
NBC ( MEDIA ) , NURTW, NURTO
Major political force per unit area groups
Beginning of information, force per unit area and influence in policy development
Strongly back up the policy alteration
Organised construction and staffs available
International organic structures
WHO, World bank, African development bank, Infrastructure pool for Africa, FIA, EURO NCAP, DFID,
Multi stakeholders commission, cardinal donors/development spouses and oversee execution of the funded undertaking.
Approves the proposal to utilize the fund grant in the procurance of the new policy
Strongly support but would be concerned about corrupt patterns
Financial, Potentially, human resources to influence policy, cardinal gate keepers for usage of planetary fund grant
SAVAN, RAPSON, PATVORA, SAFETY ALLIANCE, AARSI, Nigerian red cross
Agency committed to awareness, acceptance and observation of route safety patterns, station debut surveillance
Legislative reform protagonism and policy execution
Strongly back up
Trained staffs every bit good as voluntaries.
Nigeria Medical Association, Researchers.
Represents its members and support their involvement
Can set force per unit area, and lobbying in the policy procedure
Strongly back up
Fiscal resources and potentially, human resources to act upon policy
Other civil societies
Community leaders/chiefs, young person groups,
Opinion leaders and determination shapers
Can negociate the policy alteration and utile for execution
Strongly back up
They can call up voluntaries, consciousness and influence on the community,
Table1: Stakeholders analysis table. Template beginning and some of the stakeholders functions ( WHO 2008 ) , other functions: ( Schmeer 2000 ) .
From the tabular array above, it can be seen that a batch of the cardinal stakeholders would strongly back up the enforcement of the route safety policy alteration. Schemes can so be developed ( consensus-building ) to advance actions for support and cut down resistance from the other stakeholders before go oning with the policy procedure. This can be done by sharing the information obtained among protagonists and encouraging treatment about how to turn to resistance.
This measure involves acquiring the issue onto the policy docket from among other issues that can potentially be of involvement to policy shapers ( Buse et al 2005 ) .
Kingdon ( 1984 ) proposed that policies get on the docket through 3 independent watercourses ( job, political relations and policy watercourse ) which converge at a point called the policy window. This is the point a policy alteration is most likely to happen. These watercourses in the Nigerian context are as shown in the figure below:
Policy window/ Action PointFig 4: Kingdon ‘s three stream theoretical account of docket scene ( Template beginning: policy and nutrition 2010 )
Call uping the Media:
McCombs and Shaw ( 1972 ) foremost developed the docket puting theory, demoing a strong correlativity between media docket and the public docket on US presidential runs in 1968, 1972 and 1976.
The media, been successful in stating the populace what to believe about ( University of Twente 2004 ) , will be mobilised to act upon the populace ‘s sentiment and accordingly the authorities through Television and wireless programmes/ News, News documents and articles from professional organic structures with accent on the magnitude and possible solution to cut downing the mortality from route traffic accidents. Restriction can besides be made to misdirect adverts which will promote velocity.
Personal experience of RTC ( direct or indirect ) could be a more powerful teacher than the media ( University of Twente 2004 ) but both will complement each other in bettering the public docket and later the policy docket.
Fig 5: Agenda puting demoing the function of the media ( Beginning: McQuail and Windahl 1993 ) .
POLICY FORMULATION AND ADOPTION:
This involves the stairss taken after the issue is placed on the docket up boulder clay when it is implemented. This portion of the procedure strongly lies in the sphere of the legislators which determines how a measure becomes jurisprudence and is implemented as shown below:
SUPPORT ( Individuals/ administration )
Sponsor a Member of national assembly
Forwarding of the measure to National assembly
Second Reading ( polish )
Committee phase ( Committee on route safety )
Assent ( Presidents marks the Bill )
Bill is promulgated
Fig6: How measure becomes jurisprudence in Nigeria ( beginning of information: Jagaba 2009 ) Formulation Schemes:
To maintain the issue on the docket through this phase, there is demand for:
Continuous runs and Advocacy: Grassroots lobbying ( mobilising the populace to reach legislators or other policy shapers about the job ) and Direct Lobbying ( Phone calls, composing of letters, face to confront interactions ) ,
Mass Support by go toing commission meetings,
Informing international stakeholders that the issue is on the docket,
Dickering for protagonists from the legislators to better Alliance.
This involves the procedure by which a policy is turned into pattern ( Buse et al 2005 ) . The bottom -up attack ( Lipsky 1980 ) will be a really good attack for the execution such that there is flow of information from the implementers to the policy shapers. However, effort will be made to include the top-down attack in order to understate divergence from the intended policy result.
The execution procedure would necessitate clip and resources and should be a gradual procedure. It would be worthwhile holding a pilot undertaking in an country identified by research workers to hold a high mortality from RTA before execution at a National degree.
Initial rapid demands appraisal:
The route safety system would be assessed to happen out what is needed. The squad should include ; the constabulary, route safety committee, research workers, wellness economic expert, NGO ‘s, the NURTW, Volunteers, medical squads, Health policy analyst, the media, ministry of conveyance, support from developmental spouses, community/religious leaders and affecting the authorities at all degrees.
The appraisal will supply scientific, managerial and technological maps of the policy from be aftering to rating. On designation of the specific demands, the execution work program will be drawn.
Community/religious leaders will play a cardinal function in recommending within their communities/religious groups in converting their followings that RTC can be prevented and is non religious.
Legislation to stipulate velocity bounds applicable to different types of roads.
Identifying strategic cheque points which should be countries identified to hold a comparatively high RTC ensuing from high velocity.
Random placement of the squad to supervise vehicle velocity with the nomadic velocity cameras
Fines to be paid by lawbreakers will be fixed and gross generated be used for maintain and purchase of velocity cameras.
License suspension of lawbreakers who violates the jurisprudence over a specific figure of times as will be stated.
The usage of promotion to inform the populace on the new jurisprudence, its benefits and punishments.
Evaluation AND Feedback:
Buse et Al ( 2005 P ) defines rating as “ research designed specifically to measure the operation and or impact of a programme or policy in order to find whether the programme or policy is worth prosecuting farther ”
The technology theoretical account suggests that ideally there should be a direct relationship between research findings and policy determinations but nevertheless this is wholly non applicable as there tends to be spreads between the two communities. Advocacy alliance is needed to cut down this spread and should include bettering the cognition of policy shapers by supplying a scope of different research studies via the media, conferences and seminars, guaranting that major policies have ratings built into their budgets and execution programs and set up intermediate establishments to reexamine research and find its policy deductions e.g. NICE in England and Wales ( Buse et al 2005 ) .
The rating procedure will affect the usage of the formative rating ( qualitative-observations, semi-structured interviews, focal point groups, advancement studies ) at the early phase to supply advice to policy shapers. It may so be used to modify and develop the plan.
It will besides affect the usage of a summational rating ( quantitative- morbidity and mortality rates ) which measures result and the extent to which the programme has met its aims.
The Donabedian model ( Donabedian 1978 ) :
End product Indexs
Fundss for purchase of velocity cameras, logistics
Human resources- constabulary and route safety
Training of forces involved
Servicess offered- the usage of the velocity cameras
Reding quality offered to lawbreakers
Police/ route safety – driver interaction
Speed direction among route users
Collision rates from velocity
Badness of hurts from RTC
Mortality rates- per centum of deceases due to RTC ensuing from high velocity.
Disability rates- the rate of disablements attributable to high velocity vehicle hit
Quality of life
Table 2: Donabedian model
Evaluation of the public presentation: Speed limit enforcement will besides be done at the micro, meso and macro degrees.
The micro degree will include accessing public presentation of the squads at the territory degrees, the effectivity of the enforcement protocols used, the degree of corruptness and any execution spreads.
The meso degree will include accessing public presentation at the administration degree which will include the clip taken to go to to wrongdoers when referred to the route safety Centres, and their function assisting and oversing the squad at the territory degree.
The macro degree: this involves accessing funding of the programme and its map at the national or international degree.
The policy procedure is a cyclical procedure happening in the environment of a altering political context. There is therefore the demand for uninterrupted protagonism alliance networking, monitoring and rating at all times. However, other causes of RTC such as bad roads, imbibing and drive which are non to the full implemented in the state should non be neglected as future programs should be made to further cut down the load of RTC to the barest lower limit.
The execution of the nomadic velocity cameras and velocity bound enforcement will assist cut down RTC mortalities and disablements, better research and besides quality of life thereby unlocking growing and freeing resources for usage on other wellness concerns with the position of accomplishing the MDGs.