The Overuse Bone Injuries Health And Social Care Essay

Overuse bone hurts normally result in emphasis breaks. The first written history of emphasis breaks was by Breithaupt in 1855 who described ‘the syndrome of painful conceited pess associated with processing ‘ among Prussian soldiers ( Breithaupt 1855 ) . The highest incidence of emphasis breaks occurs in path and field jocks, with rates of 10 to 31 % ( Bennell, Malcolm, et Al. 1996 ) . Stress breaks are besides normally seen in gymnastic exercises, lacrosse, figure skating, concert dance, hoops and football ( Burr and Milgrom 2001 ) . Most stress breaks occur in the lower limbs with over 50 % happening to the calf bone and shinbone ( Figure 1 ) ( McBryde 1985 ) . Certain stress break sites tend to be associated with certain athleticss, e.g. Medial malleolus of the shinbone and tarsal scaphoid emphasis break are common in high jumpers ( Ivkovic, et Al. 2007 ) .


Fourth and Fifth


Figure 1: Distribution of the common sites of emphasis breaks. Adapted from McBryde, 1985.

The chief feature of a stress break is localized, gradual hurting which increasingly increases with activity and is relieved with remainder ( Burr and Milgrom 2001 ) . There is normally a recent alteration in developing prior to the oncoming of hurting. A radionuclide scan is used to name a stress break. Radionuclide ‘s collect in countries where there is increased bone activity ( where bone cells are interrupting down or mending parts of the bone ) , looking as ‘hot musca volitanss ‘ on the image.


Stress breaks result from insistent burden and be given to non be associated with a history of injury. They are frequently considered to be a mechanical weariness driven procedure. They typically occur after a period of 4-6 hebdomads of increased activity. There are two hypotheses for the cause of emphasis breaks. The first, described in figure 2, is described as a biological procedure where bone remodelling is stimulated by mechanical lading doing porousness and decreased bone mass.

Mechanical Loading

Osteonal Remodelling


‘Focal transient osteopenia ‘

Local Strain


Stress Fracture

Continued Loading

The 2nd hypothesis is that a emphasis break occurs from the development and growing of microcracks within the bone. Strain scopes of 5000-10000 microstrains are needed for a bone to neglect in weariness ( Caler and Carter 1989 ) . However, surveies indicate that the extremum strain in worlds is in the scope of 2000-2500 microstrains ( Burr and Milgrom 2001 ) . In order for this hypothesis to be right we would necessitate to lade our castanetss up to 10 million burden rhythms in to develop a emphasis break. Bone readily sustains microdamage from weariness during insistent burden but this would non take to a break in the clip class feature of emphasis breaks ( Burr and Milgrom 2001 ) . There must be other mechanisms involved in the development of emphasis breaks, which need to be explained, for this hypothesis to be valid.

Figure 2: Hypothesised mechanism for the development of emphasis breaks. Adapted from Burr and Milgrom ( 2001 )

Stress breaks occur as portion of a positive feedback mechanism. Increased mechanical burden stimulates bone turnover. Osteoclasts resorb preexistent bone, doing bone porousness which can last several months. Stiffness of the bone decreases quickly in response to little alterations in bone porousness. Once a threshold has been reached ( either through increased porousness or burden ) the bone becomes unstable and breaks occur ( Martin 1995 ) . Injury, cytokines, altered mechanical burden and weariness can all trip bone remodelling.

There are a figure of factors that can straight or indirectly influence emphasis factors in jocks ( shown in figure 3 ) . There seems to be a complex interaction between these factors and some have contradictory grounds in surveies. The chief factors associated with stress break incidence are smaller castanetss, leg length disagreement, musculus weariness and preparation factors.

Bone disease ( Pathology )

Hormone position and endocrines

Exercise ( bone burden )

Diet and Nutrition


Joint scope and musculus flexibleness

Foot type

Lower appendage alliance

Altered pace

Complete Fracture

Stress Fracture

Stress Injury

Stress Reaction

Accelerated Remodelling

Normal Remodelling

Continuum of clinical responses to cram burden

Body size and composing

Training surfaces


Magnitude of each strain rhythm

Muscle strength

Muscle weariness

Entire figure of strain rhythms ( developing volume )

Frequency of strain rhythms ( developing strength )

Duration of each strain rhythm

Bone disease ( Pathology )

Hormone position and endocrines

Exercise ( bone burden )

Joint scope and musculus flexibleness

Diet and Nutrition


Foot type

Lower appendage alliance

Altered pace

Bone Response

Impact fading


Bone Health

Gait Mechanicss

Bone Loading

Figure 3: Contribution of hazard factors to emphasize fracture pathogenesis. Adapted from Brukner, Bennell and Matheson ( 1999 ) .

Insistent mechanical burden from exercising contributes to emphasize break development. Training causes alterations in degrees of endocrines, such as sex endocrines, that may act upon bone indirectly. An addition in musculus mass could be protective against emphasis breaks. Military surveies have shown that intercessions such as remainder periods, riddance of running on concrete, the usage of running places and decrease of high impact activity can diminish the incidence of emphasis breaks ( Pester and Smith 1992 ) . An addition in preparation volume has been linked to an addition in stress break incidence in smugglers ( Brunet, et Al. 1990 ) and concert dance terpsichoreans, ( Kadel, Teitz and Kronmal 1992 ) and 86 % of jocks can place a alteration in developing prior to the oncoming of the break ( Sullivan, et Al. 1984 ) . However there is small controlled research in jocks as to whether developing alterations can diminish the incidence.

Foot construction determines the sum of daze absorbed and the sum of force transferred. A high arched pes is less able to absorb daze due to it being more stiff than a low arched pes. However a low arched pes tends to pronate which consequences in increased tortuosity on the shinbone and muscular weariness as they attempt to command the inordinate gesture ( Burr and Milgrom 2001 ) . A low arched pes is the most common pes type in jocks with stress breaks but both foot types could be at an increased hazard of emphasis breaks ( Sullivan, et Al. 1984 ) . A difference in leg length besides increases stress break incidence ( Bennell, Malcolm, et Al. 1996 ) . Stress break development has besides been linked to an addition in hep ageless rotary motion and a lessening in the scope of ankle dorsiflexion ( Burr and Milgrom 2001 ) .

Persons with hapless physical conditioning tend to hold a deficiency of muscular strength and are prone to muscular weariness which increases the hazard of stress break ( Burr and Milgrom 2001 ) . Under normal conditions, musculuss act protectively by undertaking to cut down strains on bone surfaces. Once fatigued, there is increased strain at the site of musculus fond regard ( Yosjikawa, et Al. 1994 ) .

Changes in Ca metamorphosis may predispose persons to emphasize breaks by impacting bone remodelling and bone denseness, although there is no grounds to back up this as yet ( Burr and Milgrom 2001 ) . Other factors that influence bone wellness and perchance stress break hazard include glutocorticoids, growing endocrine and tetraiodothyronine. Nutritional surveies have by and large failed to happen a relationship between low Ca consumption and stress break incidence. However one survey found that Ca consumption was much lower in the group with emphasis breaks ( Myburgh, et Al. 1990 ) . The consumption of salt, protein, P, caffeine and intoxicant all disrupt the balance of Ca, but there are no studies of any association with these factors and stress factors as yet.

The jocks at each appendage of the preparation spectrum are at most hazard. Novice athletes or ‘weekend warriors ‘ are more likely to prolong stress breaks. High public presentation jocks are besides at hazard. Although their physical conditioning is good, the demands on them are so high that an overuse hurt may happen.


The chief factor finding stress break hazard in adult females is genetic sciences. Familial factors affect bone geometry, bone alliance, hormonal environment every bit good as act uponing psychological traits which can impact developing wonts and eating and catamenial perturbations. Women besides seem to be more susceptible to environmental influences such as the ‘ideal ‘ organic structure portrayed by the media ( Hausenblas and Carron 1990 ) .

Women by and large have higher incidence of emphasis breaks, with amenorrhoeic adult females holding a higher incidence than normally-menstruating adult females ( Feingold and Hame 2006 ) . The ground why amenorrheic adult females develop more emphasis breaks is ill-defined but may non be related to low bone denseness ( Ivkovic, et Al. 2007 ) . The shinbone is the most normally affected site in both males and females, with breaks of the tarsal scaphoid, femoral cervix, metatarsal and pelvic girdle preponderantly associated with the female jock ( Bennell and Brukner 1997 ) .

Womans tend to devour unequal sums of micro and macro foods. Boness contain a high sum of Ca and if there is dietetic inadequacies this Ca is used by the organic structure and could compromise bone strength. This is rare in western society and merely terrible dietetic limitation will do mineral depletion. However, amenhorrheic and postmenopausal adult females lose Ca during urinary elimination due to low oestrogen degrees and hence necessitate an increased Ca consumption. The grounds for a relationship between Ca and emphasis breaks is inconclusive. Studies conducted on concert dance terpsichoreans and female path and field jocks found no important difference in the Ca consumption of those with stress breaks and those without ( Kadel, Teitz and Kronmal 1992 ) ( Bennell, Malcolm, et Al. 1996 ) . Childhood Ca consumption could be a deciding factor, but merely one survey has assessed this and no relationship was seen ( Grimston, et Al. 1991 ) . Disordered eating forms have been associated with increased emphasis break hazard. Track and field jocks and concert dance terpsichoreans with emphasis breaks are more likely to curtail their Calories intake and avoided high fat nutrient ( Frusztajer, et Al. 1990 ) ( Bennel, et Al. 1995 ) .

Sexual activity endocrines play an of import portion in act uponing stress break hazard. Athletic adult females tend to hold a higher prevalence of catamenial perturbations than the general population ( Burr and Milgrom 2001 ) . This is normally seen in athleticss such as concert dance, gymnastic exercises and distance running. This relationship causes a two to four crease increased hazard of stress break, but the mechanism of increased hazard is non known. It could ensue in lower bone denseness or decreased peak bone mass.

Oral Contraceptive pills have a major impact on skeletal wellness in female jocks. They are normally prescribed as a stress break intervention to better bone mass. Some research workers claim that unwritten preventives can forestall stress break development by supplying a beginning of oestrogen that increases bone denseness ( Burr and Milgrom 2001 ) . Current and past users of unwritten preventives have been found to hold greater bone mass than non-users ( Recker, et Al. 1992 ) . However there are some conflicting informations which show no consequence on bone mass with unwritten preventive usage, and some that show a possible damaging consequence.

Smaller castanetss in males are associated with the greatest hazard of break. Since adult females have smaller castanetss than work forces, you could presume that this would predispose adult females to breaks ( Burr and Milgrom 2001 ) . However, no survey has shown any association between bone size and emphasis breaks.

There is grounds that lower bone denseness may play a function in stress break development in adult females. A survey showed that athletic adult females with lower bone mineral content and denseness sustained emphasis breaks ( Bennell, Malcolm, et Al. 1996 ) . These adult females nevertheless had higher degrees of bone denseness than the general population. This implies that the degree of bone denseness required for active adult females needs to be much greater than non-athletes.


Bone disease ( Pathology )

Hormone position and endocrines

Exercise ( bone burden )

Joint scope and musculus flexibleness

Diet and Nutrition


Foot type

Lower appendage alliance

Altered gaitPeak incidence of emphasis breaks is seen in 16-25 twelvemonth olds, but may happen at any age. Kadel, Teitz and Kronmal ( 1992 ) found no relationship between age and stress break incidence in concert dance terpsichoreans and Brunet, et Al. ( 1990 ) came to the same decision for smugglers.

Traumatic Bone Injuries

Most breaks of bone tend to happen from a individual important force to a healthy bone such as during engagement in athletics. Weaker forces can fracture a bone that has been weakened by upsets such as malignant neoplastic disease, cysts or osteoporosis. Traumatic injures of bone are summarised in table 1. Dislocations of castanetss can besides happen during featuring activities. The most normally dislocated limb articulation is the shoulder. A disjointed shoulder is a common shoulder hurt in contact athleticss such as rugger and soldierly humanistic disciplines.




Complete break that is perpendicular to the bone axis. Can be cause by a direct blow to the bone or as a consequence of a insistent action, such as running.


Broken at an angle across the bone. Resulting from an angled blow. Frequently found in long castanetss.


Occur when a portion of the organic structure is trapped and the bordering bone is twisted. Rare but are can be seen in athleticss such as arm wrestle and skiing.


Bone is fractured into several pieces with suppression or chip. Occur as a consequence of great force, normally auto accidents.


Consequences in several big bone fragments. An unfastened break can happen if the fragments pierce the tegument.


A fragment of bone is torn off at sites of sinew and ligament interpolation. Occur when the external forces are greater than the forces keeping the bone together. Common in kids and during jumping and throwing actions.


Bone fragments are driven into each other, shortening the bone. Normally occur when seeking to interrupt autumn by making out with the weaponries or legs.


One side of the bone may clasp upon itself. Common in kids because they have ‘softer ‘ castanetss.


Bone is cracked on one side. Common in kids by a blow to the forearm or shinbone.

Table 1 ; Summary of the different types of bone breaks. Images used from Roberts ( 2010 ) .

A comparatively unsophisticated break can mend within hebdomads or months via bone remodelling. New tissue can be produced within hebdomads and a gradual addition in mechanical burden will guarantee optimum remodelling ( Roberts 2010 ) . Serious complications from a break are rare. Arteries could go injured in closed supracondylar breaks of long castanetss along with compartment syndrome ( the compaction of nervousnesss, blood vass, and musculus inside a closed infinite ) and nerve hurt ( Roberts 2010 ) . Open breaks could ensue in infections that can take to osteomyelitis. Osteomyelitis is characterised by redness and devastation of bone by bacteriums such as staphylococci aureus. Some breaks can ensue in the release of fat that can blockade the lungs and do respiratory jobs ; this is known as fat intercalation syndrome ( Odegard 2005 ) . Misalignment of articular gristle by a bone break can do degenerative arthritis and joint motion damage.

Traumatic Bone Injuries in Children

Approximately 15 % of all breaks in kids involve the physis ( Caine, DiFiori and Maffulli 2006 ) . Mechanical emphasis from athleticss such as football and hockey or by insistent burden required in athleticss such as long distance running, gymnastic exercises and baseball can do exceedance of the tolerance bounds of the physis ( Caine, DiFiori and Maffulli 2006 ) . Injury can do a perturbation to physeal growing and can take to length disagreement, angular malformation or altered joint mechanisms which may do important long term disablement ( Caine, DiFiori and Maffulli 2006 ) .

Physeal hurts can ensue in irreversible harm to turning cells ( Caine, DiFiori and Maffulli 2006 ) . The growing home base gristle is more vulnerable to emphasize and forces than grownup gristle and next bone ( Micheli 1986 ) . The physis can besides be up to 5 times weaker than the environing hempen tissue. An hurt that could rupture a ligament or dislocated a joint in an grownup may bring forth a separation of the growing home base in a kid due to the above grounds ( Caine, DiFiori and Maffulli 2006 ) . Figure 4 summarises the different types of physeal hurts.

The susceptibleness for break is far more outstanding during periods of rapid growing such as during pubescence ( Benton 1982 ) . Increased growing rates and structural alterations result in a thicker and more delicate home base. Bone mineralisation besides lags behind bone growing which renders the bone porous and more susceptible to injury. Micheli ( 1983 ) proposed a controversial construct that rapid growing may do an increased hazard of hurt due to muscle-tendon stringency around the articulations and a loss in flexibleness. Long castanetss or the appendages usual grow longitudinally ab initio with muscle-tendon units reacting to the alteration by stretching, which may do an instability ( Caine, DiFiori and Maffulli 2006 ) .

Figure 4: Types of growing home base hurts seen in kids. Adapted from Caine, DiFiori and Maffulli ( 2006 )

A – A complete separation of the epiphysis from the metaphysis with the originative cells of the growing home base staying with the epiphysis.

B – Most common physeal hurt. Separation on the epiphysis and metaphysis along the growing home base accompanied by a break of a triangular molded metaphyseal fragment.

C – Fracture extends through the epiphysis from the joint and along the growing home base.

D – Fracture extends from the joint surface, across the growing home base and through the metaphysis.

E – Uncommon hurt. The growing home base is compressed which prevents farther bone growing.



Growth Plate






Skeletal hurts are common in athletics, particularly contact athleticss, gymnastic exercises and skiing. A break amendss non merely bone but besides soft tissues environing the country, such as sinews, ligaments, musculuss, nervousnesss, blood vass and tegument. Overuse hurts of bone occur as a consequence of repeated burden over a long period. They are common in athleticss such as running, concert dance and football.

Word Count – 1987