This survey is aimed to depict pupils ‘ attitudes toward English in simple schools, Students ‘ attitudes contributes in finding the consequence of their acquisition procedure. English larning procedure will be successful if the instructor knows the pupils ‘ attitudes so the instructor can construct on pupils ‘ positive feeling and counteract pupils ‘ negative feeling ( Moon, 2000 ) . Attitudes, which can be positive or negative, is the respond to stimulus from one ‘s societal environment ( Aiken, 1991 ) . Positive attitudes will do pupils ‘ ! eaming better than the negative or less positive attitudes of the pupils.
English has become a popular topic at this clip, particularly for pupils in the novice degree. Nowadays, many simple schools are programming English as their local content topic. It seems that involvement in learning of English of simple school pupils has been turning in recent old ages.
English is a new topic for element9ry schools in Indonesia. Based on the author ‘s experienccln learning English at the 4th class of an simple school, some pupils have positive attitudes in larning English and the remainder do non. Since this is the first clip for simple pupils to larn English, it is of import to cognize the pupils ‘ perceptual experiences toward
English as a new topic at the beginning of their survey. For kids, success in their acquisition is fundamentally influenced by their first perceptual experience towards the learning acquisition procedure itself. Reilly, V and S. Ward ( 1997 ) said that if kids ‘s first experience of English is enjoyable, they will hold positive attitudes toward English for the remainder of their lives. Therefore it is of import to look into the immature scholars ‘ attitudes toward English because we have to guarantee that their first experienoe in larning English is gratifying so ( hat they have positive attitudes towards English linguistic communication in the hereafter.
English as a local content topic in simple schools has been officially taught since 1994. Based on the Decree of the Minister of Culture and Education No. 060/U! 1993 ( as stated by Kasihani, 2000 ) , English can be taught to the 4th class pupils. However, about all of the public schools in Indonesia started to present English from the first class. The ground is the pupils will get English better if English is learned from an early age. Therefore, it is of import to do the instruction English interesting for pupils because there are still few research workers focused on this job. However, learning English for simple pupils should be different from learning junior or senior high school pupils because the alone features of immature scholars.
English topic as a portion of Muatan Lokal ( MULOK ) is an elected topic in elementarychool. The intents of learning English in simple school are to do the pupils able to understand by and large used English words, to comrnuriiate in simple English, and to wish English so that they Will
feel encouraged in larning English farther in SLTP. Furthermore, they are besides expected to hold positive attitudes toward English so that they will hold a motive to get the hang English in order to be able to pass on with English speech production people ( Kurikulum MULOK SD DKI Jakarta, 1995 ) . In decision, the ultimate end of the instruction of English is to do pupils able to pass on in English.
Since Indonesian kids – particularly in the parts outside Jakarta – started school at the age of 6 or 7 old ages, they have been expected to get the hang more than one languages ; regional linguistic communication and Indonesian linguistic communication. Both linguistic communications are used for communicating in learning learning procedure. Sometimes the instructors do non recognize that this status can be one of the factors that hinder the pupils from geting English or, worst of all, make all the linguistic communications they have already learned jumbled.
However, the chief aim of acquisition and instruction of English to immature scholars is non to be able to pass on in English. Kasbollah as stated by Nurrofiah ( 2002 ) suggests that the end of learning English to the simple school pupils is centered on edifice positive attitudes toward English. Furthermore, positive attitudes are related to success in 2nd linguistic communication acquisition ( Gardner, 1 895 & gt ; . That ‘s why the pupil ‘s attitude is one of the of import factors, which influence the success of pupils ‘ acquisition.
Elementary pupils, as stated by Kasihani ( 2000 ) , are immature
scholars with their ain features, which are biological, cognitive,
affective, personal, and societal features. Fourth grade pupils, kids
age 8 to 10 old ages old, hold several features, such as, holding their ain positions of the universe every bit good as what they like and dislike making and able to do their ain determinations about what they want to larn ( Scott and Ythreberg stated by Santoso, 1990 ) . In short, immature scholars have already brought their ain positions and attitudes to the schoolroom which will impact their farther acquisition.
Although there are merely few research workers that focused on attitudes, the author thinks that it is of import to detect pupils ‘ attitudes. Research findings stated that the most influencing pupils ‘ attitudes toward English were the learning stuffs used by the instructor and the background of larning as their motive. Based on the statements above, the author will oniy focal point on the pupils ‘ attitudes toward English.
The pupils ‘ attitudes that the author wants to look into are the responses of English simple pupils in larning English as their foreign linguistic communication and what the simple pupils think about their English categories. The ground of this range of the survey is that pupils already have positions and attitudes toward a topic in larning English, as stated by Moon ( 2000 ) that kids do non come to their English lessons like clean sheet of paper ” . Social environment in which pupils grow up and the people around them are one of the factors which give the influence in organizing the pupils ‘ attitudes. Therefore, it is of import to detect how are pupils of simple school ‘s attitudes in larning English and how they give their responses to English instruction in the
schoolroom. It is indispensable to retrieve that success in larning English depends on the manner in ‘which early linguistic communication acquisition programmed.
1,2 Problems Designations
An English instructor should take into consideration the pupils ‘ attitudes. It is by and large known that many simple schools in Indonesia start learning English to their pupils from the first class, so, normally, attitude has become an of import factor in the educational field. Based on that, the author identifies the jobs as follow:
1. What are the pupils ‘ attitudes toward English at the 4th class of simple school?
2. What factor can act upon the pupils ‘ attitudes?
3. Make the pupils ‘ attitudes influence the English acquisition procedure in the schoolroom?
In this survey, the chief research inquiry is “ what are the pupils ‘ attitudes toward English topic at the 4th class of simple school? ”
1.3 Purpose and Beilefit of The Study
The intent of the survey is to happen out the attitudes in larning English of pupils at 4th class of simple school.
The benefit of the survey is that it is expected to be an input for English instructors to cognize the factors that influence the pupils ‘ attitudes in
larning English at 4th class of simple school. As we know that attitude is one of the of import factors which influence success in 2nd linguistic communication acquisition, it is a necessity for an English instructor to cognize their pupils ‘ attitudes so the English acquisition procedure will be successful.
1.4 Scope of The Study
The range of this survey is the attitudes of simple school pupils ‘ toward English. In this survey, the author will discourse about immature scholars and foreign linguistic communication, attitudes, and the nature of chiklren ‘s linguistic communication acquisition.
1.5 Method of The Study
This survey employed a study attack which used descriptive method to analyze the pupils ‘ attitudes in larning English at the 4th class of simple school. The instruments were questionnaires, interview, and observation.
In the theoretical description, there are three facets discussed: ( 1 )
Young Learners and Foreign Language Learning, ( 2 ) Attitude, and ( 3 ) The
Nature of Children ‘s Language Learning.
1. Young Learners and Foreign Language Learning
Most kids start formal instruction at the age of six. They attend simple school between the ages of 6 – 14. Recent surveies in SLTP 2 Tarakan ( Santoso, 2003 ) shows that pupils in first class of Junior high School consisting of 46 respondents or 97.9 % have already learnt English since they were in simple school. Furthermore, some of them, 65.9 % , said that larning English since simple school gave them positive influence.
Met ( in Nurrofiah, 2002 ) asserts that immature kids learn languages more rapidly and more expeditiously than older kids or grownups. Young kids besides have more capableness than grownups in the comprehension and repeat accomplishments. ( Brewster, 2002 ) . Furthermore, Anderson and Carol ( 1988 ) argued that when the procedure of linguistic communication acquisition started early, the continuance of the procedure itself is longer so that the pupils can make more pattern and hence hold more experience which lead to the command of the ianuage. Therefore, kids will acquire more
advantages than grownups in the early acquisition of English. As stated by
Kasihani ( 2000 ) , simple pupils are immature scholars who like making
things, playing games, and singing vocals.
Chomsky, as quoted by Coltrane ( 2004 ) argued that one of the manner of kids linguistic communication acquisition is by copying the sounds and forms which they hear around them and have positive support. But it does n’t, intend that kids ‘s head is like a space slates which can be filled merely by copying linguistic communication they hear in the environment because kids are born with particular ability to detect for themselves the underlying regulations of a linguistic communication system. He besides said that kids between 5 until 10 old ages old are still geting the constructions of their first linguistic communication. For kids younger than 5, many facets of their first linguistic communication have non yet to the full developed. So while older scholars have the foundation of a to the full developed foremost linguistic communication when they begin geting a new linguistic communication, younger English linguistic communication scholars are working two things at the same clip: the full development of their native linguistic communication and the acquisition of English.
There are some factors that influence pupils attitudes. Moon ( 2000 ) argued that younger kids tend to be influenced by their feelings for their instructor, the general acquisition ambiance in the schoolroom, the methods used by the instructor, and their parents ‘ sentiment. This means that kids who are larning a foreign linguistic communication tend to be influenced by the elements of their linguistic communication, which they are I
analyzing along with the foreign 1. In decision, the instruction and larning procedure in the schoolroom should be planned so that the influencing elements that can harm the acquisition of the foreign linguistic communication be reduced
every bit low as possible.
Attitude is an of import construct that helps people to understand their societal word. Based on Gordon ‘s statement ( 2002 ) an attitude refers to a individual inclination to systematically react to assorted facets of people, situatiop. , or objects. An attitude could be inferred from a individual ‘s statement about their beliefs and feelings and from people ‘s from what they say, what they do, and how they react. Baron and Byrne ( 1987 ) as stated by Gagne and Medsker ( 1996 ) showed these three facets as the ABC theoretical account A for affect, B for behaviour, and C for knowledge. These three constituents are primary or which are the cause of the others. He besides stated that these three constituents are extremely interconnected and believed that all may be useflully employed in attitude development. The same sentiment was stated from Forsyth, Don ( hypertext transfer protocol: //www.alleydog.com ) . He defined an attitude can act upon the behaviour because attitude is an affectional feeling about wishing or disliking toward an object. He besides said that an attitude is non a feeling, knowledge, or a signifier of behaviour. It combined all three constituents in an “ incorporate affect – knowledge – behaviour system ” . foot means that attitude are made of three constituents that all influence each
other. If one constituent alterations, it will act upon the full attitude
construction. In add-on, each constituent non merely has an influence on the
attitude construction as a whole, but besides on each other constituent.
While Luthans, Fred ( 2001 ) argued that attitudes can be divided into three basic constituents emotional, informational, and behavioural. The emotional constituents involve the individual ‘s feeling or affect — positive, impersonal, or negative – about an object. Emotion will be given specific attending as a type of intelligence. The informational constituents consist of the beliefs and information the person has about the object. It makes no difference whether or non this information is through empirical observation existent or correct. The behavior constituent consists of a individual ‘s inclinations to act in a peculiar manner toward an object.
Oskamp, Stuart ( 1991 ) describe Tn Componential View point of attitude, there are 1 ) a cognitive constituent, dwelling of the thoughts and beliefs which the attitude holder has about the attitude object, 2 ) an affectional ( emotional ) constituent which refers to the feelings and emotions one has toward the object, 3 ) a behavior constituent, dwelling of one ‘s action tendencies toward the object.
Aiiother reseather, Morrel and Lederman ( 1998 ) as stated by Sa’di Irnad defined the attitude object as an digesting positive or negative feeling toward schdol. Moon ( 2000 ) concludes that there are two factors that influences, pupils ‘ attitudes ; they are in school inf uences and out-school influences. The in- school influences are larning procedure,
school civilizations, method, stuffs, and instructor. And the out-of-school influences are peer groups, parents, local young person civilization, and media.
In add-on to the information above, Sa’di imad ( 2001 ) from Yarmouk University found that most primary schools in Jordan had lack appropriate acquisition environment. It is caused by the schoolroom which are crowded, no comfy children’s-size place, non adequate infinite for drama at break clip, excessively many place plants and really short interruption which do non let kids clip to eat. From this state of affairs, the survey begiii. In general, the consequence of this survey indicated that kids in Jordanian Primary schools ‘ attitudes toward school were negative. From the above survey, it is really clear that kids ‘ attitudes are really of import and can impact their educational public presentation. Beside that, the bad school environment truly affects pupils ‘ attitudes toward the school itself, which will give negative influence to their attitudes toward larning
From all the definition, there are several sentiments about the facets
of attitude. The line can be drawn as in the tabular array below:
Gagne and Medsker
( 1996 )
Divide an attitude into three facets. There are cognitive, affectional, and connation
Forsyth Don ( 2006 )
Attitude is an “ incorporate affect-cognition-behavior system
Fred Luthans Divide attitude into three constituents. ‘There are
( 2001 ) emotional, informational, and behavioural
Oskamp Stuart Divide attitude into three componential points of
( 1991 ) position. There are cognitive constituent, affectional
constituent, and behavior constituent
It can be seen from the tabular array above that this survey employed cognitive, affectional, and connation as constituents of attitude because these footings convey broader significances. We can reason that attitude is the positive or negative feelings people have in respond to the state of affairss they are involved in. The more positive the attitude they have towards a certain circumstance, the easier their credence to the circumstance will be.
3. The Nature of Chikiren ‘s Language Learning
Teaching English to immature scholars is really ambitious because at this degree they are larning how to manage with their school life, larning to go literate and go oning to develop constructs. As kids grow older, their concentration are span additions ( Brewster, 1991 ) . It can be hard to make the sort of assortment needed to maintain their attending. We all know that kids are different from grownups so we need to cognize these differences in order to admit and to measure to optimie the acquisition experience for immature scholars.
The survey will concern about immature scholars, which are at 4th class of simple school, it is between eight to ten old ages old. Many research workers agree that kids have a inclination to utilize a linguistic communication. There are common features in larning first linguistic communication and larning 2nd linguistic communication. However recent surveies stated that imitation, repeat, and formulaic address are the first scheme to be used when immature kids larning a foreign linguistic communication ( Tough, 1991 ) . ; 1
– _____________________ ; 0 ]
Based on Anderson and Carol ( 1998 ) , kids whose ages are eight to ten old ages old are really easy to accept new state of affairss and new people. It is assumed that they will be eager and interested in larning something different, in this instance different linguistic communication from their native 1.
Yani ( 2003 ) in his diary Pembelajaran Bahasa Inggris Aktif, Kreatif, Efektif, dan Menyenangkan ( PAKEM ) in simple school, provinces that each kids has different features so they will necessitate different ways of acquisition. Children are different from grownups in their hope, their ideas, and their behaviour. Their features are besides different with the features of SLTP pupils or SMU pupils. Therefore, instructors should change the instruction and larning procedure in category so that they can suit these different features.
Vygotksy, supported by Scoot and Ytrebereg ( as stated by Saritoso, 2004 ) said that larning procedure for immature scholars should be concentrated on the scholars features, Scott and Ytreberg sure that immature scholars are larning by making. Whereas Kahn
( hypertext transfer protocol: //puinas.jpl.nasa.gov ) explained that kids at this age can understand regulations and can follow, they like group activities and jaunts, takes inaugural and areself motivated, going an independent scholar, a perfectionist who will pattern the same thing over and over once more, avoid the opposite sex and, the 1as one, they can sit still and listen 20 – 30 proceedingss. Harmonizing to Mustafa ( 2002 ) , immature scholars have some features, they are: kids learn of course, they know a batch about
literacy before come ining school, all kids can larn, kids learn best when acquisition is meaningful, interesting, functional, and they can do their ain picks, kids learn best when they are in a non – competitory environment by speaking and making things in a societal context. Therefore, the procedure of teaci’ing and larning in the category besides should be designed in such a manner to ease these features,
11.2. Conceptual Model
From the treatment above, it can reason that there are many factors that influence pupils ‘ attitudes toward English. Since this is the first clip for pupils larning English, it is of import to cognize what the pupils ‘ attitude toward English because positive attitudes will do pupils ‘ acquisition better.
It has been discussed earlier that this survey employed the footings cognitive, affectional, and connation as constituents of attitude. The constituents of the attitudes itself are besides related to each other. Cognitive, affectional, and connation are the dimension to be used in mensurating the pupils ‘ attitudes toward English. in cognitive, there are backgrounds of larning English, stuff used by the instructor, and material presentation. In Affective, there are the pupils experiencing about their instructor, schoolmates, and the method i13 larning Englisk And in Connation there is inclination for making something. When pupils have the background of larning English, the personal sentiment about the topic, the instructor and the schoolmates, they
will finally larn the topics based on those old sentiment and judgement. This point of position will be the footing of developing the instrument of this survey as seen on the tabular array below:
1. Cognitive Idea Opinion
aˆ? Backgroimd of larning English
aˆ? Material Presentation
2. Affective. Feeling. Assurance
aˆ? Tendency for making something
This Chapter describes the methodological analysis used in carry oning the survey. Detailss on methodological analysis of the survey covering ; the attack waterless method used in the survey, the participants of the survey, clip and topographic point of the survey, the instruments of the survey, and the processs in roll uping and analysing the information.
111.1 The Approach and Method used in The Survey
This is a descriptive quantitative survey in the signifier of small-scale study. The research worker did study in order to portray the bing status of the pupils ‘ attitudes toward English at the 4th class of simple school. As citied in Nunan ( 1993 ) , studies are the most normally used descriptive method in educational research, and may change in range from large-scale governmental probes through to small-scale surveies carried out by a individual research worker. In add-on, “ the aimed of study is to gauge every bit exactly as possible the nature bing conditions, or the property of a population ” ( p. 140 ) .
The attack which used is descriptive analytical because the features ofthe survey is to explicate about the pupils ‘ thoughts or sentiments toward pupils ‘ background of larning English, intent, stuff, method of material presentation ; pupils ‘ experiencing toward their English instructor, schoolmates, and method used by the instructor and pupils action or inclination
schoolmates, and method used by the instructor ; and pupils action or inclination in making something. The study informations are collected through questionnaires or interviews, or a combination of questionnaires and interview ( Nunan, 1993 ) . In this survey, the research worker used a questionnaire, interview, and observation to roll up the information. The chief ground underlying the research worker used descriptive study was the research worker was more interested in happening out pupils ‘ attitudes toward English at the 4th class of simple school that was reflected on their reaction to the stuffs presented and the methods employed by the instructor.
111.2. The Participants of The Study
The participants of the survey were 40 pupils of the 4th class of simple school in SDN Percontohan 02 pagi Cipinang Cempedak, East Jakarta. Their ages were between 9-11 old ages old. They live in common lodging. Most of their parents ‘ occupations were PNS or civil retainers, instructors, employees in private companies, homemakers, and business communities. Merely some pupils joined English classs outside the school. And the mean of the English mark of all the pupils in this category is 7.
111.3 Time and Place of The Study
The survey was conducted from January 2005-beginning with the
preliminary survey. The informations were gathered from December 2005 to February
The topographic point of this survey was in SDN Percontohan Cipinang Cempedak 02 Pagi. This school is a theoretical account simple authorities school in Jatinegara territory because it has a batch of accomplishments. The survey conducted in this school because English is taught at that place. In add-on, this school is
= considered as a school with good quality. So the author can compare the consequence of the survey with other school of lower quality. In decision a theoretical account simple school is expected to hold pupils with positive attitudes toward English because an ability trial was given to them when they foremost
enrolled the school.
ffl.4 The Instruthents of the Study
In this survey, the research worker used questionnaire and interview as the instruments to roll up the information.
The questionnaire was constructed based on the dimension of the attitude ; there are cognitive, affectional, and connation. The inquiries were about the pupils ‘ cognitive, affectional, and conflation toward English. The indexs are pupils ‘ thoughts or sentiments toward pupils ‘ background of larning English, intent, stuff, method of material presentation ; pupils ‘ experiencing toard their English instructor, schoolmates, and method used by the instructor ; and pupils action or inclination in making something. The uestionnaire was written in Indonesia in order to do the
III IillJlHtu1F ; 1
IiL ______________ ; 0 ]
letter writers understand what are being asked by utilizing Gutman Type graduated table method. Djaali ( 2000 ) stated that Gutman graduated table is merely used to happen definite reply. The research worker used this type of questionnaire in order to do it easier for the pupils to reply the inquiries because they are non open-ended inquiries. There were merely two optional replies, “ yes ” or “ no ” . The inquiries consisted of 26 closed inquiries about the pupils ‘ attitudes toward English at the 4th class of simple school. The mark is 1 for positive reply and 0 for negative reply. Table 3.1 shows the dimensions and the indexs of statements categorization in the questionnaire.
The interview was conducted outside the category. Because of the limited clip of the survey, the research worker Merely interviews 10 pupils from all pupils. These 10 pupils are chosen based on the consequence of the questionnaire informations that were believed represent the positive, mean, and negative attitudes. it was in the signifier of
aˆ? Background of larning English
3. Conflation. Action
aˆ? Tendency for making something
open-ended inquiries consisted of 8 inquiries that recorded on the cassette. Each inquiry represented one index. The interview is done to happen the pupils ‘ feeling and sentiment toward English. Table 3.2 shows the dimensions and the indexs of the statement categorization in the interview.
aˆ? Background of larning English
aˆ? Material Presentation
aˆ? Feeling. Assurance
aˆ? Tendency for making something
The research worker observed the state of affairs and the status of
the English schoolroom by clicking ( I ) Yes ( Ya ) or No ( Tidak ) based
on the activity happened in the schoolroom consists of 40 pupils.
In the observations signifiers there are merely the dimensions of
connation because in the observation the research worker merely want to
ascertained pupils ‘ public presentation that reflected from their action and
behaviour in the English category. Table 3.3 shows the dimensions and
the indexs of statements categorization in the observation.
Dimension Indicator 1
Connation aˆ? Tendency for making
aˆ? , Action and Behavior I something
111.4.4 Pilot Study
Before making the research, the research worker tried out the questionnaire in order to prove the cogency and the dependability of the questionnaire. There was a theoretical account questionnaire which was designed for pilot survey before the existent questionnaire given to the pupils. After the questionnaire had been designed, so it was clip lbr the research worker to attest the questionnaire whether it was valid and dependable to utilize in a following existent questionnaire. The questionnaires were tried out to 10 pupils.
The research worker used Dis-Continuum Score to prove the cogency of the questionnaire. Based on Djaali ( 2000 ) , Dis-Continuum Score trial is used for nonsubjective inquiries with are scored 0 or 1. The research worker used this manner in mensurating cogency in order to cognize whether the statements in the questionnaires were valid or non. The expression of the Dis-Continuum Score is:
run batted in ) coefficient correlativity between mark of inquiry
figure I with entire figure of mark
Eleven = mean of entire figure of mark in inquiry figure I Xt mean of entire respondent ; 1
I. . . .
H… ; 0 ]
St standard divergence of mark entire respondent
= entire figure of right reply for inquiry figure I qi = entire figure of incorrect reply for inquiry figure I
From the computation above ( see Appendix A.4 ) , the consequence showed that from 30 inquiries, there was four inquiries were non valid. For n =10, the mark for R tabular array is 0,632. l’he mark which was under 0.632 ( see Appendix A.7 for R tabular array ) was non valid.
The research worker used expression of coefficient alpha to prove the
dependability of the questionnaire. The expression is as follows
coefficient of trial dependability
K = inquiry figure
Si2 = discrepancies of mark inquiry
St2 = discrepancies score entire
The consequence of the computation is 0.996 ( see Appendix A.6 ) .
Based on the Pearson-product minute tabular array, 0.996 is between
0.8 and 1.00 ( see Appendix A.8 ) . it can be concluded that the dependability of the questionnaire is high.
11L5 The Procedures in Collecting and Analyzing The Data
I1L5J Research Procedure
The research worker did the pilot trial before making the survey in order to cognize whether or non the pupils understood the statements in the questionnaires. Because the research worker merely used 30 pupils from 40 pupils in the questionnaire, the pilot trial was given to 10 pupils who were non given questionnaire. These 10 pupils were mix-ability pupils, consisted of pupils who are cagey, mean, and decelerate scholars based on the informations from their English instructor.
The questionnaires were given to 30 pupils and 40 pupils were observed ; and because of the limited clip of the survey the research worker merely interviewed 10 pupils out of 30 pupils or it is peers to 33.3 % that were believed to stand for the positive, negative and mean attitudes. As stated by Burns ( 2000 ) , the sample size of the population besides has to be considered, the larger the sample the better. This does non intend that big sample is sufficient to vouch truth of consequence.
The research worker were ascertained pupils ‘ public presentations one time a hebdomad for 3.0 proceedingss harmonizing to their English agenda in that
school. The observation was conducted 2 times. Merely one of the two observed pupils ‘ public presentations was examined, it was the public presentation that the research worker assessed as the best 1.
111.5.2 Data Analysis
The survey represents a study attack, which normally used descriptive method in order to reply the inquiries introduced in chapter 1. In this method, the informations are gathered through questionnaire, interview, and observation. The information gathered from the questionnaire are quantitative informations, which are analyzed both quantitatively and qualitatively. The qualitative informations are taken from interview and observation. The description of the interview consequence is aimed to enrich the information of the questionnaire consequence, and the description of the observation is used to look into the pupils ‘ attitudes harmonizing to their public presentation or action during the English category.
188.8.131.52 Quantitative Data
The quantitative informations are calculated from th consequence of the questionnaires. The respondents ‘ reply was classified harmonizing to emerging classs. Then, the information was quantified into per centum signifier. The qualitative information was utilizing ordinal graduated table ; the mark 1 for positive reply and 0 for negative reply ( see appendix A.4 ) . After that, the frequence analysis was carried out to