Student Learning Achievement In Cambodia

Since the prostration of the Pol Pot government until early 2000s the term Student Learning Achievement was on occasion mentioned. The authorities at that clip basically focused on how to garner kids and grownups to travel to school to larn from the people who merely had better cognition than their pupils. As a consequence, merely between 1998 and 2003 the per centum of kids come ining primary school expanded by about 36 per centum ( EMIS, 2003 ) .

But with the singular additions in Numberss of pupil registration the instruction quality, in general, seem to be difficult to better.

MoEYS recognizes that careful attending must be given to guarantee that policy-led determinations are harmonic with improved larning achievementaˆ¦ Most schools do non carry through expected minimal contact hours per twelvemonth. Continuous schoolroom monitoring of single pupils ‘ command of indispensable acquisition competences and accomplishments, linked to ongoing redress, and regular, independent ‘auditing ‘ of educational quality and criterions have yet to be translated into plans that can be implemented countrywide ( EFA National Plan 2003-2015, p.25 ) .

If the quality issues had been asked for, specifically the pupil larning results, the chief mechanism that many people normally have been referred to, even up to now, is through national scrutiny. But is it sensible if national scrutiny will be used for turn outing the pupil larning results?

While analysis of scrutiny consequences can supply penetrations into pupil accomplishment and can place schools in which pupil public presentation is weak, its value is limited. One restriction is that public scrutinies normally test merely narrow countries of a course of study. This is partially because a limited figure of topics can be examined ; it is besides because within these topics, the focal point of the scrutiny tends to be on course of study content and competences that will maximise favoritism between pupils who will be selected for farther instruction and those who will non. The accomplishments of lower-performing pupils as a consequence may non be adequately represented ( Kellaghan and Greaney, 2004, P. ? ) .

It is agreed with the statement of Kellghan and Greaney and is believed that scrutiny is non the right manner for measuring the pupil larning results. Additionally, Bethell stated that: “ The premier intent of an scrutiny system is to supply each campaigner with a consequence which accurately reflects her/his degree of accomplishment. The usage of the consequence, e.g. for university choice or as an employment making, is aimed at the person. In contrast, the intent of a sample-based national appraisal is to supply dependable informations on the effectivity of the system as a whole ( 2003, P. ? ) . ” Furthermore, Hernes, Director of International Institute for Educational Planning ( IIEP ) , noted that “ aˆ¦ Assessment has become over the old ages an of import key to the betterment of the quality of instruction. It is one of the most dependable ways of placing jobs, whether these are the system degree, of school degree, or concern the single pupil ” ( UNESCO, IIEP 2001, P. ? ) .

The constructs of Education Assessment have been applied in many countries/ organisations, although they have different intents, models and attacks, such as Southern and Eastern Africa Consortium for Monitoring Educational Quality ( SAQMEC ) , Trends in International Mathematics and Science Study ( TIMSS ) , Programme for International Student Assessment ( PISA ) and so forth.

TIMSS, for illustration, is an international appraisal of the mathematics and scientific discipline cognition of 4th and eighth-grade pupils around the universe. TIMSS is conducted every four twelvemonth. The chief end of TIMMS is to supply comparative information about educational mathematical accomplishment across states to better instruction and acquisition in mathematics and scientific discipline ( TIMSS International Report, 2007 ) . The TIMSS consequences so provide comparative positions on tendencies in academic achieving in the context of different educational systems, school organisational attacks, and instructional patterns.

PISA, on the other manus, is a collaborative attempt undertaken by all member states of the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development, ( OECD ) and a figure of non-member spouse states to mensurate how well pupils, at age 15, are prepared to run into the challenges they may meet in future life. The PISA appraisal takes a wide attack to measuring cognition, accomplishments and attitudes that reflect current alterations in course of study, traveling beyond the school based attack towards the usage of cognition in mundane undertakings and challenges. The accomplishments acquired reflect the ability of pupils to go on larning throughout their lives by using what they learn in school to non-school environments, measuring their picks and doing determinations. The appraisal, jointly guided by the take parting authoritiess, brings together the policy involvements of states by using scientific expertness at both national and international degrees ( PISA, 2006 ) .

In peculiar the continent of Africa, the Southern and Eastern Africa Consortium for Monitoring Educational Quality ( SACMEQ ) is an international non-profit developmental organisation of 15 Ministries of Education in Southern and Eastern Africa. The state members decided to work together to portion experiences and expertness in developing the capacities of instruction contrivers to use scientific methods to supervise and measure the conditions of schooling and the quality of instruction, with proficient aid from UNESCO International Institute for Educational Planning ( IIEP ) . The consequences of SACMEQ have been used extensively by assorted institutions/stakeholders, Ministries of Education ( MOE ‘s ) , international/bilateral organisations, universities, and single educational contrivers and research workers, within the take parting states as a resource for instruction sector surveies and as baseline information that can be employed in policy treatments and arguments about the conditions of schooling and the quality of instruction ( SACMEQ, 2010 ) .

The Vietnamese Ministry of Education and Training ( MoET ) launched a large-scale monitoring survey of primary instruction in 2000, the first of its sort in the state. The survey tested students and their instructors in the last class of primary instruction ( Grade 5 ) , utilizing a sample cross sectional study in two key capable countries, reading comprehension in Vietnamese and mathematics. The survey tried to happen the chief issues and propose policy recommendations in order to raise the pupil accomplishment, to better the system effectivity, to shut the spread between the top and bottom through compensatory support, to compensate emerging societal differences, and to mensurate the student accomplishment through regular testing ( mentions? ) .

At the present twenty-four hours, there is a turning consciousness of similar issues in Kampuchean instruction policy paperss such as the Education for All ( EFA ) program 2003-2015, Education Strategic Plan ( ESP ) 2006-2010 and Education Sector Support Program ESSP ) 2006-2010.The inquiries of quality, the steps to accomplish the quality ends and marks have been received more and more attending. Additionally, in the Ministry of Education Youth and Sport ( MoEYS ) course of study reform lineation, the minimal criterions for classs 3, 6 and 9 in topics of Khmer, Social Study and Mathematics were established ( MoEYS, 2006 ) ; and late, a new establishment that considers instruction quality ( called the Quality Assurance Department ) has been established ( MoEYS, 2009 ) .

Statement of the Problem

Although the schemes to accomplish the results and marks of the policy were set in about the full Ministry policy paperss, for illustration, “ Implement the minimal criterions of pupil accomplishment for classs 3, 6 and 9 countrywide, guarantee a shared apprehension of minimal criterions amongst instructors, parents and other stakeholders and follow up on the consequences of the trials in the countrywide school study cards ( ESP 2006-2010, p.14 ) , ” The minimal criterions of above classs were illustrated, the information or indexs on existent accomplishment in quality and results of larning have non been yet presented, except some proxy indexs demoing about publicity and repeat rates. The supra related information can be seen in some instruction spouse surveies such as UNICEF ( Prak Phalla, 2005 ) and World Bank based undertakings, Education Quality Improvement Project ( Marshall, 2004 ) , Save the Children Norway ( SCN,2007 ) and Cambodia Education Sector Support Project ( CESSP, 2006, 2008, 2009 ) . In the Education Strategic Plan ( ESP ) 2006-2010, the Sector Performance Milestones and Targets tables shows the marks for about all indexs but there are spaces for indexs of per centum of pupils run intoing course of study criterions in Khmer and Math based on standardised trial at Grade 3, 6 and 9 ( Appendix A, Table II: Quality and Efficiency, ESP 2006-2010 ) . Furthermore, if the inquiry about how good the pupils at grade 3 or 6 or 9 can accomplish compared with the course of study criterions the reply will non be easy to happen.

There is really small grounds in Cambodia related to prove execution. One of them is a study from execution of a undertaking called Education Quality Improvement Project ( EQIP ) which was supported by the World Bank from 1999 to 2003. One of the EQIP undertakings was to prove all Grade 4 pupils of the undertaking coverage states ( Kandal, Kampot and Takeo ) . Specifically, the chief intent of the trial was to detect the impact from the execution of undertaking grants on assorted activities by the schools, i.e. to compare the pupil accomplishments in Numeracy and Literacy at the beginning of the undertaking and terminal of the undertaking period ( EQIP Final Report, 2004 ) .

In 2005, MoEYS/Pedagogical Research Department ( PRD ) with aid from UNICEF started implementing a undertaking on Grade 6 Learning Achievement by carry oning the trial on mathematics and Khmer. The aims of the undertaking were to supply information on pupils ‘ larning accomplishment in the province school including the Child Friendly Schools ( CFS ) to MoEYS, UNICEF and relevant stakeholders ; to set up a baseline degree for Grade 6 larning accomplishment for the new course of study and criterion ; to compare the pupil consequences between CFS and non-CFS schools ; to roll up informations for usage for a alteration of the Grade 6 course of study, text editions and instructors ‘ manuals and auxiliary teaching/learning stuffs ; and to happen out the existent state of affairs of larning accomplishment in primary schools.

In his study, Prak ( UNICEF, 2005 ) recommended that “ more standard points should be put in. This is because in this trial non all Grade 6 course of study criterions on Khmer and Math have been tested owing to a clip and budget restraint ( p. ? ) ” .

Purpose and Significance

The course of study criterions ( minimal criterions ) for Grade 3, 6 and 9 had been established since 2006 ( Appendix B ) but until now there is no papers or study depicting how the pupils perform compared with the criterions. This paper, hence, efforts to exemplify the consequences of one of the above class degree ( Grade 9 ) , so the research findings will non merely be used for carry throughing the losing informations in the ESP papers for the defined twelvemonth but besides to show how good the Grade 9 pupil can accomplish comparing with the official curriculum criterion. More significantly, the findings will explicate why the pupils are perchance really good or hapless in some content countries of the course of study, for illustration, what possible grounds cause them to be good in work outing job by utilizing graph or, contrastingly, they are hapless in happening length of discharge

Besides this, as we live in the planetary context and as the instruction systems are bit by bit developed we need to exemplify that sort of consequences to compare with other states in the parts or/and well-known organisations such as TIMMS, PISA, etc.

Research Question

More specifically, this papers tries to reply these research inquiries:

What is the overall mean degree of pupil larning accomplishment in Mathematicss in sample schools in comparing to the national criterion?

How make the norms in Mathematics vary by content and sub-content country?

Are there important differences in the acquisition accomplishment by location, gender and socioeconomics by quintile?

Research Methods

With the support from the Kampuchean Education Sector Support Project ( CESSP ) / MoEYS, the National Assessment unit has conducted several trials in different class degrees, three, six and nine, since 2005. The overarching intent of the MoEYS appraisal work is to supply a system-wide diagnosing of school quality and pupil acquisition. This is done utilizing standardised trials that measure the functionary, or intended, course of study based on points created by MoEYS forces. Since I am one of the members of this unit I have discussed with the squad members to plan some peculiar undertakings for this survey purpose along with the chief undertakings of the undertaking.

Sampling Technique and Sample Size

This is a theoretical account of diagnostic appraisal which requires merely representative sample of schools to stand for the state as the whole. With a full support from CESSP/World Bank a scope of trying technique and sample size was produced. The type of sample was defined as two-stage bunch sample. This was done in five stairss: 1 ) specifying the population: the class nine population is restricted to take down secondary schools, EMIS information 2008, that have at least one grade nine category with 20 or more pupils ; 2 ) make up one’s minding how many schools are required: 200 schools were selected by utilizing trying package produced by IIEP ( called IIEPSAMP ) with the Effective Sample Size ( ESS ) of 400 ( Appendix C ) ; 3 ) specifying the strata: the strata here referred to the three chief parts in the state: Urban, Rural and Remote ; 4 ) choosing the schools: the package so produced 50 schools in urban, 139 in rural and 11 schools in distant countries ( Appendix D ) ; and, 5 ) choosing the pupils within each school: 30 pupils per school were indiscriminately selected so the sum of pupils were about 6,000. Restrictions of the method adopted.

Research Tools

The range of this survey is really seen as a really large survey nevertheless, as above mentioned, the readying for this survey was carried out alongside with the MoEYS undertakings which being involved by related ministry departments/staff therefore some of the related results/findings can be considered and used as the findings of this survey.

With the intent of comparing the degree of pupil accomplishment in math the curriculum trial design ( Appendix E ) , test brochures and official course of study criterions are basically needed. In add-on, in order to detect the deduction to the pupil achievement the information from pupil and instructor interview is besides required.

Datas Analysis

The points produced by the MoEYS specializers covered the content and sub-content countries of the intended course of study in general ( Appendix E ) . For this survey purpose the points related to course of study criterions will be defined.

Descriptive Statisticss: This will summary the information particularly the pupil accomplishment in mean per centum correct ( average ) and standard divergences are besides used when appropriate.

Comparisons of Meanss: Since the sample is divided into three types of school locations ( parts ) , male and female pupils participated and the pupils came from different socio-economic position t-test, ANOVA or/and chi-square could be used for gauging the differences among those variables.

By making this we can demo the differences existed in the content and sub-content countries, later, we will research for what countries have the highest comparative tonss, what is the lowest, etc. Then the consequences that relate to the course of study criterions can be explored, and therefore we can reason about how the Grade 9 pupils achieved when they finished their category. The spreads between pupils like urban-rural, poor-rich, boys-girls, etc will besides be demonstrated. More significantly, from consequences in Numberss we will seek to research what make consequences intend in footings of what pupils can really make and why they performed ill in some peculiar content countries of the course of study. The consequences, so, will go the first findings in such field and may likely essential for some stakeholders.

Appendix

Appendix A:

Table Two: Quality and Efficiency ( Promotion and repeat 2003-04 rate are used for baseline 2004-05 )

Index

Baseline

Target

Target

Target

Target

Target

Beginning:

2004-05

2005-06

2006-07

2007-08

2008-09

2009-10

Pupil teacher ratio

EMIS

– Primary

53.5

51.0

50.0

50.0

50.0

50.0

– Lower Secondary

27.7

37

41

45

45

45

– Upper berth Secondary

29.4

35

38

40

40

40

Promotion rate

Entire

Female

Male

Entire

Female

Male

Entire

Female

Entire

Female

Entire

Female

Entire

Female

EMIS

– Class 1

64.8 %

65.4 %

64.2 %

92 %

92 %

92 %

93 %

93 %

94 %

94 %

95 %

95 %

95 %

95 %

A

– Class 3

77.3 %

78.9 %

75.7 %

93 %

93 %

93 %

93 %

93 %

94 %

94 %

95 %

95 %

95 %

95 %

A

– Class 6

86.6 %

86.3 %

86.9 %

93 %

93 %

93 %

93 %

93 %

94 %

94 %

95 %

95 %

95 %

95 %

A

Repeat rate

Entire

Female

Male

Entire

Female

Male

Entire

Female

Entire

Female

Entire

Female

Entire

Female

EMIS

– Class 1

23.6 %

22.4 %

24.9 %

6 %

6 %

6 %

5 %

5 %

4 %

4 %

4 %

4 %

4 %

4 %

A

– Class 3

13.2 %

11.3 %

15.4 %

6 %

6 %

6 %

5 %

5 %

4 %

4 %

4 %

4 %

4 %

4 %

A

– Class 6

2.6 %

2.2 %

3.1 %

2 %

2 %

2 %

2 %

2 %

2 %

2 %

1 %

1 %

1 %

1 %

A

Completion rate

Entire

Female

Male

Entire

Female

Male

Entire

Female

Entire

Female

Entire

Female

Entire

Female

EMIS

– Primary

46.8 %

45.7 %

47.9 %

60 %

60 %

60 %

70 %

70 %

80 %

80 %

90 %

90 %

100 %

100 %

A

– Lower secondary

20.6 %

20.0 %

21.2 %

30 %

30 %

30 %

40 %

40 %

50 %

50 %

60 %

60 %

75 %

75 %

A

Literacy rate

67.1 %

60.3 %

74.7 %

70 %

67 %

73.1 %

75 %

73 %

80 %

78 %

85 %

84 %

90 %

90 %

A

Number of pupils go throughing grade 12 scrutiny

33,834

37,500

40,000

50,000

60,000

70,000

EMIS

% of pupils run intoing course of study criterions in Khmer Language based on standardised trial at:

A

PRD/DGE

– Class 3

A

to be determined

to be determined

to be determined

to be determined

to be determined

A

– Class 6

A

to be determined

to be determined

to be determined

to be determined

to be determined

A

– Class 9

A

to be determined

to be determined

to be determined

to be determined

to be determined

A

% of pupils run intoing course of study criterions in Mathematicss based on standardised trial at:

PRD/DGE

– Class 3

A

to be determined

to be determined

to be determined

to be determined

to be determined

A

– Class 6

A

to be determined

to be determined

to be determined

to be determined

to be determined

A

– Class 9

A

to be determined

to be determined

to be determined

to be determined

to be determined

A

Appendix B: Grade 6 Curriculum Standard

Strand

Grade 6

Number

Read, count, write, order and compare whole Numberss non transcending 7 figures and Numberss with denary fractions to two denary topographic points

Read, write, order and comparison fractions and assorted Numberss.

Round denary Numberss to the nearest whole figure.

Add, subtract, multiply and divide whole Numberss utilizing three types of brackets ( [ , ( , { )

Add and subtract fractions with the same denominator.

Add and subtract denary Numberss with two denary topographic points.

Multiply and divide Numberss up to 4 figures by 2 figures.

Use appraisal schemes to look into generation, add-on and division of whole Numberss.

Rename common fractions ( less than one ) as decimals and per centums

Calculate simple ratios and direct proportions ( eg 2 people need 4 cups of H2O so 6 people need 12 ) .

Calculate norm costs, net income and loss, and write and verify grosss.

Measurement

Use criterion mensurating instruments and read graduated tables to the nearest step to find:

Length from kilometers to millimeters ( eg. wood, roads )

Capacity from liters to milliliters ( eg. medical specialty, cooking oil )

Weight ( mass ) from kg to gms ( eg veggie, rice and meat )

Time from hours to seconds

Read and show accurately clip in parallel, digital, 12 and 24 hours representations

Interpret a simple graduated table saloon on a map and utilize the map to cipher distance between topographic points

Calculate norm travel times utilizing given velocities and distances

Geometry

Name types of angles ( ague, right, obtuse and consecutive line ) up to 180A° and concept angles utilizing swayers, protractors and compasses

Draw and label circles utilizing the undermentioned footings: radius, Centre, diameter and perimeter

Make theoretical accounts of prisms, cones, pyramids, cylinders and domains

Measure and happen the margin and country of trigons, squares, and rectangle

Find the volume of solids made up of unit regular hexahedrons.

Statistics

Concept and construe informations presented in tabular arraies, line graphs, saloon chart and pie charts.

Algebra

AND

Form

Find the value of simple algebraic looks utilizing permutation methods affecting add-on and minus. ( eg. 3 + B = ? , 8- b= ? where B is 4 )

Simplify simple algebraic looks utilizing add-on and minus methods. ( eg. 4x + 2x = ? )

Reasoning

Explain a short concatenation of concluding used to near and work out a job that involves an analysis of informations through the choice and usage of mathematical techniques.

Appendix C. Sample Design Table

Megahertz:

Intraclass Correlation ( ICC ) :

0.20

0.30

0.40

0.50

0.60

20 Schools

150

159

197

235

273

Students

3,000

3,180

3,940

4,700

5,460

25 Schools

150

151

190

228

266

Students

3,750

3,775

4,750

5,700

6,650

30 Schools

150

150

185

223

262

Students

4,500

4,500

5,550

6,690

7,860

35 Schools

150

150

181

220

259

Students

5,250

5,250

6,335

7,700

9,065

40 Schools

150

150

179

218

257

Students

6,000

6,000

7,160

8,720

10,280

Beginning: TIMSS 2004 Report, Chapter 5 ( Table 5.2 ) .

Notes: For this survey a Minimum Cluster Size ( MCS ) of 30 was used, although in a little per centum of schools there were fewer than 30 grade nine pupils enrolled. Calculations of the ICC from old pupil appraisals in Cambodia suggest an norm of approximately 0.30. The MoEYS grade nine sample of 200 schools and approximately 6,000 pupils is larger than the minimal sample predicted for an MCS of 30 and ICC of 0.30.

Appendix D: Comparison of School Strata in Population and Samples

Stratums:

Schools in Population:

Number of Schools in Sample:

Raw Total

Percent*

( % )

Raw Total

Percent*

( % )

Weighted Percent ( % )

1. Urban

140

28.0

50

25.0

28.0

2. Rural

776

70.7

139

69.9

70.8

3. Remote

28

1.3

11

5.0

1.2

Sum:

944

100.0

200

100.0

100.0

Beginning: EMIS and MoEYS Assessment, 2007-2009

*Refers to per centum of entire pupil population, non per centum of schools. The Numberss in

the far right column ( in bold ) refer to the leaden sample that is used for the analysis.

Appendix E: Grade 9 Curriculum Blueprint and Item Analysis Summaries

No

Content Area

Sub-Content Area

Cognitive Skill

Item

%

Cognition

Understanding

Application

Analyzing

1

Number

Operation in Integer

1

1

0

0

20

20 %

Operationss in Power

1

2

0

0

Taking figure out of a root

1

2

0

0

Taking figure into the root

1

2

0

0

Operationss on a root

1

2

2

1

Finding a per centum of a figure

1

1

1

0

2

Algebra

Linear equation

2

4

1

1

50

50 %

A system of equations in two variables

2

3

1

1

Inequality and inequality systems

2

3

1

0

Quadratic equation

2

4

1

0

Distance between two points in Orthonormial grid

2

3

1

0

Equation of line

3

4

2

0

Solving a system equations and inequality by utilizing graph

2

4

1

0

3

Statisticss

Probability

1

2

1

1

10

10 %

Representative statistics

1

1

0

0

Analysis statistics

1

2

0

0

4

Geometry

Thales theory

2

3

1

1

20

20 %

Similar trigons

2

3

1

0

Trigonometry

1

2

1

0

Finding the length of discharge and angle of circle

1

2

0

0