The Constructive Alignment Theory Education Essay

The constructive alliance theory has been used to underpin the development of course of study in medical instruction for some clip Biggs and Tang 2007. A constructivist instructor designs larning experiences which are active and synergistic and works at the interface between the course of study and the scholar, which creates a new cognition. A A constructivist scholar will make or build their ain cognition and understanding with what they already know. The constructive alliance theory has been shown to fit medical pupils with the needed cognition and accomplishments that is required to pattern medical specialty successfully. There are two wide orientations in instruction ; the content cantered or teacher-centered constructs and pupil or learner-centered construct. A In the learner-centered construct the cognition is constructed by the scholar and the instructors a facilitator of larning than a mere presenter of cognition. The pupil centeredness includes the thought that the scholar has a pick what to analyze, when to analyze and how to analyze. Here the scholar is placed at the centre of the full acquisition procedure there is increased duty and answerability on the portion of the scholar.

An emerging tendency in all the medical schools in Australia is to hold an integrated medical course of study where there is an increased accent on autonomous or scholar centered acquisition, and active engagement of the acquisition procedure. JCU integrated medical course of study follows the guidelines for effectual university learning which says “ effectual university instructors provide pupils with chances to be involved in the structuring of their ain acquisition experiences, and promote them to take control of their ain acquisition ” and “ effectual university instructors select from a scope of learning attacks and media those which will assist pupils run into topics and their ain purposes efficaciously ” .

Today ‘s medical pupils represent a wide spectrum in footings of age, experience, civilization, ethnicity and degree of readiness every bit good as acquisition manners and there is a immense challenge for teachers to run into the educational demands of all pupils. When direction is adopted to scholars larning manners at that place will be increased student motive and public presentation. Because there are pupils with different educational backgrounds and different acquisition manners, it is the duty of the teacher to turn to this diverseness of larning manners among pupils and develop appropriate learning learning activities.

The challenge of supplying quality larning experience for the pupils has prompted many pedagogues to look towards larning engineerings. Increased involvement in flexible acquisition chances in third instruction has risen in recent old ages in response to increased pupil diverseness and the outgrowth of new engineerings. Technologies allow pedagogues to personalise and humanise acquisition by including rich media constituents in classs that endeavor to prosecute pupils in active, meaningful acquisition ( Lee, Tan & A ; Goh 2004 ) . Australia has a strong tradition of distance instruction and a displacement towards online larning in Universities in the recent old ages has been seen as a natural extension of the more traditional signifier of distance instruction ( Bell et al, 2002 ) . In today ‘s acquisition environments, the effectual usage of instructional engineerings provide the scholar with flexible, immediate and on demand entree to class content. Flexible acquisition has emerged late to depict the altering stage of distance instruction, brought about by the turning acceptance of different larning engineerings to back up progressively diverse pupil population.

Flexible acquisition

Flexible acquisition is a scope of larning attacks in footings of clip, gait, topographic point, content and manner, which are applied in changing grades. Flexible acquisition incorporates computing machine engineering into larning helping pupils in developing the cognitive processes needed for the usage of information engineering efficaciously. A scaffold of larning activities is created in flexible acquisition. The most of import purpose of flexible acquisition is to supply greater control to the scholar in the acquisition procedure and to supply chances and options through a assortment of learning -learning manners. The scholar will hold greater pick, liberty and control in flexible acquisition ( Geroge and Luke 1995 ) . This type of larning provides the scholar with picks about where, when and how learning takes topographic point ( Shurville et al. , 2008 ) .

Pedagogical attack in flexible acquisition is sound and here the instructor becomes the facilitator in the acquisition procedure and the scholar gets greater control in the acquisition procedure. This teaching method is a going from the traditional teacher-centered methods of instruction, prefering the facilitation of the collaborative building of cognition and accomplishments. It increases the efficiencies in the bringing of instruction and caters to different groups of scholar. Present twenty-four hours net coevals scholar is multitasking nature and they demand for greater flexibleness related in the manner of survey, topographic point and gait. Flexible larning caters for these diverse groups of pupil organic structure ( Casey and Wilson, 2005 ) .

The exponential growing of computing machine power and rapid enlargement of the broadband velocities in recent old ages has changed the outlook of these net coevals pupils and the acquisition chances offered to these scholars. In order to run into this turning demand, Universities are turning to flexible acquisition and e-learning as a convenient manner to supply flexible entree to acquisition ( Buleen and Janes 2007 ) . James cook Universities committedness to the development of flexible acquisition is embedded in the instruction learning appraisal policy, that is dedicated in supplying pupils from different backgrounds with the top quality larning environment and heighten pupil ‘s learning experience. One of the Core rules of the JCU learning larning assessment policy addresses this diverseness of pupils and their different acquisition manners. “ Course design will endeavour to react to the rich diverseness of pupil backgrounds and tracts, including Aboriginal, Torres Strait Islander, international, inter cultural, low socioeconomic backgrounds, rural or remote, first household member go toing a university, return to analyze and people with handiness issues ” . “ In all topics a assortment of resources, learning methods and attacks to larn will be considered and adopted, in acknowledgment of the diverseness of the pupil organic structure ” .A Overall objective here is to give pupils many picks in larning and control over the timing, construction and sequencing of their acquisition.

One of the cardinal trademarks of flexibleness in acquisition is the acknowledgment of the differences ; differences in what the pupils want to larn and when he/she wants to larn. It besides allows for functioning pupils with particular demands and suiting the progressively varied cultural dimension in larning. Educators recognize that the scholars have single demands and require varying grades of flexibleness to run into their demands. Learner centered direction is the nucleus rule underlying this flexible acquisition. Here the accent is on the pick of the scholar. Facilitation of acquisition is another nucleus rule of flexible acquisition where the teacher takes more of a facilitator function in the procedure of larning than a commanding or information transporter function. Facilitators provide chances for showing content in a new and advanced function utilizing a combination of media and bringing manners. Here the content is drawn from a assortment of beginnings including picture, web sites, multimedia, artworks, sounds, lifes etc.

Today ‘s medical pedagogues are confronting challenges than their predecessors in learning tomorrows physicians. Changing in wellness attention bringing and progresss in medical instruction and clinical medical specialty have increased demands on the medical module, ensuing in reduced clip for learning. Flexible acquisition can be used in undergraduate medical instruction to better the efficiency and effectivity of educational intercessions in the face of scientific and pedagogical challenges. Use of flexible acquisition is extremely variable in medical schools and it is more common in basic scientific discipline classs than in clinical scientific disciplines. Flexible acquisition has a characteristic that presupposes a great accent on self-teaching in undergraduate medical instruction. Students are encouraged to analyze and research independently. Collaborative acquisition and information exchange is intensified as to consolidate larning through group activities. The practical group activities can be performed in synchronal or asynchronous meeting in pupil place groups that permits collaborative and deep acquisition.

Capable Design

Year 2 Medical plan has 190 pupils of which more than 50 % of the pupils are between 21 to 25 old ages and the group besides has approximately 35 % of pupils who are above 30 old ages. Students fall ining six twelvemonth undergraduate medical plan at JCU are school departers, alumnuss ( with a grade non related to the medical class ) or graduates with grades in biological and wellness scientific disciplines. But there are pupils in this group who are non from the biological background and had the trouble in settling into the Medical course of study in their early months in the Medical School. The biggest challenge faced by the School of Medicine at JCU is to suit the scholars who have come from different backgrounds. Bing a rural medical school this challenge is heightened at JCU due to miss of resources and isolation. Because the pupil group has scholars from different backgrounds, the course of study or the single faculty must be more originative and flexible to run into the demands of single scholars. Larger category ( 190 pupils ) means more about talk centered – acquisition and minimum pupil battle and this will make a barrier to entree acquisition. The category size plants against the rational development, larning and success in a medical school.

Year 2 medical plan has two pathophysiology classs – Integrated system pathophysiology 1 and 2. Different organic structure system faculties are taught with accent on Anatomy, Physiology and Pathophysiology in these classs which is spread across two survey periods ( SP1 and 2 ) . Hematology and Renal Medicine is the faculty under Integrated System Pathophysiology 1 during survey period 1, which runs for 13 hebdomads. This faculty has two subdivisions – haematology and Renal Medicine. During the last 5 hebdomads of HRM faculty pupils learn about Renal Physiology and Pathophysiology.

Physiology and Pathophysiology subjects in this faculty are complex and in the old feedback pupils have raised few concerns about the talk subjects in the faculty and about deficiency of clip and chances available for the survey of complex physiology subjects in this faculty. Feedback suggested that face to face and synthesising Sessionss in the faculty were unequal to gestate the dynamic procedures and complex physiology mechanisms in the nephritic physiology subject. Besides when complex subjects were presented in schoolroom talks, pupils either retained a simplistic position of the subject or were confused when introduced to a new subject based on an apprehension of consecutive procedures. Hence, I have planned to present flexible acquisition faculty, which supports face-to-face bringing, to specifically turn to the jobs identified by the pupils in the Renal Medicine Course.

Face-to-face acquisition for this faculty is in the signifier of one hr talk at the beginning of the hebdomad and another hr of synthesising session on Fridays. There is a three hr guided larning session in the signifier of active acquisition that supports these face-to-face bringings during the hebdomad.

The contents of the nephritic medical specialty faculties are carefully chosen to develop flexible acquisition activities spread across a 4 hebdomad period.

Table 1: Different sections chosen to present in the flexible acquisition faculty for this class

Teaching Sections





Histology of kidneys and the urinary system



Physiology of nephritic system



Role of kidneys in H2O balance



Role of kidneys in blood force per unit area ordinance



Control of urinary vesica and urination



Diuretic drugs and their mechanisms of action

Every section has different learning acquisition activities which are developed utilizing Blackboard, the unfastened beginning class direction system.

Different learning acquisition activities for these flexible acquisition faculties are

Podcasting and Camtasia recordings ; face-to-face talk will be recorded utilizing Camtasia/Doceri and will be uploaded online.

Lecture podcasting is besides uploaded in MP3 format

A 20 proceedingss i-lecture which will cover the subjects ( as per the sections mentioned above ) is recorded and uploaded

Home group wiki treatment board for mini instance treatment related to the hebdomadal subject.

Open treatment board for treatment about the inquiries asked in the workbook in the GLS Sessionss, utilizing blackboard treatment tools

YouTube picture links – Anatomy, Physiology and Pathophysiology pictures

E-book chapters, text edition pages, and reappraisal articles related to the subjects are uploaded to the learning resources booklet

Home groups [ 20 pupils in a group ] have the chance for 30 proceedingss blackboard collaborate confabs session with the lector

Linkss to the specific subject pages of Medical Revision Community and Pod trefoils

Online quizzes at the terminal of the hebdomad – which will hold MCQ ‘s and cardinal characteristic paper inquiries.

Online brooding diaries will be used for feedback on a hebdomadal footing for this faculty.

Contexts and Settings for Flexible Learning:

Our scholars: Undergraduate, grownup, domestic and international pupils

The sort of acquisition we are seeking to accomplish: Knowledge, accomplishments and attitudes

Delivery of the content: On-line talks and instance treatments.

The other acquisition activities that can be organized to run into the larning results: Question-answer Sessionss, pictures, online quizzes

Available Resources: press releases, worksheets, workbooks, ocular, power points, pictures

Table 2: Summary of the Comprehensive Teaching Schemes used for Flexible Learning in this faculty

Learning Results

Teaching Scheme

Learner Activity








Associating to theory

Autonomous acquisition




Mini Case Discussion

Discussion Board


Knowledge reading

Supplying multiple positions



Case Discussion

Discussion board

Blackboard Collaborate

Clarifying cognition

Interpretation accomplishments



Collaborate treatment

Case Discussion

Cardinal Feature Paper inquiries ( instance based )

Synthesizing cognition

Deep acquisition

Apply basic scientific disciplines to clinical medical specialty

Researching acquisition

As with face to face instruction, these online, blended categories is constructively aligned to accomplish upper limit larning benefits and results. All facets of the flexible bringing, from purposes, larning results, talks and other activities are all and straight related to each other, and back up a progressive system of larning throughout the 5 hebdomads continuance of the class.


Year 2 haematology and nephritic medical specialty class are presently utilizing face-to-face instruction which treats all pupils as indistinguishable scholars. This ignores the fact that pupils have different degrees of acquisition manners, motive, attending span and ability to larn [ ref 5 ] . Traditional big talk presentations [ first twenty-four hours debut session and synthesising session in this faculty ] have jobs prosecuting the pupils and in run intoing their single acquisition manners. With flexible teaching-learning activities in this faculty, the acquisition and instruction can happen at times that are more convenient and productive for pupils. Students can work at their ain gait within a given model. Online larning provides options to entree and portion information more readily and this besides provides greater deepness of resources and information. Open treatment and mini instance treatment Sessionss in this faculty offer opportunities to interact and larn in ways that the traditional instruction in the faculty ca n’t offer. Therefore, there is a displacement of focal point in the faculty from a teacher-centered theoretical account to learner centered theoretical account offering stronger learning motive and interactivity. The faculty is designed to value the diverseness of experience and pattern taking into the consideration of the Internationalization of University course of study and this flexible instruction will ever back up both local and international pupils ‘ who have come from different educational backgrounds and have diverse learning manners.

Learning direction system, societal package application like Wiki, treatment forum and web based talk engineerings are the different acquisition engineerings used in this flexible acquisition faculty that will supply communicating and coaction chances. The university instruction and acquisition policy emphasizes that the instructor should seek to heighten pupil battle in acquisition by linking assorted constituents in a topic. The nucleus acquisition rule besides underlines the demand of invention in learning and acquisition and the usage of larning engineerings to reenforce and heighten the pupil larning experience. The different acquisition engineerings will give the pupils flexibleness to take when and where to entree talks and other learning resources. Students with weaker acquisition accomplishments will acquire more clip and options for interaction and to speed up their acquisition independently. Medical instruction is a dynamic entity that is germinating rapidly and taking advantage of the flexible, web based learning methods allow more face-to-face instruction clip to be used for learning other complex subjects during this basic scientific discipline faculty.

The talk podcasting, Camtasia/Doceri and i-lecture formats offer pupils the increased flexibleness of being able to entree the acquisition stuffs every bit frequently as required, 24 hour. a twenty-four hours, 7 yearss a hebdomad. This on-line talk will be really effectual for this faculty as there are a big figure of pupils in category ( more than 180 pupils ) . These on-line talks engage the pupils more efficaciously than the face-to-face talks and pupils can mention to this talk several times over the class of the faculty. During the on-line treatment forums ( mini instance treatments and unfastened treatments in this faculty ) , pupils are given basic information about the new constructs and are encouraged to work together on clinical jobs and inquiries which helps them to understand cardinal physiology and pathophysiological constructs for themselves. Students in the traditional face-to-face acquisition do non possess the cardinal critical analytical accomplishments hence they are happening it hard to understand the key basic physiological constructs. Flexible acquisition enables pupils to widen their acquisition experience beyond the boundary lines of a schoolroom and a assortment of web resources and web links to medical podcast, podmedics and medical alteration community pages in this faculty to better pupil ‘s acquisition capablenesss and besides their critical thought accomplishments.

Nephritic Medicine faculty in twelvemonth 2 includes complex subjects in Physiology ( nephritic ordinance of electrolyte balance, H2O balance, blood force per unit area ordinance etc. ) . Some of the facets of physiology that make it hard include the big volume of information typically covered and its integrative nature. Most common ailments from pupils in their feedback is that there is excessively much to analyze and retrieve and excessively many didactic Sessionss on basic physiology. The planned flexible acquisition Sessionss address these facets and present active acquisition tools to form construction and represent information and cognition in a more meaningful format. During the flexible acquisition, pupils are able to take a content bringing method that matched their learning manner to understand the complex subjects in physiology. Students can work through the different sections in the faculty at their ain velocity and develop a more meaningful apprehension of the subjects.

Therefore the overall aim of this flexible acquisition faculty is to give the scholar more pick and control over the timing, sequence and the construction of larning activities, and to cut down the barrier to entree acquisition. This on-line faculty is likely to heighten pupils ‘ motive in larning Renal Medicine physiology. The interactivities and communicating tools will actuate the pupils and assist them increase perceptual experience and keeping of this subject. Present twenty-four hours net-generation medical pupils want larning ‘options ‘ , ‘choices ‘ and ‘personalization ‘ . By supplying scholars with the freedom of pick, this flexible acquisition can put the phase for pupil success in this class.