The Skin Moisture Levels Health And Social Care Essay

This review looks at the diary referenced1, to understand whether the methodological analysis and consequences published are realistic and are able to lend to the pattern of occupational wellness and wellness and safety in general.

It considers whether or non the information and consequences given, is indifferent and that the information provided and recorded from the experiments, utilizing specific sets of voluntaries and the methodological analysiss applied along with the equipments and stuffs that were utilised on that juncture, is consistent with the purposes of the diary.

The review itself has been approached and written by the writer utilizing the IMRaD ( Introduction Methods Results and Discussion ) format to show the review in a structured format giving suited remark where it is believed that more information could hold been made available.


The diary is biased towards one peculiar piece of equipment that is used to make skin measurings ; sentiments are formulated from a group of writers from the same company. Data is collected in a signifier of a questionnaire and ocular observations recorded but unavailable to the reader.

The diary mentions ‘Studies ‘ have been undertaken, but there is no grounds from any of them to assist find whether the methods used on this juncture were appropriate.

Mention to allow usage of baseball mitts is hapless and despite the diary being requested by a pharmaceutical company there is small utile information on the usage of creams.

On a positive note ; the diary does recognize that more consciousness and instruction is required by both employee and employer.



The undermentioned text is the full abstract from the diary under review which sets out the ground for the survey by the writers:

‘The purpose of this survey was to set up whether those working in certain businesss had skin with lower wet content than would be considered normal. Skin wet degrees were measured every bit good as ocular appraisal. Consequences indicated that all occupational groups studied had tegument that was less good hydrated than would be considered normal, although there were important inter-individual fluctuations within any one group. These fluctuations were at least every bit important as business. Awareness of the demand to utilize baseball mitts as protection against chemicals and to utilize creams to reconstruct status was low, as was compliance’.1


The diary has been read by the review writer to understand what the diary writers are trying to convey to the reader. It is marked where the referee has considered that a full apprehension is required to be certain of the justification for the diary to hold been produced and later published.

Where possible, literature has been sourced and referenced to help in the apprehension of the capable affair and besides to offer up any other information which may hold proven utile or may propose that the diary is non conveying every facet of information pertinent to the chosen capable affair. This literature has been sourced through Library ‘s online installations but largely by utilizing the Internet Search Engine ‘GoogleTM ‘to bring up certain articles associating to the capable affair including referenced information about the setup used on the test voluntaries.


It has been established early on into the diary that the conducted probe of the capable affair had been requested by a Pharmaceutical company called Crookes Healthcare 2 who appear to be situated in Nottingham UK. However, no information was readily available sing this company apart from contact inside informations as their cyberspace sphere site appeared was inactive and was advertised as ‘domain available for sale ‘ at the clip of this review being produced.

The diary addresses a really of import topic affair which gives concern to non merely Occupational Health Practitioners and Advisers but besides Health & A ; Safety Professionals in general along with the medical community. The information and decisions are non merely derived from experiments but referenced from a figure of articles and books largely based on the capable affair of Epidemiology.

Mention is besides made to a company ‘Hill & A ; Knowlton ‘ 3 who advertise themselves as a public dealingss and public personal businesss web and one facet of their operation is to help with clinical tests enlisting within their Healthcare & A ; Wellbeing section.

A sum of 132 voluntaries have been selected from office workers, hairstylists, pre-school nursery staff and catering staff. Apart from the office workers, the businesss were selected as they are seemingly known to hold high degrees of occupational contact dermatitis being subjected to chemicals that have a fatting consequence and being exposed to wet work. The office workers were selected to seek to set up whether working in modern air-conditioning offices might demo similar effects. It is non instantly stated why the baby’s room staff were selected but it does become evident subsequently in the diary that they are subjected to crisp altering but in general a good government of have oning suited baseball mitts appeared to be observed.

The enlisting administrations appeared non merely to supply full clip workers but besides parttime / impermanent workers ( pupils ) for these tests, which consisted of both work forces and adult females of assorted ages and presumptively with different tegument types. However, the periods of exposure to the voluntaries except the office workers would most likely been well varied during their existent working times. Specifically, this would use to pupils, who would hold besides been in categories analyzing and therefore non ever subjected to the jeopardies related with occupational tegument disease for 8 hr periods every twenty-four hours. Interestingly, there is no reference of what other substances the voluntaries may hold been subjected to during their ain clip ( avocations and other physical involvements participated in ) ; that is outside of the workplace environments which may or may non hold a bearing on the consequences of such a survey.

The diary besides mentions that Studies suggest that low skin wet degree predisposes to the development of irritant contact dermatitis.1, but there is no existent grounds provided of which surveies are really being referred to. However, it was on this footing that the writers felt it of import to set up to what extent workers in the selected businesss had lower than normal skin wet degree compared to other occupations.1


The four writers of the diary are from a household based company with what appears to hold a good background in Occupational Skin Management 4, and they have been peculiarly selective in their usage of a Corneometer A® system from Courage + Khazaka electronic GmbH ( Model CM825 ) for the measuring of skin hydration. As stated on their web site “ In 1997 EnviroDerm Services stepped into the universe of skin analysis when they became involved with Courage & A ; Khazaka electronic and their high quality scope of tegument analysis equipment ” .4

There are in fact a figure of different commercial contraptions that appear to be available which have non been considered at any clip during these peculiar tests ( The usage of Internet Search Engines such as ‘GoogleTM ‘ will easy place such setup if the user inputs cardinal words ) .

The writers have established that occupational tegument diseases form a big portion of occupational disease with the most common signifier being irritant contact dermatitis.1, 5 with adult females being more affected than work forces.

However, farther reading from one of the sourced mentions indicates that experimental surveies of skin annoyance have non confirmed differences between the sexes ; therefore, the higher prevalence of irritant contact dermatitis among females is most likely due to exposure, occupational and non-occupational. Nickel allergic reaction is the most common contact allergic reaction which appears to be most frequent in immature females, and in 30-40 % consequences over clip in manus eczema 5.

Nickel is found in most metal and metal plated objects such as kitchen utensils, scissors, costume jewelry, tickers, spectacle frames, buckles, slide fasteners, fasteners, coins, white gold and some industrial film editing fluids. 6 Certain nutrients besides contain hints of Nickel. Hand eczema has an impact on quality of life and females seem to describe a higher grade of uncomfortableness than males. To accomplish the optimum consequence of preventative attempts sing occupational tegument disease, the focal point for bar should take at cut downing wet exposure.5

Hand eczema is in fact ne’er mentioned in the diary which is surprising given that up to 1 in 10 people suffer from this status. There is nevertheless mention to literature which covers intervention for a signifier of skin annoyance, and therefore it can merely be assumed that none of the participants were recorded as enduring from this status, which is easy recognizable by its expression and the countries around the custodies that it usually infests itself. 7

Some informations from ocular appraisals has been obtained which concluded that a figure of participants in the test did so hold visual-apparent tegument jobs and these were recorded on a questionnaire signifier. There is besides reference that peculiarly in winter during dry and blowy conditions this can in fact consequence in wet loss and once more nameless surveies are stated as demoing that really low humidness can besides hold such an consequence. 1 Unfortunately there is no reference of what clip of twelvemonth the test took topographic point and or any information about the environment in which the measurings were taken.

Besides, the diary writers indicates that their feeling was that the voluntaries were of the mentality that they have dry tegument but it did non match with measurings taken apart from the providing workers who tended to hold cracked tegument and what appeared to be contact dermatitis and were in fact aware of their ain tegument conditions.

There is much information provided about skin harm, low and hapless tegument wet and that ocular appraisal is an unsure index of overall conditions of skin disease and harm and that the accent should be placed on measurings of tegument conditions.1

The usage of baseball mitts and creams was besides discussed in the diary but nil is stated ( but may hold been recorded on the questionnaire signifier ) , sing what direction, counsel and preparation if any was given by the participant ‘s employers.

With regard to baseball mitts, foremost the questionnaire asked about the usage of baseball mitts non merely at work but besides at place specifically about utilizing chemicals, and this was recorded as baseball mitt use being highly hapless as half the participants ne’er used them at all and merely a little proportion used baseball mitts when managing chemicals. It is recorded that more than three quarters of the hairstylists did non utilize any baseball mitts which is surprising given the sum of chemicals and detergents that would be handled daily in this business. The two groups that used baseball mitts on more occasions were the office and pre-school baby’s room workers.

Lack of cognition of creams along with the usage of creams appeared besides to be really low with less than half the participants utilizing none and a really little sum merely utilizing it on occasion. However, the diary states that there is clinical grounds to back up the position that the usage of creams can be used in both intervention and bar of dry tegument and irritant contact dermatitis.

The diary does indicate out that employers should promote the usage of creams within its wellness and safety scheme for the workplace but the job with creams as stated in the diary is that it has to be applied on a regular basis for any utile consequence.

What is really surprising is that there is no mention to the preventive benefits of utilizing appropriate baseball mitts, surely for short term exposure ; except where it was conveyed by those participants who had been advised that it was compulsory to utilize them, in peculiar the pre-school baby’s room staff where good hygiene steps non merely for the worker but besides the kids in their attention had been decently recognised.

Contribution to Practice

A batch of the ‘Discussion ‘ subdivision in the diary has been supplied by the writers through the tests that were undertaken and from their ain professional cognition shop. The usage of a Corneometer A® system 8 to roll up the information is a important factor in the part to the overall findings as it has turned up some interesting consequences for the skin wet degrees within the group of participants.

Along with this, the diary has besides highlighted person ‘s behavior towards the usage of baseball mitts and creams as described and supported by the tabular arraies of informations produced within the article.

The usage of referenced acknowledged plants has besides provided some consistence with agring statements but some underpinning information has been either missed or omitted.

This diary does nevertheless positively province that there is still really much more ‘awareness and instruction ‘ required to be conveyed to both employee and employer in these peculiar businesss sing best patterns in occupational tegument direction.