Using information and communications technologies for teaching and learning

E-learning is by and large regarded as utilizing information and communications engineerings for learning and larning. These engineerings may include, but are non limited to, the followers: presentation engineerings ( e.g. , PowerPoint ) , the Internet, videoconferencing, e-mail, specialist disciplinary package, larning direction systems such as WebCT, simulations, and educational games. E-learning may affect such hardware as computing machines, personal digital helpers, and cell phones. The media used can unite sound, picture, images and text in a assortment of combinations and utilizing a scope of attacks. E-learning should be regarded as a installation or set of tools, non a peculiar instruction method. Indeed, e-learning may be used to back up about any sort of instructional attack, positive or negative. Examples of utilizing e-learning constructively include attacks which combine more traditional instruction patterns with information and communications engineerings. For illustration, an teacher might utilize the Internet during his or her talk to entree on-line lifes that supplement the category presentation. A class web site might incorporate activities that facilitate active acquisition. Communications applications such as on-line treatments groups might be used to enable collaborative job work outing among groups of pupils who have trouble scheduling meetings. Teachers of to the full on-line classs typically use small if any face-to-face direction and depend about wholly on e-learning.

The grade to which e-learning is used by teachers varies widely due to a figure of factors including their personal instruction penchants, the nature of the capable affair, the pupils involved every bit good as the handiness of proficient and instructional design support. Quality direction remains the paramount end and e-learning should ne’er be used for its ain interest. The E-Learning Committee identified the undermentioned factors that contribute to the demand to transform instruction and acquisition in higher instruction:

germinating nature of “ basic accomplishments ” required to be competent professionals

the chances provided by the increased effectivity and decreased costs of information and communications engineerings ;

permeant usage of information engineering by pupils taking to alterations in larning penchants ;

synergism of learning and research ;

turning demand for alternate acquisition theoretical accounts to better acquisition and increase handiness ;

greater handiness of electronic learning resources and scholarly publications.

The combined effects of these five factors make it paramount for the University to reassess and update its scheme for e-learning. E-learning enables greater flexibleness in footings of where and when pupils can take part in larning activities. As a consequence, those involved in discoursing the advantages of utilizing e-learning frequently concentrated on how it reduces barriers to accessing educational plans. However, from a pedagogical point of position, the focal point of e-learning is non on entree, but on larning. E-learning provides scholars with the chance to be more active and to take greater duty for their ain acquisition. It besides gives module a wider assortment of tools for easing engagement and coaction.

The E-Learning exists in the context established by the vision, mission, and ends of the University. Information and communications engineerings are praised for their capacity to cross distance, connect communities, provide information, and quickly convey immense volumes of informations. E-learning is an incorporate application of these engineerings. As such it has the possible to act upon how all the academic subjects of the University are realized.

Need for Reforms in Tertiary Education to Address New Challenges. Quality confidence can play a cardinal catalytic function in originating reforms to regenerate weak third instruction systems. Despite fluctuations in cultural and political penchants, differences in leading manners within authoritiess every bit good as changing phases of development, there is emerging consensus that traditional academic controls are unequal for reacting to today ‘s challenges and that more expressed confidences about quality are needed ( El-Khawas, DePietro-Jurand, and Holm-Nielsen 1998 ) .

New Methods of Delivery Challenge Traditional Approaches to HE Development. Recent progresss in information and communicating engineerings ( ICTs ) have prompted alterations in the manners of bringing for instruction. The usage of different signifiers of Open and Distance Learning ( ODL ) is on the rise, doing it possible to learn and larn from anyplace in the universe irrespective of one ‘s geographical location relation to the beginning of bringing. On-line instruction is turning, even within regular “ brick and howitzer ” establishments. These new methods besides render third instruction “ borderless ” -students have options for entree to higher instruction beyond their national boundaries and suppliers of HE can make pupils anyplace in the universe without holding to procure clearance from any local authorization. This is a positive development, particularly for states which can non afford to put in brick and howitzer establishments ( for illustration, little states, weak economic systems ) to run into the turning societal demand. However, in the absence of an effectual QA system, consumers lack a dependable footing for taking between different borderless offers, and authoritiess would non hold a mechanism for keeping these suppliers accountable for the quality of their plans.

In Africa this tendency is expressed in the turning attending accorded to constructing capacities for distance instruction. The part now hosts four unfastened universities, with programs to set up at least two more in the close hereafter. Likewise, the proviso of instruction “ at a distance ” by traditional universities is steadily spread outing. In Tanzania, the Open University of Tanzania ( OUT ) is now the largest university in the country-only 15 old ages after its constitution. The African Virtual University which was ab initio incubated in the World Bank is now a good recognized leader in unfastened and distance e-learning ( ODEL ) in Africa with a web that spans over 20 English and French-speaking states. Though some acquaintance with quality confidence processes for traditional ( print-based ) distance larning systems has been acquired on the continent, the new manners of bringing pose a challenge because there neither criterions nor expertness are presently available to modulate quality.

1.2 Research Aim and Aims


The purpose of this thesis is to “ To research the quality confidence in e-learning and its effectivity in footings of bettering the quality of acquisition, and to urge schemes for effectual quality confidence in e-learning for the colleges and universities.


The aims in order to accomplish this purpose are as follows:

Review the developments in quality confidence in e-learning and analyze the e-learning facets of quality confidence.

To analyze the quality confidence criterions in e-learning and their effectivity.

Study the effectivity of quality confidence in an e-learning context, and place the chief challenges and the critical success factors.

Develop appropriate schemes for the execution of effectual quality confidence in e-learning.

1.3 Problem Statement

The current survey purposes to reply the following overall job. Is at that place important difference in the effectivity of quality confidence in e-learning in the public and private universities in the Kingdom of Bahrain in footings of their course of study design, class design, and class bringing?

To reply this inquiry, the undermentioned sub-problems shall be addressed:

To what extent does effectivity of quality confidence in e-learning occur in the higher instruction establishments ( HEIs ) in footings of course of study design, class design, and class bringing as perceived by its module members, pupils, and stakeholders?

What are the jobs or barriers encountered by the respondents on the quality confidence in e-learning?

What success factors in e-learning perceived by the respondents in the private colleges and universities?

What challenges and schemes in e-learning observed by the respondents on the execution of the quality confidence in the university?

What possible suggestions/recommendations to better e-learning in the colleges and universities?

1.4 Research Approach

The primary informations aggregation will be conducted through study questionnaires and unstructured interviews nevertheless, the secondary informations aggregation through extended literature reappraisal taken from books, diaries, magazines, and other related reading stuffs in e-learning. The informations collected from both the beginnings will be integrated and so analysed. Qualitative analysis will be used for the informations being collected from both the attacks. However, quantitative analysis will be done by the research worker after roll uping the information for analysis and reading to cognize the findings of the survey on the quality confidence in e-learning hence, carry throughing the purpose of this research.

Furthermore, the Primary Data Collection will be taken from the Survey Questionnaires and informal ( unstructured ) Interviews from the respondents of the selected colleges and universities in the Kingdom of Bahrain. However, the Secondary Data Collection will be taken from the literature reappraisal such as books, diaries, magazines, internet links, and other related readings on e-learning facets.

After the information is being collected from the primary and secondary beginnings, the Qualitative and Quantitative Analysis Approach will be used to analyze the research information. The analysis will be done after the retrieval of the study questionnaire. However, the informations will be analysed and interpreted utilizing textual or tabular presentation based on the consequences of the statistical analysis. Hence, in the reading of informations deductions is needed and besides supported with related literature or surveies to beef up the analysis and reading of informations which are important to the findings of the survey.

1.5 Outline of the Dissertation

Chapter 1: Introduction and Background. The intent of this chapter is to present the job on the effectivity of the quality confidence in e-learning, its challenges and schemes. It besides presents the principle behind the determination of prosecuting this research, based on the observations made by the research worker and other writers. It concludes with the word picture of the attack adopted in the structuring of the thesis.

Chapter 2: Reappraisal of Related Literature. The intent of this chapter is to present and examine exhaustively the bing literature in the country of the quality confidence of higher instruction establishments ; e-learning quality confidence ; and e-learning success factors ; and other related surveies on e-learning facets. Besides, a theoretical research theoretical account has been proposed and research hypotheses have been developed.

Chapter 3: Research Methodology. The intent of this chapter is to show the research design and methodological analysis of the survey. It besides includes the respondents of the survey, proof of research instrument, informations aggregation method, and informations analysis.

Chapter 4: Datas Analysis and Findings. The intent of this chapter is to show the analysis and reading of the information, and besides the treatment on the effectivity of the quality confidence in e-learning, problems/barriers encountered, success factors, and quality confidence challenges and schemes. However, the descriptive-survey attack will be employed in this survey. However, tabular and textual signifier will be used in showing the information analysis.

Chapter 5: Drumhead, Conclusions, and Recommendations. This chapter is a sum-up of the whole thesis. It provides an appraisal of the importance of the research done and it is an lineation of possible future research strands.


This chapter provides an debut to the thesis along with brief treatment of the background on the construct of e-learning in the Kingdom of Bahrain peculiarly in the HEIs – Higher Education Institutions. It besides presented the Aim and Objectives and briefly discusses the country of research, literature reappraisals and provides principle for carry oning this survey. The research purpose and aims are made clear and the research attack is presented.