The Viking colonists took up the Frankish imposts manner of life so wholly that within a few coevalss of their arrival little of their Viking heritage remained. One account for this is that the figure of colonists was few and that they were rapidly absorbed into the local population. Or possibly there was a brief violent coup d’etat, after which the Vikings adopted the imposts of their neighbors out of necessity and political force per unit area.
Contemporary Latin beginnings called these colonists Northmanni but this described both the Vikings and, much later, the Normans. It was a general term used to depict the Scandinavians who had become active in northern Francia in the 9th and 10th centuries. But no differentiation was made in the 10th century between the Vikings of Neustria and the Vikings in other parts of the remainder of Francia and elsewhere.A The major job with bring outing the history of the early Viking colony of Neustria is the deficiency of beginnings from the early decennaries of the 10th century, when the colony was formalised. The Vikings recorded their history subsequently and the beginnings we do hold are written by the Franks. The ulterior Norman histories are debatable because of their involvement in buttressing and legalize the baby state.A
The beginnings viewed the tenth-century as a violent clip. Frankish Godheads fought for political laterality and, on the peripheries of the Frankish land, smaller groups of peoples fought for domination against each other and against the Franks. In the ninth-century, nomadic Viking forces had frequently sailed up the Seine and besieged Paris, or merely despoiled countries inside Francia. A It is difficult to state where these war-bands wintered, though it becomes clear in the annals that the additions for Viking plunderers were so great that they began to winter in Francia alternatively of returning to Scandinavia.
In the early portion of the tenth-century, the Neustrian or Breton March was still regarded as portion of the Frankish land by the Franks. The Viking foraies reached their tallness during a period of instability in the Frankish lands. An component of fortune had played a portion in leting the Frankish male monarchs to govern over an undivided land for many old ages, in malice of the usage of spliting lands every bit between boies on the decease of their male parent. Peppin the Short, Carloman his boy and Charlemagne his grandson ruled over an unbroken land. But on the decease of Charlemagne ‘s boy Louis the Pious in 840, Francia was at last split. There was a period of atomization, with Francia divided into three lands: West Francia, Lotharingia, and East Francia. Charles the Simple, King of West Francia ( subsequently to go France ) from 898 to 922, regained pre-eminence in the Frankish lands after this period of battle, though other cabals existed. It was this political instability that Viking leaders exploited as they fought and befriended their Frankish opposite numbers.
How make the histories assist?
Historians who attempt to retrace the early history of Normandy face a figure of jobs. The beginnings are few and, worse still, their truth is frequently to be doubted. Palgrave warned that “ if you accept the undertaking you must accept Dudo or allow the work entirely. ” Today, the history of Dudo of St Quentin is viewed with so much intuition by historiographers that, even where his history runs with other modern-day authors, he is still distrusted. But without Dudo we have small grounds. The Frankish historian Flodoard of Reims[ 1 ]provides some information about Normandy in the first half of the ninth-century, there are a few mentions to early Normandy in Norse beginnings and even a late Welsh beginning. Later Norman beginnings for this period do be, but many of these are based on Dudo ‘s history, so must be treated with cautiousness. With such a deficiency of literary stuff, historiographers are left with the consequences of research from archeology and analysis of place-name. The reading of archeological grounds is hard and the decisions that can be drawn from it can be even more obscure than literary beginnings. The historiographer ‘s undertaking in chronicling early Norman history is therefore a hard one, and the decisions reached are, by necessity, limited in nature.
Dudo of St Quentin was born c. 960 in Vermandois. He wrote De moribus et actis primorum Normanni? ducum ( The Deeds of the Early Dukes of Normandy ) from approximately 996 to the clip he became Dean of St Quentin in 1015. The earlier history, including some extremely questionable and fictional inside informations, was based on Virgil ‘s Aeneid and Jordanes ‘ Getica. His chief source for the inside informations of his history was Count Rodulf of Ivry. Commissioned originally by Duke Richard I, the history ended with the decease of Richard in 996. Dudo appears to cognize a great trade about Rollo, and he is the lone beginning for the Treaty of Saint-Clair-sur-Epte, where Charles the Simple granted Rollo the lands around Rouen in 911. Rollo is baptised and, in return, receives the grant of land.
The bishops said to Rollo, who was unwilling to snog King Charles ‘s pes: “ You who receive such a gift ought to snog the male monarch ‘s pes. ” And he said: “ I shall ne’er flex my articulatio genuss to another, nor shall I kiss anyone ‘s pes. ” Compelled, nevertheless, by the supplications of the Franks, he ordered one of his soldiers to snog the male monarch ‘s pes. The adult male instantly seized the male monarch ‘s pes, put it to his oral cavity and kissed it while the male monarch was still standing. The male monarch fell level on his dorsum. This raised a great laugh and greatly stirred up the crowd. “ A A great narrative, but about surely a fable. Dudo was the official chronicler of the Rollonid dynasty, and he portrays Rollo as the leader of the Vikings in many runs and conflicts, possibly excessively many for historiographers to believe it. The facts of Rollo ‘s early old ages as leader of the early Normans are hence lost in the semblance of ulterior myths. Nonetheless, some of the indispensable inside informations in Dudo ‘s narrative have some cogency. Though Dudo is the lone beginning who dates the understanding between Rollo and Charles at 911, this does look to be a extremely plausible day of the month for the understanding.
It is ill-defined when Viking plunderers began to settle in the coastal country, but there is some grounds from the few paperss that survive from this period. A Carolingian charter of 905 records Charles the Simple ‘s grant of two helot of the Crown from the pagus of Rouen to his Chancellor of the Exchequer Ernestus. This was the last royal charter in Normandy.A Three months subsequently, some thought of the convulsion in the part can be concluded from a charter of 906 that records the transportation of relics from Saint-Marcouf ( now in Manche, Basse-Normandie ) to Corbeny “ because of the inordinate and drawn-out onslaughts of the heathens. “ A A In 918, Charles the Simple granted the lands of the old abbey of La Croix-Saint-Leufroi to the abbey of Saint-Germanin-des-PresA “ except that portion of the abbey ‘s lands that we have granted to the Normans of the Seine, viz. to Rollo and his followings, for the defense mechanism of the land. ” A The pact entering this land grant to Rollo no longer exists, but it is clear that between the day of the months of these two royal announcements, Rollo and his followings had established themselves.
The decisive event may hold been a conflict at Chartres in 911. Later Norman tradition tends to hold with this and places Rollo at the Centre of events, though some historiographers question this. One reading of the beginnings is that as a consequence of this conflict, the Vikings were appeased with a grant of land in order to incorporate and command them. Flodoard of Reims tells us that the Vikings had been granted the lands around Rouen “ had some clip ago been given to the Northmen on history of the pledges of Charles who had promised them the comprehensiveness of the state. ” Flodoard ‘s history is of import because it appears to give a modern-day position of the period. He was a canon of Reims, and wrote his annals from c. 925 until his decease in 966. The lone job is that he was some distance from Normandy, and the history of Normandy was non his chief concern.
It is clear from his history that the Vikings and the Franks were in changeless battle. In 925, Flodoard records that “ the Normans of Rouen broke the pact which they had one time made and devastated the territories [ pagi ] of Beauvais and Amiens. Those citizens of Amiens who were flying were burned by a fire for which they were ill-prepared. ” The Franks responded by looting Rouen: “ they set fire to manors, stole cowss and even killed some of the Normans. ” Count Herbert led another force against the Vikings towards the E, and surrounded them in a cantonment on the coast.A A
“ It was this really same cantonment, situated on the seashore and called Eu that the Franks surrounded. They broke through the bulwark by which the cantonment was surrounded in forepart of its walls and weakening the wall, climbed all. Once they had won ownership of the town by contending, they so slaughtered all the males and put fire to its munitions. Some, nevertheless, escaped and took ownership of a certain neighbouring island. But the Franks attacked and captured it, although with a greater hold than when they had seized the town. After the Normans, who had been continuing their lives by contending as best they could, had seen what had happened and had let steal any hope of endurance, some plunged themselves into the moving ridges, some cut their pharynxs and some were killed by Frankish blades, while others died by their ain arms. And in this manner, one time everyone had been destroyed and an hideous sum of loot had been pillaged, the Franks returned to their district. ”
This graphic description gives historians a sense of the force of the age. The Vikings were marauding all across the northern coastal parts of Francia, though Neustria does look to be the chief country of their colony. However, they were surely non confined to this country, or prepared to accept its boundaries. In 937, Flodoard tells us, “ The Bretons retreated to their fatherland after their long peregrinations fought in frequent conflicts with the Normans, who had invaded the district which had belonged to them, next to their ain. They ended up the stronger in many of these conflicts and reclaimed their ain district. “ A Rollo is mentioned in 925 as princeps ( leader ) of the Northmen at Rouen. Although non mentioned at the clip, grounds from the 918 charter strongly suggests that the Norman chroniclers are right in stating that Rollo led the ground forces from the start. However, Dudo ‘s mention to the Treaty of St Clair-sur-Epte is unsubstantiated and should be dismissed as undependable. Dudo was besides misdirecting when depicting the footings of the colony. The granting of “ the land from the river Epte ” runs with the other beginnings, but the granting of Brittany does non. Neither does the scene of the arrant wilderness clasp true: if the land granted by Charles to the Vikings was “ uncultivated by the plowshare, wholly deprived of herds of cowss and flocks of sheep and lacking in human life ” , so why do Norse place-names merely form a minority of all place-names throughout Normandy? Entertaining though Dudo ‘s narrative may be, his history, and those of his followings and impersonators, can non be trusted for the early history of Normandy and historiographers must vacate themselves to set uping a few bare facts in the thick of ulterior deformations.
The extension of Normandy ‘s boundary lines can be seen in Flodoard ‘s history. A King Ralph conceded Bayeux and Maine [ Cinomannis et Baiocae ] in 925 harmonizing to Flodoard, though there are uncertainties about the grant of Maine. Later in 933, the Normans were given Avranchin and Cotentin. Excluding Maine, this established Normandy in the approximative signifier that it existed in 1066. A The Cotentin peninsula was besides settled by Vikings independently of the Vikings under Rollo at Rouen. These early old ages were violent times. The Normans were invariably warring, contending with the Franks in 923, but chiefly concerned with spread outing their ain domain of influence. The people of Bayeux revolted against Viking regulation in 925, a twelvemonth after they had been transferred to the control of the counts of Rouen. Dudo recalls a rebellion against William Longsword by a certain Riulf: “ ferociously filled with ill-famed perfidiousness ” .
Against all the emphasiss and the strains, against internal rebellion and external menaces, Normandy had secured its place by the center of the tenth-century and, though its security was threatened many times, the Norman district was strongly governed and able to throw off its enemies. This might possibly take us to see the pacts between the Franks and the Vikings as more important than they were at the clip. All the grounds suggests that the boundaries were comparatively unstable. Agreements were made, and Vikings baptised, but these baptisms frequently proved impermanent personal businesss. In the 920s, the archbishops of Rouen and Reims both wrote letters on the topic of Vikings who remained heathen despite holding converted. Herveus of Reims asked the Pope: “ What should be done when they have been baptised and re-baptised, and after their baptism continue to populate in heathen manner, and in the mode of heathens kill Christians, slaughter priests, and, offering forfeits to graven images, eat what has been offered? ”
There is small grounds for the widespread debut of Norse establishments or life style. Although in 1013 Duke Richard II welcomed a group of Vikings at Rouen, excessively much should non be read into this. The leaders, Richard and Olaf, may hold felt some commonalty, but this can non be discovered. Merely as Frankish Lords and male monarchs had welcomed Vikings and baptised them as Christians, in the hope of change overing them into a friend and non doing them an enemy, so Richard did with Olaf and his Vikings. Olaf had ravaged Brittany, but had allowed himself to be converted by Richard. The Normans were truly now more Franks than Scandinavians. Dudo claims that at the clip of William Longsword, Scandinavian address was disused at Rouen, and it is so likely that the native lingua was shortly adopted. On the Eve of the first Crusade, the Norman knight Bohemond was able to inquire, rhetorically, “ Are we non Franks? ”
How does archeological and place-name grounds aid?
The land divisions in Normandy appear to hold remained unchanged from the Frankish to the Norman eras. Jacques Le Maho ‘s survey of the Pays de Caux shows a continuity of seigneurial abodes, and it has been argued that there was greater continuity in this part than in other parts of Francia. The Vikings did convey bondage with them, but this did non last beyond the first century of business. The Normans seems to hold been extremely integrated with the Franks. One piece of grounds for this is the Fecamp coin host, including some coins struck at batchs in Cologne, Arles and Pavia. In Scandinavia, Norman coins discontinue to look in hosts after the early 11th century, looking alternatively in Francia and Italy. This suggests a continuance of merchandising links with Scandinavia for a piece, but with a steadily increasing Norman accent on contacts with the continent. Frankish justness was adopted ; the Norse thing did non go established.
The survey of place-names provides an penetration into early Normano-Viking colony. The comprehensive survey undertaken by Jean Adigard des Gautrie tells the narrative of the Viking inflow. Taking all place-names with a possible or definite Norse influence, it can be seen that these are particularly legion in the Cotentin peninsula and along the seashore, with another big bunch in the Pays de Caux. They were besides legion “ all along the great invasion path that was the Seine ” and down the other rivers as good: grounds of the Vikings transporting on their raiding, going by ship across sea and along rivers.
It seems rather likely that when Rollo had his territorial claims to Neustrian March recognised, he based his disposal around a coastal group of colonies already in being due to the activities of other Vikings over a figure of old ages. However, Norse place-names ne’er formed a local bulk over preexistent Frankish names, even in the countries of highest Norse place-name denseness. One account for this is the fleet acceptance of the local lingua by the Normans.
Frank Stentonhttp: //www.manshead.beds.sch.uk/History/AS and A Level/The Normans in Europe/Normandy/Founding Normandy/when_did_the_vikings_become_norm.htm – _ftn10 made a good point when he compared place-names in Normandy and the English Danelaw. He pointed out that place-names with Viking personal name elements besides had Norse postfixs, for illustration Grimsby: the Viking personal name Grim and the postfix -by, the Norse word for small town. He compared this to Normandy, where place-names that have Viking personal names really frequently have native terminations, for illustration, A Gremonville, the stoping of which comes from the Latin Villa. The former indicates a big colony of Vikings, who named topographic points in their ain lingua. The latter might merely demo that while the Viking incomers founded and took over topographic points, it was the local population who really named these topographic points. This could be an indicant of the extent of the Viking colony in Normandy.
Archaeological grounds can state us small about early colony. Patrick Perik, analyzing the grounds found around the lower Seine, admits that the “ archeological certification is singularly thin. ” There is grounds for Norse presence: Viking blades and axes have been found, although Perin points out that despite two discoveries in the land that were likely buried as portion of a funeral, the weaponries found were all in the river. While this shows that Vikings were present here, it is non clear whether the discoveries are chiefly from colonies or chiefly from marauding hosts before the colony epoch. This grounds adds little to our cognition. It is clear that Northmen were present in Normandy for a long clip, but the archeology is scarce and can non be pinpointed in clip to give a clearer image of the early old ages of the Viking colony. The deficiency of discoveries does non problem David Bates unduly, though. “ If an extended colonization can be argued for in England despite the absence of important archeological discoveries, so the same decision seems executable for Normandy. ” The deficiency of Viking discoveries does non automatically dismiss a ample Viking colony, but if this was the instance so the colonists really rapidly adopted Frankish imposts.
Whatever the size of the colony, there is another argument on the velocity of integrating. “ Whichever manner we turn ” , writes Ralph Davies, “ we have to acknowledge that the Viking society of Rollo and his comrades was something rather different from the Norman society of the 11th century. The one developed from the other, but the development was non effectual until the two races had merged and the Northmen had, for all practical intents, become Frenchmen. ” The degree of integrating is hard to state, and David Bates and Eleanor Searle keep different positions on this. Bates believes that the Viking incomers rapidly became integrated into the native society, so that they had shortly adopted Frankish manners and establishments. Searle ‘s place is that they remained self-consciously Viking until the mid-eleventh century.
The grounds for this period is patchy and frequently inconclusive. The early history of Normandy can be told magisterially merely in really au naturel and apparent footings. Tempting though it is to utilize more expansive and colorful Norman paperss, these tell us more about the demands of the developing Norman province than about its early history. For the period he records, 923-966, Flodoard of Reims seems to be a dependable beginning, though his chief focal point is non Normandy. As for the Norse impact on Normandy, there does non look to hold been an overpowering turbulence. Norse linguas appear non to hold been spoken more than three coevalss after the colony. Administrative territories were kept integral, estates seem to hold survived, and on the whole the Normans ruled through Frankish-style establishments. But Michel de Bouardhttp: //www.manshead.beds.sch.uk/History/AS and A Level/The Normans in Europe/Normandy/Founding Normandy/when_did_the_vikings_become_norm.htm – _ftn14 warns against the simple premise of continuity merely because of a deficiency of institutional alteration. He talks of the “ energy, the effectivity of ducal power in Normandy ” and warns that we should ne’er bury the “ human factor ” in all this. Surely, Normandy grew as a power once the Vikings had taken control. There is grounds here for both continuity and discontinuity. Since the beginnings tell us so small, it is a argument that will be difficult to decide.