CHAPTER 1 THE PROBLEM AND ITS SCOPE Rationale Every individual has only one life; so, it must be protected from any forms of accidents that may cause death. Accidents can happen anywhere at anytime and could happen unexpectedly. There are accidents that happen due to negligence of both the victim and the offender. The NORSU-BSC Campus is a school where motor vehicles are allowed to get in and out of the campus. There are owners of motor vehicles who are roaming around the campus even during classes and with tampered mufflers which destruct classes.
Moreover, some motor vehicles are parked anywhere or even along the pathways where they cause problems to many. This indiscriminate parking activity is not desired for a university that promotes good image and sets as an example of peace and orderliness to the public. It is along this line that the researchers who are future implementers of school rules and regulations would like to find out the volume of these motor vehicles entering the campus, and to identify the problems caused by indiscriminate parking.
The findings of this study would help NORSU-BSC in designing a parking area to avoid problems and untoward accidents brought about by indiscriminate parking. Statement of the Problem This study would like to identify the indiscriminate parking of motor vehicles in Negros Oriental State University, Bayawan City. It sought to answer the following ques-tions: 1. )What is the profile of the respondents in terms of 1. 1. Sex; 1. 2. Age; and 1. 3. Course? 2. )What is the volume of registered motor vehicles entering the campus? 3. What are the observed usual parking areas of motor vehicles? 4. )What are the reasons in choosing parking areas for motor vehicles? 5. )What are the problems caused by the existing parking preferences of motor vehicle owners (indiscriminate parking)? Significance of the Study Negros Oriental State University, Bayawan Sta. Catalina Campus comprises four colleges with growing enrolment each year. With an increase in enrolment also comes an increase in the volume of vehicles that come and go, entering and leaving the campus everyday.
This daily routine of students and teachers has created a problem as to the most appropriate area for parking motor vehicle. This being the case, the researchers who are students in Criminology have embarked in conducting a study on the indiscriminate park-ing of motor vehicles in the campus, the result of which shall prove beneficial to the Uni-versity and the clientele, students, visitors, and the faculty and staff who own motor ve-hicles that enter and leave the campus on a temporary or permanent basis daily. To have a proper parking area of motor vehicles in the school campus brings ad-vantages.
First, it can eliminate the disturbance of classes because of the noisy sound mufflers of the motor vehicles. Second, it can avoid accidents inside the school premises. Third, it can make the criminology students vigilant of their duties as implementers in preparation for their professional jobs. Lastly, it can give peace of mind to owners if their motor vehicles are parked properly. This study would also benefit the following: NORSU. The result of this study would help the administration plan a parking area for motor vehicles of both the students and the faculty and staff.
Motorists. This would help the motorists secure their motor vehicles by parking them in a designated area. Students. The students would be safe from any accidents resulting in indiscriminate park-ing and pathways are safe for them. NORSU BSC Campus. The NORSU campus would have a peaceful and orderly environ-ment since the motor vehicles are parked in their designated parking area. Scope and Limitation of the Study This study is limited only to the responses of the students, faculty and staff of Ne-gros Oriental State University, Bayawan City Campus who are wners of motor vehicles and are getting in and out of the school campus. This study started last August 2010 and ends on November 2010. Definition of Terms The following terms are defined to facilitate understanding of concepts and terms used in the study: Criminology Student. A student of NORSU–BSC who can be the implementers of the school rules and regulations especially in the proper parking of motor vehicles. Faculty and Staff. The school personnel who are teaching and are non-teaching who own motor vehicles that are coming in and out of the school campus of NORSU-BSC.
Indiscriminate Parking. Refers to a vehicle parked anywhere in the campus preferred by the motor vehicle owner. Motor Vehicles. Any vehicles propelled by any power other than muscular power using the public highway, but excepting road rollers, trolley cars, street- sweepers, sprinklers, lawn mower, bulldozers, graders, fork-lifts, amphibian trucks, and cranes if not used only in public highways, vehicles which run only on rails or tracks, tractors, and trailers and traction engines of all kinds used exclusively for agricultural purposes. Parking.
The area where most of the motor vehicles have been brought to stop on shoulder or proper edge of a highway or pathway, and remain in active in that place or close thereto for an appreciable period of time. Parking Area. An area where the motor vehicles are parked in a designated area. Stopping. The motor vehicles have been brought to a stop on shoulder or proper edge of a highway or pathway, and remain in active in that place or close thereto for an appreciable period of time. Undesignated Parking Area. An area where the owners park their motor vehicles in their preferred areas.
THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK OF THE STUDY This study is anchored on the Classical Theory by Dr. Cesare Lombroso. He argued the study and treatment of the offenders as an individual, rather than of focusing attention on the abstract crime in the classical manner. He generally supported reformatory treat-ment of all prisoners except born criminals. It established the fact that 18th century law was generally administered within the basis of corruption, arbitrariness and cruelty. Under the way for reformation, it was pointed out that criminal law remained and demonstrated what the faults were and the remedies might be.
It advocated the restriction of the power of the judges through legislation which would provide penalties based on the calculated harm of the given crime o society. The classical theory regarded the criminal law as originating in torts or wrongs to individuals. According to this theory, all wrongs produced efforts at self-redress in the injured parties and were therefore treated as injuries to particular individuals. Later, by a series of transi-tions, the group took charge of the transaction and the wrong to the state.
This theory however, is inadequate for it assumes the priority of the individual to the group. . Human evolves in various ways to make its members conform and behave according the norms and standards set by them. These process takes forms institutionalized means of making laws by the implementers. The manifestations of punishes in a particular conduct because it is believed harmful to permit such conduct to exist or continue. Some instances even though the dependant did not know nor to untold to commit any wrong shall be penalized.
Man is essentially a moral creature with an absolutely free will to choose between good and evil and therefore more stress upon the criminal himself and also basic criminal liability is human free will and the purpose of penalty is retribution. Endeavor to establish a Mechanical and Proportion between crime and penalty Since man and lunatics cannot calculate pleasure and pain they should be regarded as criminal or to be punished. Man composes the nation, and this nation in order to continue its existence, has to police itself, set up rules and regulations for itself in order to guide and educate its inhabitants.
Because of the systematic movements and activities done by the people, who at the same time governmenting themselves, the so called came into existence could not exist in a group of people who are living in a territory unless they govern-themselves with rules and regulations. If they are not able to establish peace and order among themselves, the law of the jungle would prevail, these means that only the fit will survive. But man is higher than animals and plants. He is wise and uses his power to think unlike the animals and plants that are only governed by their instinct. So, in order to preserve and mankind, he has to iscipline himself and live in accordance with the rules and regulations he himself had established in the society. Human behavior swayed by the ideals which emerged in their daily life. Conse-quently, they give greater emphasis to the prevention of crime and to measures designed to protect society. Ideas of moral guilt and the categorization of crimes gave way to recognition of environmental influences and individual differences among offenders. Classification of criminals were based on their behavior or characteristics in terms of physique, heredity, psychology, and environment.
CLASSICAL THEORY (Dr. Cesare Lombroso) Figure 1. The Theoretical Framework of the Study CONCEPTUAL FRAMEWORK OF THE STUDY The conceptual framework describes the flow and direction of this study. In the independent variables, the researchers identified the profile of the respondents and the problems encountered by indiscriminate parking of motor vehicles in NORSU-BSC. The dependent variables are the result of the study conducted. 1. ) Profile of the respondents 1. 1 Age; 1. 2 Sex; and 1. 3 Course 2. ) Volume of registered motor vehicles entering the campus. . ) Common areas where indiscriminate parking is observed. 4. ) Reason for indiscriminate parking. 5. ) Problems encountered by indiscriminate parking. INDEPENDENT VARIABLES DEPENDENT VARIABLES Designated common parking area of motor vehicles in NORSU-BSC Assessment of indiscriminate parking of motor vehicles in NORSU-BSC. Figure 2: The Conceptual Framework of the Study RELATED LITERATURE The University of Bradley is a school where parking of motor vehicles is strictly implemented.
Any motor vehicle parked on university property in regulated spaces must display a valid Bradley University parking permit or pass. The type of permit indicates the areas where the vehicle may be parked. Any vehicle which has accumulated six (6) or more unpaid parking citations or which inhibits traffic flow, hampers fire protection, is parked illegally in a reserved or handicapped space, blocks handicapped access, displays a lost/stolen or forged/altered parking permit is subject to immediate towing and impoundment. Parking permits are required from 7:00 a. . to 7:00 p. m. , Monday through Friday. The Visitors lot is a reserved area. All faculty, staff and students are prohibited from parking within this area unless otherwise notified. These regulations are subject to change without notice when necessary to facilitate the parking or safety program of the University. When changes are necessary and have been approved by the University, an announcement will be made, if possible, in appropriate university publications, prior to the effective date of the change. ([email protected] du) Likewise, The University of the Pacific is a school wherein the rules and regula-tions about parking of motor vehicles is strictly imposed and well implemented. There are provisions that regulate the university and must be imposed by the Department of Public Safety without fear or favor. The provisions of the California Vehicle Code and University regulations issued by the Board of Regents of the University will be enforced by the Department of Public Safety on all property owned and/or operated by the University Parking and traffic regulations are established under the authority of Section 21113 of the California Vehicle Code.
These regulations apply to all faculties, staff, students and visitors of the university and are intended to promote pedestrian and vehicular safety, make parking facilities available to all members of the campus community, ensure access at all times for ambulance, firefighting equipment and other emergency/service vehicles and provide proper collection of parking fees. All motor vehicles parked on university property must either have a properly authorized temporary parking permit which is displayed according to instructions on the permit or a valid annual decal. Vehicles displaying arking permits or decals which are improperly located are subject to citation. Permission to drive or park on university property may be denied by proper authority at anytime. Possession of a current parking permit or pass does not guarantee a parking space. The responsibility of locating a legal parking space in any given lot or street rests solely with the holder of the permit or pass. Vehicle Maintenance is not permitted on campus. Violators are subject to citations and charges for cleanup. Heavy fines are imposed for oil/petroleum products left on the roadways.
The maximum speed limit on campus streets is 15 miles per hour for all vehicles. The parking lot speed limit is 10 miles per hour for all vehicles. No person shall drive, stop, park, or leave standing any vehicle whether attended or not, upon any drive-way, sidewalk, landscaped area or any area not marked for parking or in any other location that will obstruct the view of any sign posted by the Department of Public Safety. Vehicles can not be used as living quarters while parked on campus. Vehicles must be fully contained in the stalls/areas marked for parking.
Diagonally and perpendicular parked vehicles must have one wheel within 18” of the curb. Both inside wheels of a parallel parked vehicle must have the wheels within 18” of the curb. All parking along roadways and areas not otherwise marked must be parallel and facing the direction of traffic. Visitors to the campus between 7:00 a. m to 5:00 p. m must display a temporary parking permit on their vehicle. If parking in the reserved visitor’s parking near the tower you must obtain a temporary parking permit from the tower lobby.
Park Ur Self permit dispensers are located in front of the Faye Spanos Concert Hall and in the swimming pool parking lot. These permits are valid in “B” lots. ([email protected] of the Pacific. com) Providing adequate parking facilities and the proper supervision of campus traffic is a major activity on university campuses throughout the United States. This is especially true at institutions like Southern Connecticut State University, where a large part of the student body commutes daily.
To protect students and visitors to the university from automobile accidents, as well as to provide security for motor vehicles parked on the campus, the following rules and regulations must be observed. Failure to comply may lead to the issuance of a university parking ticket and/or a state motor vehicle infraction, the towing of the vehicle at the owner’s expense, and when warranted, a disciplinary action by the university.
The university reserves the right to tow or impound any vehicle that is illegally parked or parked in a way that constitutes a serious hazard, impedes vehicle or pedestrian movements, or impairs the operation of emergency equipment and/or the making of repairs. Owners will be required to pay all the costs involved in removing and impounding vehicles. In a spirit of cooperation with the New Haven and Hamden communities, students are asked not to park their vehicles on city streets in residential areas adjacent to the campus. ([email protected] Connecticut State University. om) RESEARCH METHODOLOGY The researchers focused on how the respondents park their motor vehicles in the absence of designated parking area. The researchers conducted a survey on the campus and listed down the chassis numbers or plate numbers, color and model of motor vehicles entering the school campus. The researchers used the listed motor vehicles as the basis to the number of respondents to be included of the study. Research Design In this study, the descriptive survey method was employed utilizing the ques-tionnaire as the main tool in gathering the data.
The data were then treated statistically to give a scientific analysis. Research Environment This study was conducted at Negros Oriental State University Bayawan Sta. -Catalina campus. Research Respondents The respondents of this study were the motor vehicle owners getting inside the school campus and who parked motor vehicles indiscriminately. Research Sampling Table 1. 0 Number of Respondents RespondentsPopulation of the Respon-dentsPurposive Sampling (n) Faculty and Staff2525 Students132132
The researchers listed down the plate numbers or chassis numbers, color and model of the motor vehicles entering the school campus to have a basis of the number of respondents. There were 132 respondents from the student and 25 respondents from the faculty and staff. The over all total is 157 respondents who have motor vehicles in NOR-SU-BSC. The researchers used the purposive sampling method. Only owners of the listed chosen motor vehicle owners were considered the sample as respondents. Statistical Tool The researchers used the questionnaire as the statistical tool of the study.
ORGANIZATIONAL OF THE STUDY Chapter 1 of this study presents the problem and its scope, the rationale of the study, statement of the problem, significance of the study, scope and limitation of the study, definition of terms, theoretical framework of the study, conceptual framework of the study, related literature and related studies, research methodology which includes the research design, research instrument used and data gathering procedure of the study. Chapter 2 presents the analysis of the data. It also presents the different data.
Chapter 3 encompasses the summary, findings, conclusions and recommendations, which consist of the highlights of the findings, the conclusions and the recommendations drawn from the study. CHAPTER 2 PRESENTATION, ANALYSIS AND INTERPRETATION OF DATA This chapter deals with the presentation, analysis and interpretation of data and its finding in relation to the problem of this study. Table 2. 0 Profile of Students n=132 n= 25 ProfileStudentsFaculty f%f% SEX : Male12292. 421768 Female107. 58832 Total13225 AGE : 15-209571. 9700 21-253425. 76520 26-3032. 27832 31 above001248 Total13225 Course : BSIT4332. 8 BSCRIM4836. 36 INFOTECH1511. 36 COMSCI21. 15 BSED64. 57 BSA10. 76 BSHM96. 82 AMDNA10. 76 BSBA75. 30 Total132 Table 2. 0 on the preceding page shows the personal profile of the student respon-dents. In terms of Sex; there were 122 or 92. 42% male and 10 or 7. 58% female, and the faculty respondents. For sex; there were 17 or 68% male and 8 or 32% female. According to the responses, respondents were mostly males. The age bracket of the respondents was from 15-20, their average age frequency was 95 or 71. 97%, in the age average bracket of 21-25 years old had an average age fre-quency of 34 or 25. 6%, and the age bracket of 26-30 years old had an average frequency of 3 or 2. 27%. For the faculty, in the age bracket of 21-25 the average age frequency was 5 or 20%, in the age bracket 26-30 years old has an average age frequency was 8 or 32%, and that of the age bracket of 31 years old and above had the highest average age frequen-cy of 12 or 48%. In the courses of the respondents, there were 43 or 32. 58% in the BSIT, 48 or 36. 36% in the BSCrim, 15 or 11. 36% in the InfoTech, 2 or 1. 15% in the ComSci, 6 or 4. 55% in the BSED, 1 or 0. 76% in the BSA, 9 or 6. 82% in the BSHM, 1 or 0. 76% in the AMDNA, 7 or 5. 0% in the BSBA. Most of the respondents came from the Bachelor of Science in Criminology. Table 3. 0 Volume of registered motor vehicles entering the campus n= 157 Registered Motor VehiclesTotal Number Faculty25 Students132 Total157 Table 3 shows the volume of registered motor vehicles entering the campus which totaled to 157 motor vehicles, 25 motor vehicles coming from the faculty and 132 motor vehicles coming from the students. This totaled number volume of registered motor vehicles entering the campus is bases of the researchers in spreading the questionnaires as the researchers sampling method in conducting the study.
Table 4. 0 Common Observed Parking Areas of Motor Vehicles Faculty: n= 25 Students: n= 132 Parking areasf%f% Shady Areas1144%2216. 67 Near the room312%118. 33 Pathway Shoulders 14%10. 76 Accessible Parking Areas1040%9874. 2 Total25132 Table 4 shows that the faculty chose the area of parking in a shady area with a fre-quency of 11 and a percentage of 44% while students preferred accessible parking areas with a frequency of 98 and a percentage of 74. 24%. This shows that motorist failed to fol-low the temporary designated area for parking. They preferred for their personal conveni-ence.
There were fewer responses on near the room and pathway shoulders as their parking areas. Table 5. 0 Reasons for Choosing Parking Areas Faculty: n= 25 Students: n= 132 Reasons for Parkingf%f% Near the Classroom3122418. 18 Safety17689874. 24 Accessibility520107. 58 Total25132 Table 5 shows the responses of the different respondents on the reasons for choos-ing parking areas. Most of the students responded that they chose the area for the safety with the average of 98 or 74. 24% the same reason for the faculty with a frequency of 17 or 68%.
A few responses on the reasons of near the classroom and accessibility. This means that the owners of the motor vehicles chose the area for their convenience. They are looking forward for the safety of their motor vehicles in the sense of no matter what happen in the area where they parked. This means that they don’t care the other motor vehicles as long as their motor vehicle is safety. Table 6. 0 Problems Caused by Indiscriminate Parking Faculty: n= 25 Students: n= 132 Problemsf%f% Disturbance of classes10404231. 82 Narrowing the pathways10404836. 6 Eyesore3121511. 36 Accident prone due to freedom to cross the cam-pus streets in preferred speed 2 8 27 20. 45 Total25132 Table 6 shows the responses on the problems caused by indiscriminate parking. Most of the respondents both the faculty and the students responded that it caused distur-bance of classes and thus resulted to narrowing the pathways with a frequency of 10 and a percentage of 40%, 42 and 31. 82%, 48 and 36. 36% respectively, followed by eyesore and caused accident prone due to freedom to cross the campus street in preferred speed.
Based on the results, most of the problems were disturbance of classes and narrowing pathways in the campus. This means that these motorists have less care on what is going on in terms of disturbing classes and narrowing pathways with their motor vehicle. CHAPTER 3 SUMMARY OF FINDINGS, CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS This study is focused on the motor vehicles coming in and out the school premises of NORSU-BSC this school year 2010-2011. Summary: This study would like to identify the volume of registered motor vehicles entering the campus of Negros Oriental State University, Bayawan City.
It sought to answer the following questions. 1. ) What is the profile of the respondents in terms of 1. 1. Age; 1. 2. Sex; and 1. 3. Course? 2. ) What is the volume of registered motor vehicles entering the campus? 3. ) What are the common areas where indiscriminate parking is observed? 4. ) What are the reasons for the indiscriminate parking? 5. ) What are the problems caused by indiscriminate parking? Findings: 1. The personal profile of the student respondents. In terms of Sex; there were 122 or 92. 42% male and 10 or 7. 58% female, and the faculty respondents. For sex; there were 17 or 68% male and 8 or 32% female.
According to the responses, respon-dents were mostly males. The age bracket of the respondents was from 15-20, their average age frequency was 95 or 71. 97%, in the age average bracket of 21-25 years old had an average age frequency of 34 or 25. 76%, and the age bracket of 26-30 years old had an average frequency of 3 or 2. 27%. For the faculty, in the age bracket of 21-25 the average age frequency was 5 or 20%, in the age bracket 26-30 years old has an average age frequency was 8 or 32%, and that of the age bracket of 31 years old and above had the highest average age frequency of 12 or 48%.
In the courses of the respondents, there were 43 or 32. 58% in the BSIT, 48 or 36. 36% in the BSCrim, 15 or 11. 36% in the InfoTech, 2 or 1. 15% in the ComSci, 6 or 4. 55% in the BSED, 1 or 0. 76% in the BSA, 9 or 6. 82% in the BSHM, 1 or 0. 76% in the AMDNA, 7 or 5. 30% in the BSBA. Most of the respondents came from the Bachelor of Science in Criminology. 2. The volume of registered motor vehicles entering the campus which totaled to 157 motor vehicles, 25 motor vehicles coming from the faculty and 132 motor vehicles coming from the students. 3.
The faculty chose the area of parking in a shady area with a frequency of 11 and a percentage of 44% while students preferred accessible parking areas with a frequency of 98 and a percentage of 74. 24%. 4. The responses of the different respondents on the reasons for choosing parking areas. Most of the students responded that they chose the area for the safety with the average of 98 or 74. 24% the same reason for the faculty with a frequency of 17 or 68%. A few responses on the reasons of near the classroom and accessibility. 5. The responses on the problems caused by indiscriminate parking.
Most of the res-pondents both the faculty and the students responded that it caused disturbance of classes and thus resulted to narrowing the pathways with a frequency of 10 and a percentage of 40%, 42 and 31. 82%, 48 and 36. 36% respectively, followed by eye-sore and caused accident prone due to freedom to cross the campus street in pre-ferred speed. Conclusions: 1. Most of the students and faculty respondents are male and in the age bracket of 15-20 and 31 and above respectively. Most of the student respondents are taking up BS Criminology, followed closely by those taking up BS Industrial Technology 2.
The volume of registered motor vehicles entering the campus is 157. 3. Most of the faculty parked their motor vehicles in shady areas, while most of the students chose to park their motor vehicles in areas accessible to them. 4. Safety of the motor vehicle is the mostly responded reason for choosing the parking area. 5. The mostly identified caused by indiscriminate parking is narrowing of pathways. Recommendation: 1. The campus must strict in providing one parking area for the motor vehicles of stu-dents and faculty to avoid problems and accidents brought about by indiscriminate parking.